Learn What To Do If You Encounter a Bear in the Wilderness

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The following list includes the worst case scenarios for bear encounters. These are situations that all hikers and mountain bikers would like to avoid.

Bears that have become addicted to garbage and human food. Once bears become accustomed to human food and garbage, they become drawn to areas of human occupation. This may include backcountry campsites far from urban centres. A history of poor backcountry garbage management by backpackers can add backcountry campsites to a bears regular forays.

Bears that have first year cubs which go up a tree. In this situation, the female may not leave the area, but rather will defend the cubs. The sow may attack quickly if you are within its comfort zone. Be ready with your bear spray, and be prepared to climb a tree if possible.

Bears with second year cubs that may participate in a bluff charge. Again, this can be a very dangerous situation as you are now dealing with multiple bears. While this is very rare, it would allow the family to protect a kill site more effectively.

Bears defending a kill site. Bears are very aggressive when protecting a kill site. Learn to watch for signs of kill sites such as large accumulations of ravens and other scavenging birds or animals.

Predatory Encounters. While this is a rare situation, and generally refers to predatory attacks by black bears, this can be a very serious encounter. Since the bear is hunting you as prey, you must be prepared for an imminent attack. The bear may circle you, slowly moving in closer and closer until it decides whether to attack or not.

What do you do when you meet a bear?

Whenever you travel in bear country, you have to accept the basic reality that you may encounter a bear. The tips on these pages will help reduce the likelihood of meeting Master Bruin, but at the same time, you need to be prepared for what to do when the unexpected occurs.

If you are in open country, use binoculars to scan the horizon to look for bears. In more forested landscapes, be sure to make lots of noise and keep a mental inventory of climbable trees (just in case). Remember, black bears are agile climbers, and grizzlies have also been known to climb short distances up trees. To be safe, you should look for trees that will allow you to get at least 10 m (33 ft) above the ground. Don’t forget that bears can charge at 50 km/hr (30 m.p.h.). You’ll need some time to climb that tree.

Situation 1 — Bear has not detected your presence and is more than 100 m (350 ft) distant.

Don’t announce your presence if the bear has not seen you. If possible, retreat slowly and give the bear plenty of space. If you have the opportunity, you should retreat and leave the trail to the bear. If you must continue, back off a short distance, and give the bear time to leave the area. You should also do a wide detour quietly and quickly downwind to avoid problems.

Situation 2 — Bear has detected your presence, but is more than 100 m (350 ft) distant.

Your goal here is to act in such a way as to allow the bear to identify you, but to also let it know that you are no threat. Speak calmly so that it knows you are a human (their eyesight is quite poor). They will often quickly give ground to you once they identify you as human. If the situation permits, back away slowly, keeping a close eye on the bear. Otherwise, you may wish to detour around the bear, but in this case, detour upwind so that the bear can get your scent. Keep talking calmly. Waving your arms may help it identify you as a human.

Situation 3 — Bear has detected you and shows signs of aggression

If you have followed the advice listed above, hopefully you have a bit of distance between the bear and yourself. You’ll need to

Assess the situation. Are you dealing with a black bear or a grizzly? Are there cubs involved? Are there climbable trees nearby (and do you have sufficient time to climb them)?

Do Not Run. You can’t outrun a bear so don’t even try. Despite rumours to the contrary, black and grizzly bears can outrun a human on ANY terrain, uphill or down. People will tell you that you should run downhill when chased by a grizzly. This is simply a myth — don’t try it!

Try to retreat slowly. Back up slowly and try to put more space between you and the bear. Talk calmly so that it can identify you as human, and slowly back up. Keep your backpack on as it can provide protection if necessary. Don’t make direct eye contact, but keep a close look at the bear as you back away.

Climb a tree if available. If you have enough time, and the bear continues to move closer, take advantage of a tall tree to climb. Remember, black bears are strong climbers as well. Grizzlies have also climbed short distances up trees after people. You want to get at least 10 m (33 feet) high to reduce the chance of being pulled out of the tree. Even though some bears can come up the tree after you, the hope is that they will feel less threatened, and thus less likely to chase you up the tree.

If the bear charges you. Bears will often bluff charge before attacking. This is designed to allow enemies to back down before the bear needs to actually make contact. It evolved as a way to prevent encounters with enemies and it may provide you with an opportunity to back away.

