Good Bones: A Hidden Piece of California History in the Heart of the Pacific Palisades, Hunker

Good Bones: A Hidden Piece of California History in the Heart of the Pacific Palisades

At Hunker, we love a good comeback story. We’ve teamed up with Bona to bring you Good Bones, a series chronicling four different homes where restoration projects brought new life to something old.

It’s not every day that you discover a piece of history — whose companion is housed at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art — hidden in the heart of a contemporary home. And it’s rare that such a piece, once restored, becomes the key to bringing a sense of renewed harmony to the property in question.

But that’s exactly what happened when Olivia Korenberg, of the Los Angeles-based interiors firm Twofold LA, walked onto a one-of-a-kind property in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood. As it turned out, the relic in question — a fireplace mantel crafted by one of California’s most iconic art tile companies — turned out to be a key to restoring and harmonizing the property in a way that could only happen in California.

In May 2016, after eight months on the market, the park-like compound — which included two radically different architectural homes — was purchased by a young couple. The smaller of the structures was a historic Neutra house, which had already been masterfully restored by Marmol Radziner. But the sprawling main house still bore the eclectic aesthetic of its former owner.

«The house was very unique,» explains Korenberg. «It was designed to the owners specifications.» And while her clients wanted to be respectful of the home’s core elements, it wasn’t to their taste — and everyone agreed its ultramodern style wasn’t fully aligned with the organic, midcentury aesthetic of the Neutra below.

«We thought, ‘What can we do, in a more superficial way, to elevate the house and make it a little softer and more organic?'» says Korenberg. «How do we carry the aesthetic upwards, but not ignore the home’s history?»

One clue to the answer came with the discovery made in the office: a large ceramic mantel with Mayan details.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Test Questions

It’s good to regularly review the advantages and disadvantages of the most commonly used test questions and the test banks that now frequently provide them.

Multiple-choice questions

  • Quick and easy to score, by hand or electronically
  • Can be written so that they test a wide range of higher-order thinking skills
  • Can cover lots of content areas on a single exam and still be answered in a class period
  • Often test literacy skills: “if the student reads the question carefully, the answer is easy to recognize even if the student knows little about the subject” (p. 194)
  • Provide unprepared students the opportunity to guess, and with guesses that are right, they get credit for things they don’t know
  • Expose students to misinformation that can influence subsequent thinking about the content
  • Take time and skill to construct (especially good questions)

True-false questions

  • Quick and easy to score
  • Considered to be “one of the most unreliable forms of assessment” (p. 195)
  • Often written so that most of the statement is true save one small, often trivial bit of information that then makes the whole statement untrue
  • Encourage guessing, and reward for correct guesses

Short-answer questions

  • Quick and easy to grade
  • Quick and easy to write
  • Encourage students to memorize terms and details, so that their understanding of the content remains superficial

Essay questions

  • Offer students an opportunity to demonstrate knowledge, skills, and abilities in a variety of ways
  • Can be used to develop student writing skills, particularly the ability to formulate arguments supported with reasoning and evidence
  • Require extensive time to grade
  • Encourage use of subjective criteria when assessing answers
  • If used in class, necessitate quick composition without time for planning or revision, which can result in poor-quality writing

Questions provided by test banks

  • Save instructors the time and energy involved in writing test questions
  • Use the terms and methods that are used in the book
  • Rarely involve analysis, synthesis, application, or evaluation (cross-discipline research documents that approximately 85 percent of the questions in test banks test recall)
  • Limit the scope of the exam to text content; if used extensively, may lead students to conclude that the material covered in class is unimportant and irrelevant

We tend to think that these are the only test question options, but there are some interesting variations. The article that promoted this review proposes one: Start with a question, and revise it until it can be answered with one word or a short phrase. Do not list any answer options for that single question, but attach to the exam an alphabetized list of answers. Students select answers from that list. Some of the answers provided may be used more than once, some may not be used, and there are more answers listed than questions. It’s a ratcheted-up version of matching. The approach makes the test more challenging and decreases the chance of getting an answer correct by guessing.

Remember, students do need to be introduced to any new or altered question format before they encounter it on an exam.

Editor’s note: The list of advantages and disadvantages comes in part from the article referenced here. It also cites research evidence relevant to some of these advantages and disadvantages.

