Codling Moth Management Guidelines-UC IPM
How to Manage Pests
- 1 How to Manage Pests
- 2 Pests in Gardens and Landscapes
- 3 How to protect your currants from diseases and pests
- 4 Currant diseases and their treatment
- 5 Currant disease prevention
- 6 Currant Pests: How to Fight
- 7 Preventive Pest Control
Pests in Gardens and Landscapes
In this Guideline:
Codling moth, Cydia (Laspeyresia) pomonella, is a serious insect pest of apples, pears, and English walnuts.
Codling moth adults are about 1/2 to 3/4 inch long with mottled gray wings that they hold tentlike over their bodies (Figure 1). Their appearance blends well with most tree bark, making them difficult to detect. If you are trapping the adults, you can distinguish codling moth from other moths by the dark, coppery brown band at the tip of their wings.
The larvae are white to light pink “worms” with a dark brown head (Figure 2). They are one of the few caterpillars likely to be found inside pear or apple fruit. Navel orangeworms also might be found in walnuts, but these can be distinguished from codling moth larvae by the crescent-shaped markings on the second segment behind the orangeworm head and by the excess webbing they leave in the nut.
Codling moth overwinters as full-grown larvae within thick, silken cocoons under loose scales of bark and in soil or debris around the base of the tree. The larvae pupate inside their cocoons in early spring and emerge as adult moths mid-March to early April. The moths are active only a few hours before and after sunset, and they mate when sunset temperatures exceed 62°F.
After mating each female deposits 30 to 70 tiny, disc-shaped eggs singly on fruit, nuts, leaves, or spurs. After the eggs hatch, young larvae seek out and bore into fruit or developing nuts. After completing development they leave the fruit and drop from the trees to search out pupation sites and continue the life cycle in the soil or on debris under the tree; some crawl back up the tree to pupate in bark crevices (Figure 5).
The rate of development will vary with temperature, proceeding more rapidly in warmer weather and climates. Depending on the climate, codling moth can have two, three, and sometimes four generations per year.
On apples and pears, larvae penetrate into the fruit and tunnel to the core, leaving holes in the fruit that are filled with reddish-brown, crumbly droppings called frass (Figure 6). If left uncontrolled, larvae can cause substantial damage, often infesting 20 to 90% of the fruit, depending on the variety and location. Late maturing varieties are more likely to suffer severe damage than early varieties.
In walnuts, larvae feed on the kernels (Figure 7). Nuts damaged early in the season when the nuts are quite small will drop off trees soon after damage occurs. Nuts damaged later in the season will remain on trees, but their kernels are inedible. Walnuts aren’t as favored a host as apples and pears, and untreated trees might incur very little to modest damage (10 to 15% of the nuts), depending on the variety and location.
Codling moth can be very difficult to manage, especially if the population has been allowed to build up over a season or two. It is much easier to keep moth numbers low from the start than to suppress a well-established population. In trees with low levels, codling moth often can be kept to tolerable levels by using a combination of nonchemical management methods; however, it is important to begin implementing these measures early in the season.
Where populations are moderate to high and many infested trees are nearby, insecticide applications might be necessary to bring populations down to low levels. To be effective, the timing of insecticide spray applications is critical, and several applications are necessary, especially with newer, less toxic pesticides. In most backyard situations, the best course of action might be to combine a variety of the nonchemical and/or low toxicity chemical methods discussed below and accept the presence of some wormy fruit. If eating wormy fruit, be sure to cut out damaged portions, because they might contain toxins (aflatoxin) generated by mold. It is ideal to make codling moth management a neighborhood project, because your trees can be infested by moths from your neighbor’s trees, despite your own best efforts at keeping populations of this pest down.
Several methods are available for reducing codling moth that don’t require using insecticides. Selecting varieties that are less susceptible to damage, such as early-maturing apples and pears and late-leafing walnuts, can greatly reduce the potential for damage. This can be especially important in the hot Central Valley climates that have additional generations and result in higher population pressure.
Once trees are planted, nonchemical control methods include sanitation and fruit bagging. These methods are described below. Thinning out and removing infested fruit on the tree is an especially important part of an IPM program for codling moth. Pruning trees to a height where the canopy is easy to reach also will facilitate management of this pest.
If a backyard tree or orchard has a very high moth population, it might be impossible to satisfactorily reduce codling moth without using pesticides. Also, nearby orchards or backyard trees in which no control program is in place can serve as a continual source of codling moth and can make it even more difficult to limit damage through nonchemical means alone.
