Lynx animal. Description, features, species, lifestyle and habitat of the lynx
- 1 Lynx animal. Description, features, species, lifestyle and habitat of the lynx
- 2 Description and Features
- 3 Kinds
- 4 Lifestyle & Habitat
- 5 Reproduction and longevity
- 6 Lynx guard
- 7 Distinctive Features of the Maya Culture
- 8 Geography
- 9 Religion
- 10 Architecture
- 11 Writing System
- 12 Mathematics, Astronomy, Calendar
- 13 White hare animal. Description, features, lifestyle and habitat of the hare
- 14 Description and Features
- 15 Kinds
- 16 Lifestyle & Habitat
- 17 The similarities and differences of the hare and the hare
- 18 Reproduction and longevity
- 19 White hare hunting
Lynxes are a genus of animals of the mammalian class, felines, subfamilies small cats, and carnivores. This article describes the species of this genus, the features of lifestyle, habitat, life expectancy and nutrition.
Description and Features
Distinctive features of the lynx are a truncated short tail with a black tip (red lynx with white), dark hair tassels on the ears of a triangular shape, long hair around the muzzle and fluffy spotted fur. This predatory cat is found in Eurasia and North America, respectively, depending on the geographical population, it differs in appearance and size.
The largest representative is lynx ordinary, whose body length reaches 80 — 130 cm (not taking into account the length of the tail), and weight — 8 — 36 kg. The smallest species is considered the red lynx: length — from 47.5 to 105 cm and weight from 4 to 18 kg. As for sexual dimorphism, it rests in size — males are larger than females.
The animal has a short but wide head, with large nasal bones. This is a cat with big oval eyes of sand color, the pupils are round. On the erect, pointed ears, black tassels of wool are visible, the length of which reaches 4 cm.
Despite the small size of the jaw, the lynx’s grip is powerful. Rigid and long vibrissae are located on top of the upper lip. Muzzle hair grows in such a way that it looks like a “beard” and “whiskers”. The mouth of a mammal has 30 teeth, some of which are sharp and long fangs.
The body of the animal, although short, but muscular, with long and powerful limbs. Interestingly, the front legs are not much shorter than the hind legs. Northern species of lynxes got wide paws, richly covered with wool, which helps them move around in the snow.
The front legs have 4 fingers, the hind legs — 5 (1 reduced). Lynx animal finger-walking, with sharp, retractable and curved claws. This type of cat is capable of climbing trees without any particular problems, moving in steps or trotting (they can, but practically do not jump to a length of 3.5 — 4 m). They quickly overcome short distances, developing speeds of up to 64 km / h. They withstand long transitions and are able to swim.
The principle of movement is “track to track”, that is, the hind legs are advancing on the front tracks. Lynx has a small tail, with different lengths, depending on the species, from 5 to 30 cm. Lynx is a wild cat, attracting with its beauty.
In winter, their body is warmed by a thick and soft coat. It can be of different colors: from fawn-smoky to rusty-reddish (the spotting intensity also differs). In the lower part of the body, the coat is light in color. Shedding period: autumn and spring.
The lynx subfamily is small cats, the peculiarity of which is that they cannot growl loudly, since their hyoid bone is completely solid. Nevertheless, these animals hiss, meow, purr and make high sounds similar to the roar of a bear.
A lot of interesting facts are known about lynx:
- sometimes the animal may hide the meat and not return after it;
- the structure of the ears allows cats to catch the smallest sounds, up to the breath of a person;
- maximum jump height — 6 m;
- the Eurasian variety is able to live at a temperature of -55 degrees Celsius;
- lynx does not tolerate foxes. According to the hunters, this is due to the fact that foxes like to feast on alien prey. The cat lets the thief closer, then rushes at him and leaves him defeated;
- tassels on the ears act as a kind of antenna, amplifying the sound signal.
Despite all the outward beauty, the lynx is a dangerous predator. Its number is declining, so all representatives were listed in the Red Book. By the way, a cat never attacks a person first, trying to get away from danger.
