CURRANT: PROPER CARE IN THE FALL AND PREPARATION FOR WINTER
How to care for currants, and how to prepare the bushes for winter
- 1 How to care for currants, and how to prepare the bushes for winter
- 2 Why special care is important
- 3 How to prepare currants for winter: rules of care
- 4 What you should not do: typical mistakes novice gardeners
- 5 Help, My Gooseberry Fruit Has Maggots: Currant Fruit Fly Control
- 6 Currants and Gooseberries
- 7 Controlling Gooseberry Worms
- 8 Chemical Controls for Gooseberry Maggots
- 9 Currant shield: how to deal with a pest
- 10 Pests and diseases of yucca: prevention, symptoms and treatment
- 11 Yucca diseases: prevention and treatment
- 12 How to deal with pests yucca?
Currant is a delicious fragrant berry, which only a rare summer resident and gardener can do without growing. Berries of black and red currants, which are used in food in raw, dried and thermally processed form, are an excellent source of vitamins and many other useful substances for the human body. The leaves of these plants are also rich in minerals and are used for brewing tea, as spices for preservation. Growing currants on your plot is easy, but this garden crop, like many others, also needs constant care. Let’s take a closer look at how to look after her in the fall.
Why special care is important
The main interest of any currant grower is the annual good harvest of large, tasty berries. In order to achieve abundant fruiting, it is necessary to care for plants not only in spring, but also in autumn, since many works carried out after the summer season directly affect the future harvest.
The complex of autumn currant care activities is aimed primarily at ensuring sufficient soil moisture and oxygen access to the root system, as well as at improving and rejuvenating the plant, preparing it for winter.
Did you know? The most famous types of currants are black, red and white, although in fact they are much more: there are orange, purple, yellow and green varieties of this berry.
Berries, twigs and leaves of black, red and white currants have healing properties and are often used in traditional medicine.
How to prepare currants for winter: rules of care
In the autumn, currants require attention and efforts in the following areas:
- Weed control.
- Loosening and watering the soil.
- Fight against diseases and pests.
- Pruning bushes.
- Update and replace old plants.
- Digging and dressing.
- Cold protection.
Treating bushes and soil from fungal diseases and pest control
The negative impact of fungal diseases and pests can often lead not only to the low yield of the plant, but even to the death of a whole bush, so the gardener’s attention should be directed primarily to the health status of currants. A thorough inspection of the plants will allow time to identify the threat and effectively eliminate it.
The most common fungal diseases are:
- powdery mildew;
- rust (stem and goblet);
Powdery Mildew on Currants
We advise you to learn how to deal with diseases and pests of currants: glass rust, powdery mildew, red spots on the leaves, shield, bud mite.
The first and main action in detecting a disease is the elimination of diseased leaves and shoots, which must be burned to prevent further spread of the disease. After that, the plant can be treated with appropriate fungicides (nitraphine solution, bordeaux liquid, ammonium nitrate, soda ash).
The most common pests that gladly settle on currant bushes are: bud mites, sawflies and a glass box. In the autumn, to fight them, it is often enough to destroy the infected parts of a plant, followed by digging the soil around it.
Did you know? Previously, the currant was known as «monastic berries«, all of it was grown in almost all monasteries.
Currant pruning aims at its proper formation for obtaining the best yield. It can be produced in early spring, but in this case there is a risk of missing the moment of budding, and after autumn pruning, the plant will not have to expend forces on the growth of branches that need to be removed in the spring. In addition, in the fall, gardeners traditionally have more free time to do pruning, slowly and not being distracted by planting work.
Learn how to properly trim the currants.
Young bushes are cut with a preventive sanitary purpose, and old ones — for rejuvenation. For the implementation of pruning need a sharp pruner or garden file.
What is subject to pruning:
- branches affected by fungal diseases or pests;
- old (three- or five-year) weakly fruiting branches;
- Shoots growing inwards and thickening the plant;
- creeping branches on the ground;
- broken and weak branches, giving zero shoots.
Important! Black currants can be pruned after harvest, and other varieties can be cut in late autumn during the dormant period.
Branches of varieties with good sprouting are pruned if they exceed 25 cm in length, and in varieties with weak spine formation, only non-mature tops with weak buds are pruned. Bushes of red and white currants are formed in a cup shape, and the length of their branches can be about 1 m.
During the spring and summer, which is characterized by intensive growth of shoots, flowering and fruiting, the nutritional value of the soil under the bushes is significantly reduced. To ensure a good harvest in the coming year in the fall, it is necessary to fertilize currants.
Learn what and how to handle currants in the fall after harvest.
For feeding one bush in a bucket of rotted manure add 100-150 g of superphosphate and 30-40 g of potassium chloride. Then this mixture is evenly scattered around the plant and dug up (slightly under the bush, and deeper outside its crown).