Sanitation. Sanitation should be the first step in any codling moth control program, and it is even more important for those wishing to use primarily nonchemical management approaches. Every week or two, beginning about six to eight weeks after bloom, check fruit on trees for signs of damage. Remove and destroy any infested fruit showing the frass-filled holes. Removing infested fruit before the larvae are old enough to crawl out and begin the next generation can be a very effective method for reducing the population. Thinning out the infested fruit has the added benefit of encouraging the remaining fruit on the tree to grow larger. It also might improve spray coverage, if sprays are used.
It also is important to clean up dropped fruit as soon as possible after they fall, because dropped fruit can have larvae in them. Removing infested fruit from the tree and promptly picking up dropped fruit from the ground is most critical in May and June but should continue throughout the season.
Bagging fruit. Excellent control can be achieved by enclosing young fruit in bags right on the tree to protect them from the codling moth. This is the only nonchemical control method that is effective enough to be used alone and in higher population situations. However, it is quite time consuming to apply the bags, so this method is most manageable on smaller trees with fewer fruit. You can bag all the fruit on the tree or just as many fruit as you think you will need. Keep in mind that unbagged fruit are likely to serve as a host and increase the pest population, so it would be prudent to employ sanitation to keep the population in check.
Bagging should be done about four to six weeks after bloom when the fruit is from 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter. Prepare No. 2 paper bags (the standard lunch bag size that measures 7 1/4 inches by 4 inches) by cutting a 2-inch slit in the bottom fold of each bag. Thin the fruit to one per cluster. Slip the thinned fruit through the 2-inch slit so that it forms a seal around the stem and staple the open end shut.
It is difficult or impossible to bag certain varieties with very short stems such as Gravenstein. Also late-developing varieties might be attacked by codling moth even before they are 1/2 inch in diameter, so they might not be protected. Some gardeners have found success with cotton tie string bags; nylon bags, however, aren’t effective.
This technique won’t affect the maturity or quality of the fruit, but it will prevent full color development on red varieties. You’ll need to open some bags to check for ripeness as harvest time approaches. Some people open the bags up a week or two before harvest to allow color development, but the fruit still might be attacked if codling moth eggs are being laid. Other benefits to bagging include protection from sunburn and larger fruit as a result of diligent thinning.
Trapping. Hanging traps in each susceptible fruit or nut tree might help to reduce codling moth populations on isolated trees but isn’t a reliable way to reduce damage. If it works at all, this method likely will have the most effect where trees are isolated from other trees harboring codling moth (e.g., apple, pear, or English walnut) and when several traps are placed in a tree. Use in combination with sanitation and other control methods for the best effect and expect damaged fruit.
Codling moth pheromone traps are important for monitoring flight activity of moths to help time insecticide treatments. Traps are available from many commercial sources, such as hardware stores, garden centers, or online. These traps usually have a sticky cardboard bottom and are baited with a pheromone (sex attractant) lure. The lure mimics the scent of a female moth, attracting males to the trap. Traps should be put up in mid-March in the Central Valley and by the end of March in coastal areas. They should be hung as high as possible in the tree canopy. Check them every few days for moths. Only one trap is required if you are using them to monitor moth flights to time insecticide treatments. See the Insecticides section for more information.
Trunk banding. A traditional, nonchemical method for controlling codling moth is to trap mature larvae in a cardboard band as they climb the trunk seeking a place to pupate. Banding works best on smooth-barked varieties such as Red Delicious apple, which don’t provide good alternative pupation sites. Scaly-barked varieties such as Newtown Pippin and most types of pears have so many crevices on the trunk that many larva will pupate before they get to the banded area. However, even in the best situations, banding will control only a very small percentage of the codling moth, because many pupate elsewhere on the tree or in the ground. Additionally, if bands aren’t removed and destroyed in a timely fashion, they could increase the population, so banding no longer is recommended for control in home gardens.
Biological control. Although a few predators such as spiders or carabid beetles might feed on codling moth larvae or pupae, naturally occurring biological control isn’t effective. In commercial walnut and pear orchards, releases of the tiny wasp Trichogramma platneri have been used successfully to manage codling moth in combination with mating disruption or soft pesticides. This method hasn’t been successful in commercial apples and hasn’t been tested in backyards.