Reference: McAllister, D., and Guidice, R.M. (2012). This is only a test: A machine-graded improvement to the multiple-choice and true-false examination. Teaching in Higher Education, 17 (2), 193-207.

Reprinted from The Teaching Professor, 28.3 (2014): 8. © Magna Publications. All rights reserved.

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It’s a Tuesday Miracle! Here Are All of the Memorial Day Home Sales Still Going On

The products we write about are recommended by our editorial team. Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story.

Turns out, Memorial Day is the holiday that keeps on giving. Since most of us are just trying to make it through the most Monday-like Tuesday of all time, brands are extending their sales to help soften the blow. To help you navigate which sales are still running, we compiled a list of all the deals still going on, from discounted mattresses to kitchen gadgets. Some end today, while others run through the end of the week, but all are fleeting. Scroll down to see the full list of savings.

Anthropologie

Get up to 30% off all bedding, rugs, curtains, and furniture through the site’s massive Decorating Event (which ends tonight!).

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Quantitative Pros and Cons

Weigh up Decisions With a Simple Approach

Weigh up the pros and cons of a decision.

Many of us experience «analysis paralysis» when we’re faced with a difficult decision. Often, we’re afraid of making the «wrong» choice, so we spend a huge amount of time analyzing every possibility, and struggling to reach a conclusion.

At other times, however, we are convinced that we already know what the best solution is, so we make decisions quickly and don’t consider all the alternatives.

You can avoid both of these situations by weighing up the pros and cons of a decision – a simple but effective decision-making strategy that allows you to look at the situation from different angles, consider appropriate solutions, and make a confident choice.

In this article, we’ll explore how you can analyze the pros and cons of a decision quantitatively, so that you can make considered and well-informed choices.

About the Tool

Weighing up pros and cons can speed up the decision-making process, improve your understanding of the situation, and help you avoid decision-making paralysis . Using a simple «pros» and «cons» list encourages you to approach your decision objectively, without letting your «gut feeling» impact your choice.

This method is particularly useful in group decision making, when team members favor a certain idea, point of view, or plan. It encourages each person to consider other perspectives, and it can help your team reach a balanced, informed decision.

Evaluating pros and cons is useful for making quick, non-critical, go/no-go decisions . However, when you have to compare many different options, or explore some choices in greater depth, decision-making tools such as Decision Matrix Analysis or Decision Tree Analysis may be more appropriate.

How to Use the Tool

Weighing up the pros and cons of a decision is a quick and easy process.

First, write the decision you have to make at the top of a sheet of paper. Next , divide it in half vertically, and label one side «Pros» and the other «Cons.» Then, list all of the possible positive consequences of the decision in the pros column, and all the negative effects in the cons column.

It may already be obvious whether you should implement the decision at this stage. If not, consider the points you’ve written down, and assign a positive or negative value to each one. For example, a score of +5 may be strongly favorable, while -1 may be mildly unfavorable. Try to score as objectively as possible!

Once you’ve finished, add up the scores in each column, and subtract the total cons from the total pros. A positive overall score indicates that you should go ahead with the decision, while a negative one suggests you should scrap it.

Remember, always use your common sense. If you suspect that the solution isn’t appropriate, take some time to identify any factors you may have missed.

It can be useful to set a time limit for this process during group decision making. This encourages people to brainstorm issues without over-analyzing details.

Example

Imagine that you manage your organization’s marketing department. Some of your team members would like to work remotely several days a week, rather than from the office every day. So, you need to decide whether to provide the option to work from home.

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Although working with a virtual team has a number of benefits, it also presents several risks. So, you weigh up the pros and cons of a remote working policy, below.

Implementing a Remote Working Policy
Pros Cons
Allowing team members to work from home can reduce their stressful commutes and increase their productivity. (+5) It may be more difficult for team members to build meaningful, productive, creative relationships with one another. (-4)
Remote working provides greater flexibility, particularly for working parents and caregivers who have other responsibilities. (+4) The organization would have to budget for equipment that team members can take home. (-4)
It’s possible to hire highly creative people who live further away if they don’t have to come into the office every day. (+4) The organization may not be able to keep track of how people spend their time . (-3)
People who aren’t distracted by office noises and regular interruptions will perform better. (+5) The company could lose control of its data , because equipment and documents are removed from the office. (-5)
Team members’ communication skills will improve, as they will learn to communicate more effectively using email and IM, for example. (+3) It will be harder to schedule face-to-face meetings and provide constructive feedback. (-1)
+21 -17

Your final score is +4 (21 pros-17 cons), so it makes sense to implement a remote working policy that permits your team members to work from home for several days each week.