Important! Nitrogen fertilizers to feed the currants in the autumn should not be used, because they provoke the growth of young shoots, which adversely affects the frost resistance of the plant.
Mulching and tillage
The benefits of soil mulching are difficult to overestimate. A layer of mulch provides the root system of the plant with optimal conditions for development: absorption of nutrients, preservation of moisture and a loose state of the soil, allowing the roots to «breathe.»
Before autumn mulching, the soil under currant bushes and in between rows should be dug up with a reservoir turnover to a depth of 15 cm. At the same time, directly under the bush, it is necessary to put a shovel with an edge to it and dig it no deeper than 8 cm in order not to damage the root system. It is not necessary to break up layers of the earth that the moisture better was late in the soil.
If the autumn was dry, then before the onset of cold weather, it is necessary to carry out a mandatory prewinter irrigation, because currants are very sensitive to the lack of moisture. To do this, each bush is plentifully watered (from three to five buckets of water), wetting the soil to a depth of 50 cm.
The best grades of currant for your site.
After digging and watering, the ground around the bush with a radius of about 60 cm is mulched with peat or a mixture of sawdust with a glass of wood ash. The layer of mulch for its best efficiency should be at least 5 cm thick. Mulching with sawdust
Wrapping a bush from the cold
Traditionally, currant belongs to winter-hardy garden crops that can withstand temperatures down to -25 ° C without additional wrapping. This is true for local varieties that are already adapted to the climatic conditions of their region. European breeding varieties may not tolerate the winter in Siberia and other northern areas, or even die. Therefore, in places with harsh winter frosts, attention should still be paid to wrapping bushes.
The best shelter for currants and other plants is snow. From the first snowfalls you need to start throwing up the snow until the bush is completely covered with a snow coat. However, so that the branches do not break under the weight of the snow cover, it is recommended to carefully bend them to the ground in advance, pinching them with bricks or tiles, or tie them up with a string, giving a spindle shape. In areas where winters are frosty but snowless, currants can be wrapped with needles, special covering materials, drawers, old blankets, etc.
Important! It is impossible to wrap currant bushes in polyethylene and other materials that do not allow air to pass through.
What you should not do: typical mistakes novice gardeners
Currant is considered to be a rather unpretentious garden plant and on fertile land under good weather conditions it can successfully bear fruit for a long time, but at least a little attention from the gardener is still required for this shrub. Let’s consider what mistakes novice gardeners can damage currants:
- Wrong watering. Often inexperienced gardeners water the plants on the leaves from above or use very cold water from the aqueduct. Watering currants, like other plants, should be at the root, using water with an ambient temperature.
- Too deep looseningwhich can damage the root system.
- Breaking off branches instead of pruning causes additional stress to the plant, which reduces its frost resistance.
- Top dressing with fresh manure during the autumn period promotes the active growth of the plant and makes it more vulnerable to cold. In the autumn as a fertilizer, you can only use rotted manure.
- Shelter bushes nonwoven materialsnot breathable.
- Incorrect trimming. Excessive or insufficient pruning, as well as leaving sick and weak shoots, can have a negative effect on the condition of the plant.
- The maintenance of old bushes. With age, the bushes begin to bear less fruit, while timely pruning and rejuvenation can ensure a stable annual yield. In this case, black currants are considered to be old branches older than three years old, while red and white branches are allowed to leave six-year branches in the crown.
Compliance with these simple recommendations will allow you to grow excellent currant bushes that will benefit your health every year, bringing you delicious and healthy berries.
Help, My Gooseberry Fruit Has Maggots: Currant Fruit Fly Control
Not every gardener is acquainted with the gooseberry, but those who are will never forget their first taste of the edible fruits that ripen dramatically from green to wine purple or black. Gardeners are rediscovering this old-fashioned favorite and giving it a prominent place in the orchard, garden or landscape. However, when you discover that your gooseberry fruit has maggots, a little know-how can go a long way.
Currants and Gooseberries
Pretty enough to work as edible landscaping, the gooseberry is covered in deeply scalloped foliage and bears its fruits along its canes, dangling like pearl earrings.
Gooseberries are closely related to currants and these plants share a few significant pests. For example, both currants and gooseberries suffer serious losses from Euphranta canadensis, small flies known as currant fruit flies or gooseberry maggots, depending on their stage of development. If you can prevent adults from depositing eggs in developing fruits, you’ll be baking gooseberry pies in no time.
Controlling Gooseberry Worms
You may not even realize that your gooseberry fruit has maggots until they start to ripen, since gooseberries can do quite well with very little care. The damage to your gooseberries will vary, depending on how long the maggots have been present. Fruits may drop prematurely or develop dark areas inside of red spots as the maggots feed on pulp and mature.