Tools: Degree-day calculator, Sunset temperatures, Degree-day table
Proper timing of insecticide sprays is critical if they are to be effective against codling moth; they should be applied before or just as eggs are hatching. Once the worm has gone into the fruit or nut, it is protected from pesticides.
Timing with degree-day calculations. The most effective way to time insecticide sprays is with a pheromone trap and a degree-day calculation. This is what commercial growers use. The trap lets them know when each generation or flight begins. The degree-day calculation lets them know just when egg hatch will occur and when the next generation should begin to fly. You can calculate degree-days with a maximum-minimum thermometer and a degree-day chart, or you can use the automated weather stations and degree-day calculator on the UC IPM Web site.
Timing by monitoring stings. Although timing sprays is best done with the use of degree-day calculations, home gardeners can also monitor fruit in their trees to detect the beginning of egg hatch. Starting three to four weeks after bloom, check fruit at least twice a week looking for the first “stings,” or tiny mounds of reddish-brown frass about 1/16 inch in diameter. If you scrape the frass away you will see the tiny entry hole where the newly hatched larvae has just entered the fruit. Be sure to examine the fruit where it touches another fruit, as this is a common place to find an entry hole. Spray the tree as soon as you see the first sting; however, first remove any fruit with stings from the tree, as the insecticide won’t kill any larva that already have entered the fruit. Expect to have more damage with this monitoring method than the degree-day method, since it can be difficult to find the very first sting.
Home orchards might be able to achieve an acceptable level of control by spraying the first spring generation and using nonchemical methods to maintain a low population for the rest of the season. However, if heavy infestations have occurred in previous years, if there are unmanaged host trees nearby, or if tolerance for damage is very low, the summer generation(s) also need to be treated.
In cooler coastal areas look for the first stings from the spring generation in early to mid-May, about a month after bloom. Look for new stings from the single summer generation beginning in mid-July to mid-August, about 10 to 13 weeks after the spring hatch begins. Coastal areas usually have just two generations per year.
In the warmer Central Valley area look for the spring generation stings in mid- to late April, about a month after bloom. Look for new stings from the first summer generation beginning in early to late June, about eight weeks after the spring hatch began. In the Sacramento and Northern San Joaquin valleys, a second and last summer generation will begin in early to mid-August. In the very hot southern San Joaquin Valley, look for the second summer generation stings to begin in mid-July and the third summer generation to begin in mid-August.
Codling moth granulosis virus. Recently a new biological insecticide, CYD-X, a granulosis virus that affects only larvae (caterpillars) of the codling moth, has become available to home gardeners in California. Codling moth larvae must ingest this virus for it to be effective. Once ingested, the virus infects the digestive tract of the caterpillar causing a disease that kills it within three to seven days. It doesn’t affect other insects, humans, pets, or wildlife and is OMRI listed as suitable for use in certified organic production. University of California trials have shown that this product, when applied weekly during egg hatch throughout the season, is as effective as carbaryl sprays at controlling codling moth in backyard trees. More applications are needed—carbaryl must be applied only every 14 to 21 days or one to two times per generation—but many environmentally conscious gardeners are willing to make this trade off. CYD-X also has the advantage of having no preharvest interval, so applications can be made up until the time of harvest and there are no limits on the number of times you can spray it.
Like other insecticides, granulosis virus should be applied as soon as the eggs of the first generation codling moth hatch. If you are using pheromone traps and degree day calculations as described above, this would be 200 to 250 degree-days after you begin regularly catching male moths. If you are just checking fruit, this would be when you see the first stings. Make applications weekly after that. You’ll need a good sprayer, and you must get good coverage of fruit. Adding 1% oil to the application can improve effectiveness. CYD-X is a new product that might be difficult to find in stores but can be ordered on the Internet.
Spinosad. Spinosad is a biological product made from a naturally occurring bacterium called Saccharopolyspora spinosa. It is a lower-toxicity material that is safe for most beneficial insects as well as for people, pets, and the environment although it is more toxic to beneficials than granulosis virus. Repeated applications each generation are necessary for acceptable control. The first spring generation requires three sprays applied at 10-day intervals beginning at egg hatch (i.e., 250 degree-days, or when the first stings are found). For any subsequent summer generations, two sprays should suffice with the first spray applied at the beginning of each new egg hatch and the second spray applied 10 to 14 days later. No more than six sprays should be applied per season, and they shouldn’t be applied within seven days of harvest. The addition of a 1% horticultural oil to the spray tank will further enhance the effectiveness of this material. Spinosad is available through retail outlets under various trade names including Monterey Garden Insect Spray or Green Light Spinosad Lawn & Garden Spray.