Use your pepper spray. This is a last resort. Pepper spray is only good at very close range (5 m or 15 ft). Wind will reduce this effective range even farther (and may blow the spray back into your face). If the bear approaches within this range, point the spray at its eyes and discharge the contents. Hopefully, this will either disorient the bear to allow you to escape, or at the very least deter it from attacking. Once you have partially discharged a canister of bear spray it should be discarded. While the spray may deter attacks, the smell of pepper can act as an attractor.

If a black bear (or any bear that is stalking you) makes contact. If the attack escalates and a black bear (or any bear that appears to have been stalking you) physically contacts you, fight back with anything that is available to you. Black bears tend to be more timid than grizzlies and fighting back may scare the bear off. In addition, if a bear is stalking you than you are in a predatory situation and fighting back is your only option. This also applies to any attack at night as these may also be considered predatory in nature.

If a grizzly makes contact. As above, if you believe the bear to be stalking you, fight back with everything you have. In general though, playing dead in a daytime grizzly encounter tends to reduce the level of injury sustained by most attack victims. Many grizzly attacks are defensive in nature, and playing dead may show the bear that you are not a threat. Keep your backpack on as it will provide added protection. The best position is to lie on your side in a fetal position. Bring your legs up to your chest and bury your head into your legs. Wrap your arms around your legs and hold on tight. You may also lie on your stomach, backpack on, and place your hands behind your neck to protect that vulnerable area. Do not play dead until the last moment. Staying on your feet may allow you to dodge, or divert an attack.

After the attack. Once the attack has ended, remain patient. After a few minutes, try to determine if the bear is still in the area. If the bear has moved on, you should make your way towards assistance as quickly as possible.

Bears in you backyard?

Much of the focus in the literature is on bear attacks in wild settings. Don’t forget that living in bear country comes with a responsibility to help reduce natural attractants in townsites. Click here for more details on living safely in bear country

www.mountainnature.com

Councils gardeners. How to get rid of horse sorrel in the area once and for all?

Horse sorrel — perennial grass. Its root is short, but powerful, from which a multitude of adventitious roots grow.

The plant can grow up to 1.5 meters tall. Wavy leaves with rounded tops. Bottom leaves covered with short bristles.

In this article we will talk about how to effectively deal with horse sorrel, in your summer cottage, to bring it out forever and what harm this plant can do if you do not get rid of it in a timely manner.

What are the causes of the appearance of a weed in the garden and summer cottage, on what soil is growing?

Usually horse sorrel grows in forests, meadows and on the run of reservoirs, where the soil is wet. He can get to your site if you somehow brought his seeds and parts of the roots to your garden or he moved from his neighbors. If your garden has a sour and moist soil, it will grow intensively and multiply if it is in a favorable environment.

How to withdraw forever?

How to fight mechanically: process description

Digging up each plant with a root is one of the methods to combat with horse sorrel. It is very hard work, but it is worth it.

Horse sorrel, like other perennials, multiplies rapidly and forms strong roots. This method works well as a regular weed cut followed by raking.

If the roots of horse sorrel went deep into the soil, and sometimes the plant root goes down to 40 cm, then you need to use special tools for deep weeding. Cutting is done 1 time every 2 weeks., at this time the weed begins to re-grow new shoots.

Another method for getting rid of unwanted weed is to cut the leaves under the root and cover this place with black film. Weed, deprived of light and oxygen, burns.

How to destroy the popular methods: how to prepare and properly make a tool?

Salt is poured on the soil surface in the fall, after rain it is absorbed and gives the desired result. The disadvantage of this method is that it is impossible to plant vegetables at this place for a long time. Salt penetrates deep into the soil, eliminates weeds and temporarily blocks the growth of new ones.

Soda solution of strong concentration is watered the beds after harvest.. It is possible to pour the solution onto the weed itself, then the danger to the cultures located nearby will decrease.

Sawdust

Sawdust in the fall is scattered in places where horse sorrel grows, with a layer of about 10 cm and covered with newspapers or paper on top, sprinkling them with a small amount of earth, so that the wind would not carry it away. In the spring they dig everything up.

Vinegar

Vinegar can not tolerate all plants, including horse sorrel. Acetic acid with a spray sprayed plantafter which it dries.

How to remove with the help of chemistry: a description of the drugs, method of preparation and use

If the garden strongly flooded horse sorrel, it will be very difficult to cope only with folk methods. In this case, chemistry will help you.