Currant fruit fly control is the only way to control gooseberry worms; you must break the life cycle of these pests to save your fruit. If any of your gooseberry bushes are unaffected by gooseberry maggots, cover these plants with row covers to prevent infestation. Once fruits are picked, the row covers can be safely removed.
Check fruits carefully on infested plants, disposing of those that appear to house gooseberry maggots. Lay heavy plastic or a tarp under infested plants to prevent the larvae from dropping into the ground to pupate. It may help to pin the tarp in place with landscape staples.
Chemical Controls for Gooseberry Maggots
Early in the season,as the gooseberries are just forming, you can spray kaolin clay on fruits and reapply it as the berries develop. It’s made from a naturally-occurring clay and is perfectly safe for all gardens and gardeners. Fruit flies are repelled by kaolin clay, which attaches to their bodies and causes irritation and excessive grooming. It may also confuse them by changing the color of fruits.
Other products should be applied carefully, once all blooms on your gooseberries are spent, to protect honeybees. Pyrethrin will kill currant fruit flies on contact, but doesn’t have much staying power, making it safest for beneficial insects. Spinosad can be applied in the evening after bees are finished for the day; it only remains toxic to these insects for about three hours.
Chemicals like zeta-cypermethrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin and carbaryl are very effective against currant fruit flies. These chemicals form a poisonous barrier on sprayed plants. Read the product labels carefully before applying chemicals – you must wait several days after spraying to harvest fruits safely.
Currant shield: how to deal with a pest
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Pests and diseases of yucca: prevention, symptoms and treatment
Yucca is a heat-loving plant that grows in natural conditions with strong droughts and can transform into a giant tree. It is easy to grow this plant at home, but uyuks exist diseases that can affect it, and it is important for every gardener to know how to deal with them.
Yucca diseases: prevention and treatment
The yucca plant is not at all demanding on the nutritional value of the soil and the regularity of watering, since it is the excess of moisture that often leads to the appearance of diseases in the plant. Let’s get acquainted with the measures to combat the most common of them.
Yucca does not bloom
In nature, the tree plant Yucca blooms every summer with panicles of inflorescences of different colors. However, not all professional growers manage to achieve flowering of yucca., and even in greenhouses, they rarely bloom, since it is important for this plant to create as close to natural conditions as possible. But since in the apartment we cannot ensure a long light day and the optimum temperature, we only have to admire the luxurious crowns of this plant.
Did you know? Very often for the appearance of flowers have to care for yucca for 4-5 years. Experienced growers are advised not to remove faded lower leaves from the plant, since such excessive care, which is not typical for natural conditions, does not allow it to feel comfortable and flourish.
Bacterial burn of yucca leaves is rare, but it can completely affect the entire plant. With this disease, small spots appear on the yucca, which at first have a yellowish color, but eventually turn black.
The spread of the pathogen of this disease occurs when the humidity is above 70% and the temperature is above 18 ° C. However, yucca’s resistance to a bacterial burn is maintained in cases where pure, treated soil and pots are used to plant it, contact with other plants is minimized. It should be understood that insects can be the source of the burn, and yucca can be infected through damaged leaves and roots.
It is almost impossible to cope with a bacterial burn, therefore, with a strong spread of yellow-brown spots on yucca leaves, it should be thrown away. If the spots appear on several leaves, they are removed, and the whole plant is sprayed with bordeaux liquid or antibiotics for prophylaxis, among which you can stop at streptomycin.
Brown spots on leaves
If the leaves on the plant begin to not just turn yellow and fall off, but the yellowness appears on them in the form of spots and rapidly gains new areas — most likely it is a brown spot on the yucca. If time does not resort to treatment, the leaves will begin to turn black and crumble. The reason for the development of such a disease on a yucca plant is the lack of watering. The plant does not like overmoistening, however, if the earth lump in the pot is too dry, the yucca will begin to dry out.
To prevent brown spots on yucca leaves, the room in which the plant stands is important to air regularly and avoid increasing humidity, but watering should be very abundant, although not frequent. Make sure that the temperature in the room does not change. If the spots have already appeared, then in addition to changing the growing conditions, the yucca will require special treatment with fungicides, including You can use these drugs:
- Oxyh (20 g of water per 10 liters);
- Alirin-B (for 1 l of water 2 tablets of the drug);
- Vitaros (2 ml of substance are used for 1 l of water).
The resulting solutions of fungicides are used for surface spraying of the affected yucca. It is recommended to repeat such treatment three times, taking breaks of 10 days. Damaged leaves from a plant should be removed.
Brown edges and leaf tips
A similar symptom often develops in cases when the air is dried out in rooms due to the operation of heating devices. Some species of yucca can tolerate such a phenomenon quite firmly, but most of them begin to dry out. In order to avoid yellowing leaves of yucca on the edges and tips, try to increase the humidity of the air due to regular spraying of the plant. At the same time, it is not worthwhile to increase irrigation, as over-wetting can cause root rot.