Key Points

Weighing up pros and cons is a quick, simple way to make objective, considered decisions. Quantifying options helps you weigh up your decision.

Start by writing the decision you have to make at the top of a sheet of paper. Then, divide it in half, and label one side «Pros» and the other «Cons.» Write down all of the possible benefits of following the course of action, and all the possible negative outcomes, under each heading.

Your decision may be clear at this stage. If not, you can score your pros and cons to show the importance of each. The total will help you decide whether it’s worthwhile going ahead with the decision.

This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you’ll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career!

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Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA)

Continually Improving, in a Methodical Way

Also known as PDSA, the «Deming Wheel,» and «Shewhart Cycle»

Imagine that your customer satisfaction score on a popular business ratings website has dipped. When you look at recent comments, you see that your customers are complaining about late delivery, and that products are being damaged in transit.

You decide to run a small pilot project for a month, using a new supplier to deliver your products to a small sample of your customers, and you’re pleased to see that the feedback from these customers is positive. As a result, you decide to use the new supplier for all your orders.

What you have just done is to go once around a loop called the PDCA Cycle, which helps you to strive for continuous improvements to your business.

In this article, we explore the details of PDCA, and we look at how and when to apply it.

Click here to view a transcript of this video.

What Is PDCA?

PDCA, sometimes called PDSA, the «Deming Wheel,» or «Deming Cycle,» was developed by renowned management consultant Dr William Edwards Deming in the 1950s. Deming himself called it the «Shewhart Cycle,» as his model was based on an idea from his mentor, Walter Shewhart.

Deming wanted to create a way of identifying what caused products to fail to meet customers’ expectations. His solution helps businesses to develop hypotheses about what needs to change, and then test these in a continuous feedback loop.

Deming used the concept of Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA). He found that the focus on Check is more about the implementation of a change.

Deming’s focus was on predicting the results of an improvement effort, studying the actual results, and comparing them to possibly revise the theory. He stressed that the need to develop new knowledge, from learning, is always guided by a theory.

PDCA / PDSA is an iterative, four-stage approach for continually improving processes, products or services, and for resolving problems. It involves systematically testing possible solutions, assessing the results, and implementing the ones that are shown to work.

The four phases are:

  • Plan: identify and analyze the problem or opportunity, develop hypotheses about what the issues may be, and decide which one to test.
  • Do: test the potential solution, ideally on a small scale, and measure the results.
  • Check/Study: study the result, measure effectiveness, and decide whether the hypothesis is supported or not.
  • Act: if the solution was successful, implement it.

These stages are illustrated in Figure 1, below:

PDSA Model courtesy of The W. Edwards Deming Institute®.

There can be any number of iterations of the Do and Check phases, as you continue to refine, retest and trial potential solutions.

We’ll now look at the four stages in more detail, below.

The PDCA or PDSA Cycle

The PDCA cycle helps you to solve problems and implement solutions in a rigorous, methodical way. Follow these four steps to ensure that you get the highest quality results.

1. Plan

First, you need to identify and understand your problem, or the opportunity that you want to take advantage of. Using the first six steps of The Simplex Process can help you to do this, by guiding you through a process of exploring information, defining your problem, generating and screening ideas, and developing an implementation plan.

At the final part of this stage, state quantitatively what your expectations are, if the idea is successful and your problem is resolved. You’ll return to this in the Check stage.

Before you move on to the next stage, consider using Impact Analysis or ORAPAPA to sense-check your plan. You may spot significant problems with it, and it may be worth going back to the planning phase.

Once you’ve identified a potential solution, test it with a small-scale pilot project. This will allow you to assess whether your proposed changes achieve the desired outcome, with minimal disruption to the rest of your operation if they don’t. For example, you could organize a trial within a department, in a limited geographical area, or with a particular demographic.

As you run the pilot project, gather data to show whether the change has worked or not. You’ll use this in the next stage.

Remember that, in this situation, Do means «try» or «test.» It doesn’t mean «implement fully,» which happens at the Act stage.