Lynx — a mammal animal, which is of several types:
Common Lynx. This species is the most common. Most of the animal descriptions are presented above. At the moment, for almost 90% of this species, Siberia is the habitat.
Canadian Lynx. According to some zoologists, this is a subspecies of the European lynx. Based on the name, the habitat is Canada, although a cat is also found in the northern states of the USA, for example, in Montana and Idaho. Compared to the ordinary trot, the Canadian has a smaller body — from 48 to 56 cm long. The coat color is also grayish-brown.
Iberian Lynx. Halo habitat — southwest of Spain. This is the rarest species that is now mainly found in the Coto de Doñana National Park. Note that the whole family is now listed lynxes to the Red Book. As for the Pyrenean variety, about 100 animals remained of these cats, and now all necessary measures are being taken to preserve their population.
Comparing with the ordinary trot, the Pyrenean has a lighter shade of hair, with pronounced spots, which makes it look like a leopard. Feature — animal fur decreases in size with the onset of the winter months.
These cats are about 50 cm high, 80 to 90 cm long, 12 to 22 kg in weight. Another difference compared to the European look is a narrower and longer jaw. Due to this structural feature, the predator’s bite becomes especially dangerous.
Red Lynx. Habitat — USA. Appearance: the coat is reddish-brown, with gray inclusions, the inner part of the tail is marked white (in other species, this area is black). It is smaller in size than an ordinary lynx; its weight reaches 6 — 11 kg. By the way, among this species there are lynxes — melanists, whose hair is completely black. These cats are called panthers. The animal can be recognized by long and large paws.
This species occurs in many places:
- subtropical forests;
- hot deserts;
- the mountains.
Sometimes the red lynx can be found even in the suburbs. If the animal feels a threat, then it will try to escape hiding in a tree, where it will be very convenient for him. The cat prefers those places of residence where almost no snow falls. The fact is that her paws are not designed to move on snow cover.
Siberian lynx. There are a lot of felines of this species, however, only the Siberian one is found on the territory of the Russian Federation — such lynx in the photo most familiar. However, as a result of human activities, the cat population has declined markedly.
Due to the unique structure, they feel great in harsh climates. In addition to the ability to climb trees, Siberian lynxes run fast, swim well, and jump far and high. Coniferous forests — the place where this species is most often found, although sometimes cats move to the forest steppes.
Lifestyle & Habitat
Since these animals are now small in number, they lead a predominantly secretive lifestyle. Accordingly, the chance to see her in the wild is rather small. Even with a great desire, to find a cat is not so simple, as she prefers such supports, which are not easy to get close to. For example, it can be an old cluttered with a windbreak or dark taiga forest with a dense undergrowth of conifers.
However, there is a chance to meet a lynx in a young forest. A predator does not attack a person, preferring to avoid meeting. It is possible for an animal to recognize the presence of a person at a distance of several hundred meters, after which it begins to leave silently, occasionally stopping to listen.
If the lynx is very hungry, she may even go into the city, where she will attack a dog or cat. Even an adult shepherd cannot be compared in strength to a predator. Nevertheless, there have been few cases of lynx in cities, since they prefer dark coniferous forests more.
Lynx is a wild animal, therefore, prefers a nocturnal and twilight lifestyle. The hunt begins with the onset of darkness. It feeds mainly on hares. If possible, it can attack an ungulate animal: roe deer, red deer or young boar. Catch a squirrel or a marten with ease. The favorite delicacy is the meat of hazel grouse, black grouse and capercaillie. In the winter season, tracks holes.
Interesting fact — The lynx does not like foxes, so it hunts them as soon as such a chance arises. He doesn’t eat her. The hunting qualities of these cats are even better than that of leopards and wolves. With the onset of the evening, everything around us falls silent and at this time a lynx goes hunting, listening to the smallest sounds.
Having determined that there is prey nearby, the cat slowly makes its way to it, without making too much noise. A convenient distance for attack is considered to be 10 — 20 m. 2 — 3 jumps are enough to cling to food. If the prey, for example, a hare, feels something is amiss and starts to run away, the lynx can chase him for a short time, 50-100 m, after which it stops.