Important! Another reason for drying the edges and tips of the leaves of yucca can be the wrong content, in which the plant is exposed to frequent drafts, and an insufficient amount of moisture. In this case, try to rearrange the pot with yucca and change the regularity of watering.
Gray leaf spot
The symptoms of this disease are very noticeable, although they develop gradually: on the leaves there is either a point necrosis, or light spots appear on the edges of the leaves of the yucca. At the same time, all gray spots have characteristic brown edges. The most common gray spots are old leaves that are in the lower part of the plant.
Since the causative agent of gray spot is a fungus, it is almost impossible to cope with it in case of a severe lesion. The leaf-covered leaves are simply removed, and the whole plant is treated with Fundazol. To avoid this, treatment with this fungicide can be carried out regularly, but it is important to avoid spraying yucca with plain water.
Stem and root rot
The treatment of such diseases of yucca as stem and root rot is not possible, because with their manifestation the plant is overly affected and can no longer recover. Characteristic signs of stem rot are a substantial softening of the tree-like stem, as well as the appearance of bright red color ulcers on it.
When root rot watery spots appear on the root system of the plant, with the result that the internal tissue of the roots begin to gradually decay. This disease manifests itself on the upper part of the plant, on the leaves of which spots are formed, covered with dark spores. Fortunately, this does not happen often, and the plant becomes infected during transport.
For the prevention of stem and root rot is recommended:
- when planting and replanting yucca, sterilize the soil mixture and pots;
- prevent overmoistening of the soil;
- to provide at the bottom of pots with yucca good drainage.
How to deal with pests yucca?
Yucca fungus and bacterial diseases — this is not the worst thing you may encounter when growing this plant. Often it is also exposed to various pests that can not only spoil the decorativeness of the yucca, but also lead to its extinction.
Did you know? Yucca is a plant that loves heat, so even in winter it is necessary to ensure a good temperature in the room, but at the same time reduce the amount of watering so as not to cause decay.
We are talking about an insect that feeds on succulent leaves of yucca, or rather, only their juice, which leads to the appearance of dead areas on the plant. If you look closely at this plant, you can see very small white flies, this is the whitefly.
There are many methods of fighting this insect:
- Hang in close proximity to the plant yellow stickies for catching ordinary flies.
- Use for spraying the plant insecticide, which is ideal drug Aktara. To obtain a solution in 5 liters of water, dilute 4 g of the substance.
- Treat the affected plant with Akarin, Iskra-Bio, Inta-Vir, Fitoverm. To completely eliminate the pest will require at least 4 treatments, the interval between which should not exceed 10 days.
The pelletizer also feeds on the cell sap of yucca, so with intensive reproduction this parasite can completely destroy the plant. You can make sure that the yucca was really struck by the false shield, you can on the tubercles and waxy droplets on the plant, as well as discoloration of the affected areas.
It is rather difficult to fight against false shelling, as wax-like shields are present on the surface of the pest’s body, because of which they steadily tolerate treatment with insecticides. Therefore, in the fight against this pest, yucca is recommended to use:
- common alcohol;
- water-oil emulsions;
- replacement of topsoil in a pot with yucca.
The spider mite also feeds on the sap of houseplants, and in this aspect yucca is especially attractive to him. When this parasite appears on the lower part of the leaves of the plant, there will appear light grains, and then a cobweb. Over time, the leaves affected by spider mites, lose their color and begin to gradually become covered with yellow spots.
A peculiarity of spider mites is that it only affects weakened plants on which diseases can be present. Therefore, the most effective prevention of this pest is the proper care of the plant and its maintenance in optimal conditions.
But if the spider mite has already appeared on the yucca, the plant should be washed with cold water to wash off the pest. Also require treatment with acaricides — Vertimek or Fitoverma. The minimum number of treatments — three, each of which should be carried out with a break of 10 days.
Important! If the yucca is kept in the wrong conditions, chemical treatments against spider mites will help get rid of the pest only for a while.
Mealybug also belongs to the sucking pests that weaken the plant, sucking all the juice out of it. With the defeat of mealybugs they can be easily seen on the leaves and even the trunks, often the leaves are covered because of them sticky bloom. It is almost impossible to kill this pest with the help of contact preparations, as it has a wax-like coating, like a false protector. For the same reason, when a mealybug appears, it is worth fighting with it by analogy with a false shield.
At high humidity, yucca can strike slugs. You can learn about their presence by yellowing spots on the leaves, which often appear after the winter period. You can also remove slugs with your hands, however, to prevent their new appearance, it is important to treat yucca with insecticides.
All of the above diseases and pests appear mainly as the consequences of improper care for yucca. Therefore, the best prevention is good care, choosing the right place and regular watering the plant.