Tornado

Tornado weed killer is sold as a slurry. Herbicide — acts as a continuous systemic effect, penetrates through the leaf part of the roots, destroying plant cells.

Important! The continuous action of this drug means that it is destroying not only the weeds, but also the cultivated plants. For this, Tornadoes are used before planting vegetable crops, or each point weed is treated.

How to apply a remedy for horse sorrel? They are sprayed with plants when they grow about 10-20 cm. It is necessary to spray when there is no wind and dry weather, in the evening or morning. It is important to properly observe its breeding. For 3 liters of water is 50 ml of funds. This amount is enough to treat 100 square meters of your garden.

The action of the drug Tornado for perennial occurs — in 7-10 days. With a tornado, no change in the soil occurs: it does not accumulate. Waiting for the result — from 7 days to 3 weeks. The composition can be used from early spring to late autumn.

Herbicide Tornadoes are almost non-toxic to earthworms, soil organisms, birds, and mammals.. Hazard class for bees — 3 (few — dangerous).

Cultivated plants can be planted or sown on the treated areas 2 to 4 days after application of the preparation. Sorrel, which began to grow in the place where the Tornado herbicide was used, after 1 week, it can be eaten.

Hurricane

Hurricane — Systemic Herbicide of Continuous Action. The active active ingredient in contact with any part of the weed, distributed to all its tissues. The consequence of this is the extinction of both the leaves and the roots of the treated plants.

You must know that the Hurricane does not act on the seeds of plants. For horse sorrel, make a solution at the rate of 40 ml of the drug for 3-4 liters of water. The expected result is from 7 days to 3 weeks. Safe for humans, animals and birds. The composition can be used from early spring to late autumn. Does not affect the composition of the soil and plant seeds.

Landing can begin in two weeks. When processing in the dotted way, for each plant, it is not necessary to wait.

Sorrel, which began to grow on the site where the Hurricane herbicide was used, after 3 weeks, it can be eaten, and after a point treatment, the one that was not in contact with the drug.

Glyphosate

The herbicide is produced in liquid form and goes on sale in canisters with a volume of 20 liters. This substance penetrates the vascular system of plants. When the herbicide falls on the leaves of the weed, the substance will begin to be distributed throughout the stem, leaves and roots. Glyphosate inhibits the synthesis of amino acids, causing the plant to die.

To destroy perennial horse sorrel, you need to mix 30 — 40 ml of solution in 3 liters of water.

The first results (wilt) after use appear after 5 — 10 days, and the total death — 2 weeks after spraying. In hot weather, Glyphosate gives the result faster than in cool. Precipitation earlier than 8 — 10 hours after spraying reduces the effectiveness of the herbicide. Mechanical tillage is carried out not earlier than 2 — 3 weeks after the introduction of the herbicide.

Sorrel, which began to grow in the place where the Glyphosate herbicide was used, after 2 — 3 weeks, it can be eaten.

Ground

Ground — Systemic Herbicide of Continuous Action. In contact with the foliage and stems of the plant. The ground is absorbed and spread throughout the weed, including the roots. Available in liquid form.

Process the drug only in the morning or in the evening, in calm weather, so that the drug is not attributed to neighboring plants. Spraying of crops should be directed to the weeds during the period of their active growth.

When processing in the spring, garden cultures protect with a film or other covering material.

In order to destroy perennial horse sorrel dilute 120 ml per 10 liters of water. Ground safe when used in crop rotation, quickly disintegrates in the ground, the results after application are visible in a week.

Process the garden for 20 — 21 days before planting the crops themselves. Although it is best to apply it in early spring or autumn immediately after harvest. Sorrel, which began to grow in the place where the Ground’s herbicide was used, after 20 days, it can be eaten, and the one that has not been in contact with Ground, immediately.

What will happen if you do not get rid of the plant: what harm can it do?

If horse sorrel is not destroyed in time, he is able to inhabit the entire area of ​​your site!

Horse sorrel, if it is wound up in your garden, is able to multiply very quickly. This weed is very hard to destroy, its powerful root system will take away all the nutrients from cultivated plants, and the foliage will close the sun.

How to prevent the appearance?