Carbaryl. One of the more effective materials against codling moth is the broad-spectrum insecticide carbaryl (Sevin). However, this material has significant drawbacks. It remains effective for 14 to 21 days, but it is very disruptive to natural enemies and honey bees. Applying more than one carbaryl spray per season might lead to an outbreak of pest mites. Also carbaryl has been associated with water quality problems. If your tree is heavily infested and more than one spray is needed, it might be prudent to alternate this material with granulosis virus or spinosad. Carbaryl never should be sprayed during bloom or when bees are present. It also shouldn’t be used on apples within one month of bloom, as it can cause the fruit to drop; use one of the other materials if a spray needs to be applied at this time. The homeowner shouldn’t apply carbaryl within three days of fruit harvest or 14 days before walnut harvest.
Carbaryl should be applied at 250 degree-days or as soon as you see the first sting in spring. A second application might be needed at 650 degree-days, or 21 to 28 days later, to cover the prolonged spring emergence. If later summer generations require treatment, a single carbaryl application should suffice for each subsequent generation, as the insect develops more quickly during the warm weather of summer. Refer to the online degree-day guidelines for timing these later sprays or visually monitor for each new generation using the timing guidelines above.
Other materials. Bacillus thuringiensis, pyrethrum, and pyrethrin/rotenone combinations are low toxicity materials that have been tested and haven’t been found to be effective at controlling codling moth. Horticultural oil has shown variable efficacy when used alone but can be mixed with granulosis virus or spinosad to improve performance. Mating disruption products that employ large quantities of pheromone to prevent mating or pheromone plus an insecticide to attract and kill male moths have proven effective for large commercial plantings but aren’t effective on small orchards of fewer than 5 acres. In fact, mating disruption can increase damage if used on small plantings or individual trees.
Ohlendorf, B. 1999. Integrated Pest Management for Apples & Pears, 2nd ed. Oakland: Univ. Calif. Agric. Nat. Res. Publ. 3340.
Pest Notes: Codling Moth
UC ANR Publication 7412
Authors: J. L. Caprile, UC Cooperative Extension, Contra Costa Co.; and P. M. Vossen, UC Cooperative Extension, Sonoma/Marin Co.
Produced by UC Statewide IPM Program, University of California, Davis, CA 95616
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Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California
All contents copyright © 2019 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
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How to protect your currants from diseases and pests
Almost all gardeners and landowners prefer currant cultivation. In the areas most often we meet black currant (Ribes nigrum), red (Ribes rubrum) and white currant (Ribes niveum), and yellow currant has recently become popular.
Currant diseases and their treatment
If you want your shrub to make you happy with berries from year to year, then you should know not only about the main intricacies of nursing, but also currants and pests of currants. The currant bush «signals» about its diseases: the leaves turn yellow, dry and fall, berries dry, the trunk begins to rot. And about the details of the treatment of currants, the most popular folk remedies for currants, we will discuss in this article. Almost all gardeners and landowners prefer currant cultivation. At the sites most often we meet black currant (Ribes nigrum), red (Ribes rubrum) and white currant (Ribes niveum), yellow currant is gaining popularity recently. If you want your shrub to make you happy with berries from year to year, then you should know not only about the main intricacies of nursing, but also currants and pests of currants. The currant bush «signals» about its diseases: the leaves turn yellow, dry and fall, berries dry, the trunk begins to rot. And about the details of the treatment of currants, the most popular folk remedies for currants, we will discuss in this article.
Anthracnose (fly sniper)
Probably every gardener noticed that in the middle of summer (most often in July), after heavy rains, red spots with a brown tinge began to appear on currant leaves. Over time, these spots «spread» over the entire leaf area. Usually this leads to the fact that the leaf at the edges begins to dry out and takes on the color of the spot itself, because the fly underneath strikes the leaf petioles.
Anthracnose is a fungal disease, and if it hits your shrub, then you will harvest a much smaller crop, and if you do not start treating currants, the plant will die in 4 years. This disease is insidious, because in winter the spores of the fly-behind «live» in the foliage that has fallen from the bush.
Important!The plant will not get sick if you clean up the fallen leaves for the winter and sprinkle dry soil on the ground under the bush.