Sneaking is not the only hunting style. Also prefers a wait-and-see attitude, in an ambush. Favorite places are hare paths or ungulate watering places. Lynx does not like jumping from trees, although it can rest on branches, hanging all 4 legs down.
Prey in the form of 1 hare will be enough for a cat for 2 days. If the roe has become a trophy, then this provides the animal with food for a week in advance. It happens that the prey is too large, in which case its lynx is buried in the ground or snow, depending on the time of year.
Lifestyle — sedentary. Looking for prey can move up to 30 km. Lynx is a predatorpreferring loneliness. The exception is only females with cubs — they spend several months together. This is enough to teach newborns hunting skills.
First, the female brings babies living animals, for example, mice or hares. After they grow up, the lynx begins to take offspring with it to hunt. With the onset of February, an adult will drive the kittens away, since it is time for them to survive in the taiga on their own.
The main feed for this type of animal:
Full daily nutrition — from 1 to 3 kg of meat. If the lynx does not eat for a long time and builds an appetite, then at a time it can consume up to 5 kg. If there is no need for food, the cat will not waste his strength in vain, so he will not go hunting. If the caught game is large, then the animal hides its prey, however, it is not skillfully enough, as other predators easily find the prey.
However, the main source of food — hares. When their stock is reduced, the cat has to switch to birds, rodents and other animals. Canadian species of lynx, unlike European, hunts in the daytime. In addition to meat, the animal can also enjoy fish. It is especially convenient to collect fish when it is in shallow water, spawning.
Reproduction and longevity
The race starts in February and ends in March. Several males can follow one female at a time, during which fights often arise between them, accompanied by loud hissing and screaming, spreading over a long distance.
Pregnancy is about 2 months. Cubs are born in April-May. The number of kittens is usually 2-3, but sometimes even 4 or 5 can be born. The average weight of newborns is 300 grams. Like the rest of the cat family, they are blind for the first 2 weeks, then open their eyes.
Only a female is engaged in upbringing. The first 2 months of life, the kittens eat milk, after which they switch to animal food. Maturity of females occurs after 1 year, males — 2 years. In the taiga lynx lives on average from 15 to 20 years. If the cat is kept in captivity, then with proper care it can live more than 25 years.
At the moment, the population has about 10,000 individuals. In France and Switzerland, animals have long been exterminated. Now they live:
- on the Balkan Peninsula — several dozen;
- Poland — about a thousand;
- Scandinavia — 2500;
- Carpathians — 2200.
Fewer occur in Central Asia and the Caucasus. The largest number is Siberia. In industrial terms, lynx is not the best prey, since only its fur is valuable mainly. In the forest, however, it, like other predators, is necessary for breeding other species of animals.
They get rid of these cats except in hunting farms on the territory of which roe deer, pheasants or sika deer are raised. As for the most valuable thing for hunters — fur, it is really good, thick and silky.
The remaining hair growing on the back of the animal reaches a length of 5 cm, on the stomach — 7 cm. At all times, lynx fur was highly valued, which they willingly bought at auctions. The reason for this is fashion. If a hunter injures a lynx, she will not run away, but will defend herself to the end, wielding claws and fangs.
The second enemy of the cat, after the man is the wolf. They chase felids in packs. The only chance of salvation is to climb a tree and wait. Inexperienced animals try to escape from the wolves, but this almost always ends not in their favor. As for lynx meat, it is not customary to eat it according to a long-established tradition. Although it is similar in taste to veal.
How to increase the number of lynx:
- keep optimal biotopes;
- provide fodder objects (hare, roe deer);
- reduce the number of wolves (the main enemy of the lynx);
- struggling with poaching.
There was always a hunt for a lynx, so in Europe it was almost gone. To prevent the complete extinction of the species, it was listed in the Red Book. If you catch a lynx cub, it is easy to tame it, since the baby is firmly attached to its owner.