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3. Check

At this stage, you analyze your pilot project’s results against the expectations that you defined in Step 1 to assess whether the idea has worked or not. If it hasn’t worked, you return to Step 1. If it has worked, you go on to Step 4.

You may decide to try out more changes, and repeat the Do and Check phases – don’t settle for a less-than-satisfactory solution. Move on to the final phase (Act) only when you’re genuinely happy with the trial’s outcome.

Deming’s model was adapted in the 1980s by quality management pioneer Kaoru Ishikawa. However, Deming distanced himself from these changes, and modified his original model in the 1990s. He emphasized the importance of study and learning in the third phase. As we highlighted earlier, this is why the model is sometimes referred to as Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA).

4. Act

This is where you implement your solution. But remember that PDCA / PDSA is a loop, not a process with a beginning and an end. This means that your improved process or product becomes the new baseline, and you continue to look for ways to make it even better for your organization or customers.

When to Use PDCA / PDSA

The PDCA / PDSA framework can improve any process or product by breaking it into smaller steps. It is particularly effective for:

  • Helping to implement Total Quality Management or Six Sigma initiatives, and generally helping to improve processes.
  • Exploring a range of solutions to problems, and piloting them in a controlled way before selecting one for implementation.
  • Avoiding wastage of resources by rolling out an ineffective solution on a wide scale.

You can use the model in all sorts of business environments, from new product development, project and change management, to product lifecycle and supply chain management.

PDCA is often used as a framework for executing Kaizen , another strategy for continuously fine tuning your products and processes that also emphasizes the importance of eliminating waste.

The Pros and Cons of PDCA / PDSA

The model is a simple, yet powerful way to resolve new and recurring issues in any industry, department or process. Its iterative approach allows you and your team to test solutions and assess results in a waste-reducing cycle.

It instills a commitment to continuous improvement, however small, and can improve efficiency and productivity in a controlled way, without the risks of making large scale, untested changes to your processes.

However, going through the PDCA / PDSA cycle can be much slower than a straightforward, «gung ho» implementation. So, it might not be the appropriate approach for dealing with an urgent problem or emergency.

It also requires significant «buy-in» from team members, and offers fewer opportunities for radical innovation, if that’s what your organization needs.

There are continuous improvement models that are similar to PDCA / PDSA, such as Build-Measure-Learn , the After Action Review Process , and The Hoshin Planning System .

These incorporate some of the principles of PDCA / PDSA, but they are not substitutes for it.

Key Points

The PDCA / PDSA cycle is a continuous loop of planning, doing, checking (or studying), and acting. It provides a simple and effective approach for solving problems and managing change, and it’s useful for testing improvement measures on a small scale before updating procedures and working methods.

You can use it in all sorts of business processes, from developing new products through to managing the supply chain.

The approach begins with a Planning phase in which problems are clearly identified and understood, and a quantified hypothesis is developed. Potential solutions are tested on a small scale in the Do phase, and the outcome is then evaluated and Checked.

You can go through the Do and Check stages as many times as necessary before the full, polished solution is implemented, in the Act phase.

Apply This to Your Life:

While PDCA / PDSA is an effective tool for businesses, you can also use it to improve your own performance. Identify what is holding you back in your career, and how you want to progress. Look at the root cause of any issue, and set goals to overcome these obstacles (Plan).

When you’ve decided on your course of action, test different approaches to getting the results that you want (Do). Review progress regularly, adjust your behavior accordingly, and consider the consequences of your actions (Check). Finally, implement what’s working, and continually refine what isn’t (Act).

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Backup guide for SAP HANA on Azure Virtual Machines

Getting Started

The backup guide for SAP HANA running on Azure virtual Machines will only describe Azure-specific topics. For general SAP HANA backup related items, check the SAP HANA documentation. We expect you to be familiar with principle database backup strategies, the reasons, and motivations to have a sound and valid backup strategy, and are aware of the requirements your company has for the backup procedure, retention period of backups and restore procedure.

SAP HANA is officially supported on various Azure VM types, like Azure M-Series. For a complete list of SAP HANA certified Azure VMs and HANA Large Instance units, check out Find Certified IaaS Platforms. Microsoft Azure offers a number of units where SAP HANA runs non-virtualized on physical servers. This service is called HANA Large Instances. This guide will not cover backup processes and tools for HANA Large Instances. But is going to be limited to Azure virtual machines. For details about backup/restore processes with HANA Large Instances, read the article HLI Backup and Restore.