American powdery mildew (sphere library)
The sphere library is a fungus that appears in the middle of summer on young leaves of the currant. It manifests itself in the form of a white, easily erasable plaque, which then develops into a white cobweb on a currant — over time it affects the old leaves, and even the harvest. There is another kind of powdery mildew — European powdery mildew, which has the same symptoms and methods of struggle. The fight against this disease is best done in early spring, until the bud breaks. The best method is to spray the bushes with a solution of ferrous sulfate (10 g per 30 liters of water).
This spraying should be carried out immediately after flowering, and then repeated 2-3 times with an interval of 10 days. Also a rather effective way of dealing with a sphere library is spraying humus infusion to a bush. for its preparation, it is necessary to pour well “steamed” humus with water in the ratio of 1 part of humus to 2 parts of water, leave for 2 days, strain and spray the plant with this solution. If the bush already has a startled escape, it must be destroyed.
Did you know? Red currant is much easier to “experience” the disease of the American powdery mildew than the black currant.
Warts of a reddish-brown color are glass rust. This disease affects all the «organs» of the bush: from the ovary to the trunk. If sedge grows near your site, this is the first and main cause of currant disease. This disease can lead to loss of crop and drying of currant branches. The fight against this disease is treating the bushes with phytosporin, if this does not help, you can use Bordeaux acid. Such preventive measures should be carried out 4 times with an interval of 10 days.
Reversion affects all types of currant, without exception, because the causative agent of this plant is hidden in the juices. It manifests itself mainly in the violet color: the petals become purple and narrow, the fruits are not tied. If your plant is already affected, then an image of branches or leaves will not help. Here we are talking only about the destruction of the entire bush. To prevent this disease, it is necessary to regularly add potassium, phosphorus to the soil, and you can also water the plant with manganese and boron solutions.
Important! Nitrogen fertilizers only contribute to the development of this disease.
Nektrievaya drying shoots and currant branches
This disease is one of the most «severe» for currants, which affects predominantly red and white currants and leads to the total drying of currant branches. The first sign is the appearance of reddish-brown tubercles at the base of the branches. For the prevention of this disease, it is necessary to follow the rules of agrotechnology, and if it has already fully developed on the bush, then the affected branches should be cut and burned, and the wounds should be smeared with garden pitch.
Striped (streaky) mosaic
The usual processing of currants from pests and diseases will not help for the prevention of viral disease — striped (streaky) mosaic. Usually this disease overtakes the bushes at the beginning of the summer. The main and only symptom: on the leaves, around the main veins there appears a pale yellow pattern, which with the development time becomes brighter. In this case, it is not necessary to talk about the treatment of currants, the only way out is to uproot the bush and burn it. But, preventive methods can be carried out: to process the bush from insects in a timely manner, and also to use healthy material for planting.
Gray rot — a fungal disease, due to which the leaves become dark brown in color, and white currant can even be affected by wood.
Did you know?Gray rot affects almost all berry plants.
If your bush is affected, it will lead to the «death» of the leaves, the deterioration of the quality of the berries and the imminent death of the whole plant. The main method of fighting the disease is to collect and destroy the affected areas, and you can also treat the plant with fungicides, but this can be done only before the formation of fruits. It is best to carry out processing during the flowering period.
Pillar rust appears in summer. Warm and too wet weather — this is the main causative agent of the disease, which massively affects currant bushes. To protect your bushes from this disease, you need to regularly rake the fallen leaves, process bushes with 1% Bordeaux liquid. It is best to carry out such processing in three stages: when blooming, when forming buds and after the color has fallen. It is also important to loosen the soil in time, but not deep (approximately 3-5 cm). But the main way is to choose the right place for planting: columnar rust develops on bushes near coniferous trees, so plant a bush better away from them.
Septoria (white spot) on currants
This disease is caused by a fungus that lives on fallen leaves. On young leaves, brown spots appear, with the development of which a white dot appears in the center of the speck, which grows and with time a white spot remains in the red frame. In areas of diseased bushes treated with nitrafenom, and if the damage is very strong, then you should apply a solution of copper sulfate. But in the fight against this disease, it is important not to treat currants, but when to do it, and it is better to do it in early spring before the formation of buds.
Important!A large number of weeds contributes to the development of diseases.
Shrinking shoots and currant branches
Everyone knows that the currant wood part is very elastic, but the symptom of this disease is the loss of elasticity of the bush and the appearance of cracks on the trunk and branches. In these cracks a fungus develops, the spores of which contribute to the spread of this disease. Ways to combat the drying out are very simple: compliance with the rules of agrotechnology and processing of sections with Bordeaux liquid (100 g per 10 l of water).