Interestingly, the animal is able to learn how to hunt on its own, without maternal help. Cats — orderlies in the forest, hunting sick and weak animals. For nature, they are very important, with virtually no harm.
Distinctive Features of the Maya Culture
Maya culture shared many characteristics with other Mesoamerican cultures such as the Olmec, Zapotec or Aztec, but retained some features purely Mayan. The Maya, for example, had the only writing system that represented the spoken language of the Mayans. While other Mesoamericans also had a form of pictographic writing, the Maya had the only fully developed writing system. In fact, many aspects of Maya culture were more refined or perfected forms of art and architecture or the complex calendar shared among all Mesoamerican cultures. Because of extensive trading networks, all Mesoamerican cultures influenced the others.
Mayans lived in southern Mexico and northern Central America including Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Belize. This area includes the northern lowlands, central lowlands and southern highlands. These areas include rainforests, savannas, semi-arid highland plateaus, semi-alpine peaks and swampy low areas. Such an array of landscapes is host to a rich diversity of wildlife and plants; Maya culture adapted creatively to this diverse natural world.
The Maya religion centers on the cyclical nature of time, in constant birth, death and rebirth. Maya rituals follow both terrestrial and celestial cycles, which Maya priests were expert at reading. Maya civilization depended on maize or corn and the Maya maize god was of central importance. Like the Aztecs, Mayans practiced human sacrifice, although not to the extent of the Aztecs. Auto-sacrifice, or bloodletting, by rulers, priests and nobles was common. Great pyramids held temples and tombs amid huge central plazas in every Maya city. Religion was central and a vital component of Mayan life.
A Maya city can be recognized from the stepped pyramids, huge plazas and expansive palaces built for kings and nobles. One religious ritual common to many Mesoamerican cultures was the sacred ball game, with a ball court built close to temples. Carved stone monuments called stelae are found all over the Mayan areas. Stelae were carved in bas relief to celebrate the life and deeds of Maya rulers and nobles and can still be seen today. With the invention of the corbelled arch, Maya builders created light and airy rooms that lent their temples and palaces a decided gracefulness.
The Maya developed a complex writing system that represented their spoken language, the only fully developed writing system from a Stone Age culture. Maya script relied on over a thousand glyphs or symbol which could represent either a syllable or a word. The Maya wrote books called codices made of bark paper and folded like an accordion.
Mathematics, Astronomy, Calendar
The Maya excelled in their use of mathematics especially as it pertained to astronomy and the working out of their calendar. The astronomical observations of the Maya were quite accurate, denoting the movements of the planets, particularly Venus, and the sun and moon. From these excellent astronomical notations, the Maya constructed and perfected the Mesoamerican calendar, which included both the sacred, ritual 260-day calendar and the 365 day solar calendar with the Long Count Calendar. The Long Count Calendar began on the date August 11, 3114 B.C. and entered its next cycle on December 21, 2012. The brouhaha over the end of the world date of December 21, 2012 began when the end of a long cycle was interpreted as the end of the world.
This article is part of our larger resource on the Mayans culture, society, economics, and warfare. Click here for our comprehensive article on the Mayans.
White hare animal. Description, features, lifestyle and habitat of the hare
Hare—hare — a plant-eating animal that inhabits Eurasia. Prefers areas with a temperate and cold climate. Often found in forests and forest-tundra. In the north, some Arctic islands are part of the hare.
Paleontological surveys show that in the preglacial period, the hare lived throughout the European continent. After passing the glacier, he moved north. Leaving small populations in the mountain forests of the Alps and Pyrenees.
Description and Features
Of all types of hares, the hare is one of the largest. The weight of the West Siberian species of animals reaches 5.5 kg. In the Far East and in the regions of Yakutia, whites do not walk more than 2 kg. For hares who have mastered other regions of Eurasia, the weight varies between 2 and 5 kg.
Hares are characterized by large auricles. They reach 8-10 cm. Another distinctive feature is strong hind legs with large feet. The soles and toes are covered with wool. This contributes to rapid movement in deep snow or wetlands.