The focus of this article is on three backup possibilities for SAP HANA on Azure virtual machines:

  • HANA backup through Azure Backup Services
  • HANA backup to the file system in an Azure Linux Virtual Machine (see SAP HANA Azure Backup on file level)
  • HANA backup based on storage snapshots using the Azure storage blob snapshot feature manually or Azure Backup service

SAP HANA offers a backup API, which allows third-party backup tools to integrate directly with SAP HANA. Products like Azure Backup service, or Commvault are using this proprietary interface to trigger SAP HANA database or redo log backups.

Information on how you can find what SAP software is supported on Azure can be found in the article What SAP software is supported for Azure deployments.

Azure Backup Service

The first scenario shown is a scenario where Azure Backup Service is either using the SAP HANA backint interface to perform a streaming backup with from an SAP HANA database. Or you use a more generic capability of Azure Backup service to create an application consistent disk snapshot and have that one transferred to the Azure Backup service.

Azure Backup integrates and is certified as backup solution for SAP HANA using the proprietary SAP HANA interface called backint. For more details of the solution, its capabilities and the Azure regions where it is available, read the article Support matrix for backup of SAP HANA databases on Azure VMs. For details and principles about Azure Backup service for HANA, read the article About SAP HANA database backup in Azure VMs.

The second possibility to leverage Azure Backup service is to create an application consistent backup using disk snapshots of Azure Premium Storage. Other HANA certified Azure storages, like Azure Ultra disk and Azure NetApp Files are not supporting this kind of snapshot through Azure Backup service. Reading these articles:

this sequence of activity emerges:

  • Azure Backup needs to execute a pre-snapshot script that puts the application, in this case SAP HANA, in a consistent state
  • As this consistent state is confirmed, Azure Backup will execute the disk snapshots
  • After finishing the snapshots, Azure Backup will undo the activity it did in the pre-snapshot script
  • After successful execution, Azure Backup will stream the data into the Backup vault

In case of SAP HANA, most customers are using Azure Write Accelerator for the volumes that contain the SAP HANA redo log. Azure Backup service will automatically exclude these volumes from the snapshots. This exclusion does not harm the ability of HANA to restore. Though it would block the ability to restore with nearly all other SAP supported DBMS.

The downside of this possibility is the fact that you need to develop your own pre- and post-snapshot script. The pre-snapshot script needs to create a HANA snapshot and handle eventual exception cases. Whereas the post-snapshot script needs to delete the HANA snapshot again. For more details on the logic required, start with SAP support note #2039883. The considerations of the section ‘SAP HANA data consistency when taking storage snapshots’ in this article do fully apply to this kind of backup.

Disk snapshot based backups for SAP HANA in deployments where multiple database containers are used, require a minimum release of HANA 2.0 SP04

See details about storage snapshots later in this document.

Other HANA backup methods

There are three other backup methods or paths that can be considered:

  • Backing up against an NFS share that is based on Azure NetApp Files (ANF). ANF again has the ability to create snapshots of those volumes you store backups on. Given the throughput that you eventually require to write the backups, this solution could become an expensive method. Though easy to establish since HANA can write the backups directly into the Azure native NFS share
  • Executing the HANA Backup against VM attached disks of Standard SSD or Azure Premium Storage. As next step you can copy those backup files against Azure Blob storage. This strategy might be price wise attractive
  • Executing the HANA Backup against VM attached disks of Standard SSD or Azure Premium Storage. As next step the disk gets snapshotted on a regular basis. After the first snapshot, incremental snapshots can be used to reduce costs

This figure shows options for taking an SAP HANA file backup inside the VM, and then storing it HANA backup files somewhere else using different tools. However, all solutions not involving a third-party backup service or Azure Backup service have several hurdles in common. Some of them can be listed, like retention administration, automatic restore process and providing automatic point-in-time recovery as Azure Backup service or other specialized third-party backup suites and services provide. Many of those third-party services being able to run on Azure.