If you know the reason why horse sorrel is distributed in your garden, you can prevent it from occurring. Sorrel loves acidic soil, which means that its acidity needs to be neutralized.. It is necessary to add lime to the soil. This process should not be carried out too often, it takes place every 3 to 4 years. You also need every autumn, after digging, to clear the ground from the remnants of weeds, which will help avoid new shoots in the spring.

It is necessary to remove a weed not only from beds, but also on paths between ranks and under a fence.

In this article, we looked at many ways to remove, prevent, and prevent such an undesirable weed from growing again such as horse sorrel. Now, knowing a lot of methods, you can make your site cleaner and more fertile.

nz.farmforage.com

How to level or terrace a sloping garden

I am a Landscape gardener specialising in leveling and terracing sloping gardens ask me for a price to level your garden or follow my D.I.Y. tips.

Scroll down for tips to level a slope

materials used to terrace or level a sloping garden.

These are some of the most popular materials used for terracing a garden slope.

Stone retaining walls using pre-formed concrete stacking blocks (not cheap), breeze blocks, house bricks or natural stone (expensive).

Reclaimed railway sleepers are fairly cheap and treated to last. But the downside with railway sleepers is the oil and tar used to preserve them making them unsuitable for sitting on or contacting with bare skin, especially if you suffer from allergies.

New sleepers are a cleaner, but slightly more expensive option to build the retaining walls from. They will need to be treated over the years to prevent them from rotting.

Gabions (wire cages filled with stone or rubble), are being used more and more in domestic landscaping for building, cheap, safe and attractive retaining walls.

Can I level a garden slope myself?

Yes you can. Leveling and terracing a sloping garden takes a lot of time and effort. Shifting earth, maybe digging out clay, but yes it is a job you can handle yourself. bear in mind though, if things start to go wrong and you end up calling in landscape gardeners to put it right, when the walls retaining the terraces fall down, it will cost lot more in the end. It is very very important to get the retaining wall right.

How to build retaining walls to terrace a sloping garden.
If you do decide to terrace the slope yourself it will be worth the hard graft, stopping the impact of erosion by forming even a short slope into terraces will save money on plants and make the area more workable, also mowing lawns will be much easier.

You can use a range of materials to form the retaining walls from the two main ones we have discussed earlier, treated wood or stone, through to house bricks (reclaimed brick makes an attractive wall), concrete, quarry rocks and if the terracing isn’t very steep you can use compacted piled earth. The durability of the wall will depend on the material you use and the quality of the footings you build the wall on.

Basic design advice for building a retaining wall.
Try to keep the maximum height of your walls to about two foot. If you build higher make sure the retaining wall leans slightly back into the soil. Retaining walls take a lot of pressure from the weight of the soil and rain water (a single cubic foot of wet soil can weigh up to 100 pounds). If you are using cemented stone or concrete to retain the terraces in the slope, form weep holes in the bottom of the wall.

High retaining walls have the greatest risk of failure. As the retaining wall height increases, the force trying to topple the wall increases by a large factor. For example, if you double the height of a wall, the tipping force can increase by a factor of three or four times.

More information about retaining walls and using dry stone walling to level a slope.

What do I do with the soil when leveling a slope
To save time shifting soil from one area to another we use the dig and fill method to form the terraces, digging out soil to level one area, and using this soil to fill the lower areas.
If you plan it right you won’t have a lot of topsoil to get rid off.

How long will it take to level a slope.
Doing it yourself will depend on the size of the garden, the steepness of the slope, access to the skip and how much help you can count on. If I can get a digger onto the slope. The leveling and terracing work normally takes me a couple of weeks in a small to medium garden.

Gabion Baskets

Block-shaped wire mesh baskets, you fill with stone or rubble, Inexpensive and attractive alternative to conventional brick, breeze block or sleeper retaining walls.

Gabions are made of durable, coated wire mesh with a mesh size of 5 x 10 centimeters.Installation is quick and easy and ideal for D.I.Y. as you wont need special tools or skills. Just follow the instructions that come them.

The different design ideas needed for uphill or downhill slopes

Uphill slopes and downhill slopes need a slightly different approach at the design stage. On a downward slope you only see the tops of steps and walls when they are viewed from the house. But they are the focal point when you are looking at the house from the bottom of a sloping garden.

D ownhill slopes often look better with straight walls, sweeping paths and gradual slopes.

Uphill slopes look better when the walls are curved making the retaining walls garden features.