To bring the color of the fur in line with the season, the white has to be molted twice a year. Shedding time should theoretically be confined to the appearance and melting of the snow cover. But to a greater extent it depends on air temperature and illumination. It often happens that hare coloring—whitewash, which should disguise him, begins to issue him.
There are whites that live in places where snow never falls, such as in England and Ireland. Animals adapted to this and their winter cover ceased to be white. There are reverse situations. Arctic hares living in Greenland do not need summer color. They stay white all year.
The species of hare includes several subspecies. The main difference between subspecies is their size and habitat. In Central Europe, small populations of alpine whites have survived.
In the forests of Finland, Sweden, and Norway, Scandinavian hare lives. Several subspecies populate the entire European and Asian parts of Russia from the border with Ukraine, Kazakhstan and the Mongolian steppes to the Arctic Circle.
In addition to the common hare, there are other species of hare in the genus.
- American hare. The range of the animal corresponds to its name. It can be found in North America. From Alaska to the Great Lakes and even to the south. The number of hares changes annually. This is due to the fertility of females, which provides a quantitative population growth. And the instability of young animals before diseases, which leads to a decline in the population of hares.
- Arctic hare. Lives in the North American tundra. In the coastal areas of Greenland and northern Canada. It can exist in low places and rise to a height of 2000 meters. On the ice of the Hudson’s Bay pass from the mainland to the islands and back.
There are about 30 species in the genus. From antelope to abyssinian hare. The white hare, widespread in Eurasia, is among the relatives of the hare.
Lifestyle & Habitat
The whites live in mixed and coniferous forests, thickets and small forests. Young undergrowths, forest edges, overgrown margins of swamps and river valleys are suitable for existence and reproduction. Large open spaces hares are avoided.
Hare—hare dwells and feeds from a plot of several hectares. These are territorial animals. Violation of borders is allowed during the mating season. Hares can make forced food migrations or migrations from places with active industrial and human activity
Animals are sent for feeding in the evening, at dusk. In summer, they are attracted by grass, in winter — willow, young aspen. Winter or spring, especially depending on the season, cereal fields are especially revered by hares.
All night active. After feeding is sent for a day. Before laying down, confuses the tracks. Loops through the forest, periodically leaves on its old trail. Jumps away from his trail far to the side, makes the so-called «estimates». Takes everything to odor path confused probable pursuer.
It lies in the thicket. Hare—winter hare may bury in the snow. He sleeps very sensitively. Keeps track of rustles and movements in the surrounding area. The hare’s vision is not very sharp, and the sense of smell is not very sensitive. Therefore, the hare often gets up and begins to listen.
Most often, the hare settles in a new place every day. But this rule is optional: there are multiple days in the same rookery. In the case of a harsh winter, the hare makes deep snow holes. They are used repeatedly.
The hare raised by the predator leaves at maximum speed, making large intersecting circles, loops, obfuscating the track. Having made the next round, he returns to the starting point. Feeling that he had come off the pursuer, he was trying to lie down again.
The hare living in the tundra behaves in a peculiar way. They sometimes refuse the status of territorial animals and begin to migrate with the onset of winter. They gather in groups of several tens and even hundreds of individuals and move to areas with a milder climate. Such migration flows are seen in Yakutia, the polar Urals, and the Yamal Peninsula. In spring, rabbit herds move in the opposite direction.
The similarities and differences of the hare and the hare
Both species belong to the same genus. The main morphological characters in them coincide. But there are differences.
- Belyak lived in forests, thickets and small forests. Rusak prefers forest steppes, fields, meadows and even foothills.
- The hare is, on average, a larger animal. It has a longer body, ears, tail, legs.
- The feet are wider and covered with stiff fur. This gives an advantage when driving on snow cover and loose soil.
- The winter color of the brown is slightly lighter than the summer, but not completely white.
On similarities and differences of the hare and the hare living conditions and food supply affect. But in general, these hares are very similar and ordinary people perceive them to be the same animal bearing different names in different calendar periods.