SAP resources for HANA backup

SAP HANA backup documentation

  • Introduction to SAP HANA Administration
  • Planning Your Backup and Recovery Strategy
  • Schedule HANA Backup using ABAP DBACOCKPIT
  • Schedule Data Backups (SAP HANA Cockpit)
  • FAQ about SAP HANA backup in SAP Note 1642148
  • FAQ about SAP HANA database and storage snapshots in SAP Note 2039883
  • Unsuitable network file systems for backup and recovery in SAP Note 1820529

How to verify correctness of SAP HANA backup

Independent of your backup method, running a test restore against a different system is an absolute necessity. This approach provides a way to ensure that a backup is correct, and internal processes for backup and restore work as expected. While restoring backups could be a hurdle on-premises due to its infrastructure requirement, it is much easier to accomplish in the cloud by providing necessary resources temporarily for this purpose. It is correct that there are tools provided with HANA that can check backup files on ability to restore. However, the purpose of frequent restore exercises is to test the process of a database restore and train that process with the operations staff.

Keep in mind that doing a simple restore and checking if HANA is up and running is not sufficient. You should run a table consistency check to be sure that the restored database is fine. SAP HANA offers several kinds of consistency checks described in SAP Note 1977584.

Information about the table consistency check can also be found on the SAP website at Table and Catalog Consistency Checks.

Pros and cons of HANA backup versus storage snapshot

SAP doesn’t give preference to either HANA backup versus storage snapshot. It lists their pros and cons, so one can determine which to use depending on the situation and available storage technology (see Planning Your Backup and Recovery Strategy).

On Azure, be aware of the fact that the Azure blob snapshot feature doesn’t provide file system consistency across multiple disks (see Using blob snapshots with PowerShell).

In addition, one has to understand the billing implications when working frequently with blob snapshots as described in this article: Understanding How Snapshots Accrue Charges—it isn’t as obvious as using Azure virtual disks.

SAP HANA data consistency when taking storage snapshots

As documented earlier, describing the snapshot backup capabilities of Azure Backup, file system and application consistency is mandatory when taking storage snapshots. The easiest way to avoid problems would be to shut down SAP HANA, or maybe even the whole virtual machine. Something that is not feasible for a production instance.

Disk snapshot based backups for SAP HANA in deployments where multiple database containers are used, require a minimum release of HANA 2.0 SP04

Azure storage, does not provide file system consistency across multiple disks or volumes that are attached to a VM during the snapshot process. That means the application consistency during the snapshot needs to be delivered by the application, in this case SAP HANA itself. SAP Note 2039883 has important information about SAP HANA backups by storage snapshots. For example, with XFS file systems, it is necessary to run xfs_freeze before starting a storage snapshot to provide application consistency (see xfs_freeze(8) — Linux man page for details on xfs_freeze).

Assuming there is an XFS file system spanning four Azure virtual disks, the following steps provide a consistent snapshot that represents the HANA data area:

  1. Create HANA data snapshot prepare
  2. Freeze the file systems of all disks/volumes (for example, use xfs_freeze)
  3. Create all necessary blob snapshots on Azure
  4. Unfreeze the file system
  5. Confirm the HANA data snapshot (will delete the snapshot)

When using the Azure Backup’s capability to perform application consistent snapshot backups, steps #1 need to be coded/scripted by you in for the pre-snapshot script. Azure Backup service will execute steps #2 and #3. Steps #4 and #5 need to be again provided by your code in the post-snapshot script. If you are not using Azure backup service, you also need to code/script step #2 and #3 on your own. More information on creating HANA data snapshots can be found in these articles:

It is important to confirm the HANA snapshot. Due to the «Copy-on-Write,» SAP HANA might not require additional disk space while in this snapshot-prepare mode. It’s also not possible to start new backups until the SAP HANA snapshot is confirmed.

SAP HANA backup scheduling strategy

The SAP HANA article Planning Your Backup and Recovery Strategy states a basic plan to do backups. Rely on SAP documentation around HANA and your experiences with other DBMS in defining the backup/restore strategy and process for SAP HANA. The sequence of different types of backups, and the retention period are highly dependent on the SLAs you need to provide.

SAP HANA backup encryption

SAP HANA offers encryption of data and log. If SAP HANA data and log are not encrypted, then the backups are not encrypted by default. However, SAP HANA offers a separate backup encryption as documented in SAP HANA Backup Encryption. If you are running older releases of SAP HANA, you might need to check whether backup encryption was part of the functionality provided already.

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