To get a an idea of what you will end up with, stand at the bottom of the slope when you are designing the terraces into the slope. It can be expensive to terrace and level a sloping garden, but will be easier to maintain, look better and create something you can safely use again.

Existing Plants.
Plants and shrubs can be dug out, planted in containers and flowerpots and saved for replanting when the terracing is complete. Working around plants is time consuming.

Plants for terraces.

Plants that like to flow down slopes like coneflowers, black eyed susan, garden phlox, shasta daisies, purple russian sage, herbs like catmint and creeping phlox work well on the edge of a terrace.

Plants like artemesias and soft wooly lambs ears with grey or silver foliage add contrasting colour against brighter blooms and dwarf evergreen shrubs.

Birdbaths, bird feeders, big flowerpots and trellises all add interest. But don’t go over the top in a small sloped garden. Too much clutter makes it look smaller, design tips can be found on my small garden page.

The pictures show examples of a small job in Bristol and a large landscaping job near Bath in Somerset.

We worked to the clients own garden design on the Bristol garden. Our garden designer worked with the client on the design for the larger sloping garden in Clevedon.

Tips for designing a sloping garden.

What features can I include in my terraced garden.
What you include in your sloping garden design will depend on the size. Creating to many different levels will mean that terraces could be too small to build a comfortable dining area.

Paving on a slope
The golden rule for a paved terrace is that it is big enough to dine and entertain without falling of the edge. To work out the space you will need place a dining table in the middle and place six chairs around the table, now move the chairs back 18″. That’s the minimum space you should aim for and don’t forget to include space for the BBQ!

Vegetable beds.
You may of course be unsociable and more interested in growing your own vegetables than entertaining. I am, that’s what my wife says anyway! If like me, a growing area is more important than paving, include space for a compost heap. If you can’t completely level the growing area, a slight slope won’t effect the plants.

Kids play area and seating
A family with young children might want to include a safe play area and maybe a sand pit/shed to store the kids’ toys. If you are not including a paved terrace, aim to have plenty of natural seating spread around the garden. The tops of stone retaining walls and sleeper raised beds make great places to sit and ponder. Try to have seats spread around to follow the sun. Also, make the tread of your steps wide enough to sit on.

Water features.
Water features and streams running from the top to the bottom work well and look good in a sloping garden. They seem to connect the various terraces together and the sound of running water bubbling over pebbles is something else.

Not to high and not to much
For the reasons we have covered above, if possible avoid very high retaining walls. If your garden slopes away from the house and you’re planning a patio area directly outside the house, the further into the slope the patio extends the higher the retaining wall will need to be. A higher retaining wall will need more steps to access the next level. With a downward slope away from the house, it might be worth considering positioning the patio on one of the lower levels rather than sacrifice dining and entertaining space. Remember the formula, table, six chairs pulled back at least 18 inches.

What do you want from your leveled garden.
You can see why it is worth taking time to think about your new terraces before you start leveling the slope or calling in a landscape gardener to do the groundwork. When I am called in to price a terracing job, I always ask this question «What will be the main purpose of the new terraced garden?» It’s expensive to make major design changes once the leveling is started.

Don’t be put off by the cost, or hard work if you are going to do the work yourself. Soil erosion, areas you can’t get to and slippery slopes can be a nightmare, especially as we get older. With some thought and hard work it really can be turned into a safe place to enjoy using again.

If drainage is a problem, visit my lawns and garden drainage page.

Pictures of our work on sloping gardens including a small sloping garden we terraced in Bristol, a large leveling and terracing landscape in Somerset where we built retaining walls and installed a land drainage system and in Weston super mare, an unused weedy sloped area we converted into a car parking area . sloping garden pictures

Hope you find the DIY leveling tips useful, but if you haven’t got the time? We are Landscape gardeners specialising in leveling, terracing and landscaping sloping gardens in Weston super mare, North Somerset, Somerset, Bristol, Portishead, Clevedon, Nailsea, Yatton and Bridgwater and sometimes further afield. Contact Mike

The Benefits of leveling or terracing a slope include;

  • Creating space to build functional patios and kids safe play areas.
  • For gardeners stopping soil erosion and rain water washing the nutrients and seedlings away.
  • For older gardeners, the main benefit after leveling the slope and forming terraces, is the garden will be easier to work on and get around.
  • Make it an enjoyable place to be in, instead of a daily challenge.

www.flowerpotman.com

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