Nutrition of whites depends on the season and biotope in which it exists. In the European middle lane, hares eat various herbs. The juicier the better. Suitable clover, goldenrod, dandelion. In search of nutritious food, they come to the shores of swamps, streams and rivers.
In taiga forests, deer truffle is added to herbs. This soil mushroom for hares is a treat. They successfully track down and dig out its fruiting bodies. The farther north the habitat, the less legible the hare. Wormwood, sedge and even horsetail come into food.
With the wilting of herbs, the whites pass to rough food resources. In winter, hares feed on bark and branches. In any season, agricultural fields with grown crops are of great importance for the whites. In addition, hares go onto the roads along which grain is transported and eat up everything that is lost during transportation and transshipment.
A vegetarian diet causes a lack of calcium and other elements in the rabbit body. The deficit will be replenished when visiting salt licks, where hares eat land saturated with minerals. For the same purpose, the whites gnaw the bones or horns of animals found in the forest.
Reproduction and longevity
Preservation of the species guarantees fertility. Hare—hare — animalthat successfully implements this natural strategy. The hare brings offspring 2-3, in some cases 4 times a year. Only hares living in Yakutia, in Chukotka, manage to make only one brood in a short summer.
The first race begins in late winter or early spring. In Belarus, for example, it starts in February, and in Chukotka in May. The race involves males whose age has reached 10 months and approximately two-thirds of adult females.
Males go hunting earlier than females. Day and night there is mutual pursuit. Males show belligerence, try to drive off rivals. Hassles are arranged that are bloody, but not fatal.
There are approximately equal numbers of males and females in each locality. Ultimately, each male gets the opportunity to cover the female and not one, and each female has a connection with several applicants.
About 50 days of gestation last. Whites do not build nests or burrows. Lambing occurs on the surface, among old branches, dense grass or in bushes. The female presses the grass cover and branches with her body, the construction work ends.
The offspring is born sighted, covered with tribal fur. Already at the age of one day they are able to run. The first days are kept near the mother. They are fed milk, which is extremely nutritious. 6 times fatter than cow.
Bunnies grow fast. At a weekly age they show independence: they are able to run away and hide, begin to eat grass. But they continue to eat breast milk.
The hare, having survived the moment of the birth of the cubs, again connects with the males. By the second, summer run, females who missed the spring mating games are connected. That is, the feast of reproduction is becoming more widespread.
Zaychiha all summer busy raising offspring. Continuing to feed one generation of whites, they carry the following. This happens with the second and third brood of rabbits. There is a fourth offspring. But he usually dies.
Rabbits periodically wander through the forest. Any of the feeding rabbits, having found a “ownerless” rabbit, can feed it with their milk. This practice — feeding someone else’s offspring — is another action aimed at the survival of the species.
The size of a particular population sometimes increases. Then falls. At the beginning and middle of the last century, cycles were sharply expressed and amounted to 12-14 years. Recently, surges and falls in quantitative indicators are also observed. But they began to be chaotic.
White hare hunting
This event is for one or more people. Rabbit hunt—whitewash not without a hound of a dog. In the case of collective hare prey, a live line is organized. At its center is a presenter with a dog. The remaining participants are located at a distance of 100 steps from each other. The owner of the dog sets the guidelines, directs the movement. Constantly urges the dog — squeaks. There may be several dogs, but the principle of action does not change.
The task of the chain of hunters to raise a hare. The leader must lure the hound onto the trail. The hare lays the first circle. He usually closes at the place of lying. If the hare is lucky, he makes a second, wider circle. Hunters lurk at the place of lying or at the places of the usual hare move. From this location they beat the beast.
When moving in circles, the hare can knock the dog off the track. She pauses for a while, a silence occurs. There is a so-called chip. In this situation, much depends on the experience and training of the dog. The young hound may not understand the tangled hare tracks and lose it.
Usually it ends with a successful shot. The result is traditionally fixed: hare—photo on the photo located, as befits a trophy, at the feet of the hunter and his dog.