Currant disease prevention
The first and most important advice in combating diseases and pests of currants — compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering, namely the regular loosening of the soil and digging in the bushes. Many, of course, are proud of the lush currant garden, but you should not allow too thick planting, for this you need to regularly cut the branches of the bushes.
Currant Pests: How to Fight
Protecting currants from pests in the spring mainly consists of preventive measures. But if your garden is already affected by insects, then you should not immediately resort to chemical means, as they can harm your plant. For a start, you can try folk remedies, such as decoctions, infusions and spraying. We will talk further about their effectiveness and use nuances.
Two year old moth
The sheet worm strikes the buds and berries of the bush. The sheet worm looks like a caterpillar with a size of up to 22 mm. Again, the reason for their appearance can be unassembled fallen leaves, in which they hibernate. The caterpillar turns into a butterfly in mid-May from eggs that are laid on the buds and germ of the berries. Caterpillars eats buds from the inside. One such caterpillar can eat 30 buds a week. Butterflies fly out in 50 days. For reproduction, butterflies lay eggs on the already formed berries. You can fight a two-year-old moth by spraying the bushes with insecticides: Antio, Gardona, Zolon.
The females and the males of the scale are different: the female is wrinkled, pear-shaped, covered with a gray-brown skin. The male is of elongated form, with two grooves, one pair of wings, and antennae. The female lays purple-red eggs in the bark of the branches of a bush. Settling and revival of the larvae takes the entire period from currant budding to the end of the flowering period. Usually willow shchitovka occupies bushes that are not cared for. The method of dealing with this pest is the only one: cutting of damaged bushes and their destruction. For prevention, you can process bordeaux acid bushes in early spring, at a temperature not higher than 4 degrees.
Gooseberry firing pin
The gooseberry fire is a butterfly, whose wings reach 3 cm in scope, whereas the body itself grows only up to 2 cm in length. The caterpillar is light green in color, and the butterfly has wings with a brown stripe and dark brown spots. The eggs laid by the female overwinter in the upper layers of the soil, in cocoons of cobwebs. When butterflies appear (mid-April), they lay their eggs in the color of the bush and in the buds. The fight against ogniyevka on currants consists in the timely cleaning of cobwebs from the bushes, and after flowering it is advisable to spray the bush with insecticide. Effectively in the fight against ognevku hilling soil mulch (layer about 8 cm).
Did you know?After flowering, the bush should be opened to air and improve the quality of the berries.
The larvae of this parasite are dirty green and usually hibernate in cocoons of cobwebs in the soil at a depth of 12-15 cm. One female can lay up to 150 eggs per week. These insects develop very quickly, and over the summer, two or even three generations can live on your site.
The methods of fighting against sawfly are almost indistinguishable from fighting against other pests, the only difference is that spraying should be carried out in two stages: against the first generation — from the moment of bud formation and before budding, and the second stage — immediately after flowering. If, after you have harvested the crop, the insects reappear, then insecticide spraying can be carried out again. The easiest way to deal with the sawfly is to shake off the larvae manually.
Gooseberry Shoot Aphid
Aphids live in colonies: the larvae winter in the bark of a young shoot, and in the spring the female «spreads» her young throughout the bush. The invasion of the aphid colony causes the young leaves to dry out and, as a result, die off. To combat the pest, you can use a solution of soap: 300 g per 10 liters of water. For the destruction of insects are also effective funds from anthracnose. Insecticides are effective, but they cannot be sprayed with fruits.
Loaf moths moths eat leaves: first they gnaw out small holes, then, together with them, “wrap” in a cocoon and fall to the ground for wintering. The moth female lays its eggs in the summer on the inside of the leaf. The females are quite large — their wingspan can be 5 cm. Methods for fighting the peppered moth are the same as for other pests: spraying with insecticides, shaking the larvae by hand, loosening the ground.
Sheet gall aphid
This insect has another name — the «red-haly» aphid. They usually overwinter on the bark of shoots, near the buds. In the summer, when the growth of fresh shoots slows down, they move to plants growing nearby, and by the autumn they move to a bush. Females appear in summer and spread their descendants. Usually they live on the inside of the leaf, eating it. Yellow-red swellings — galls appear on the damaged leaf. Soap solution, insecticides (treatment in early spring), entomophages are effective means to combat these insects.
Did you know?Entomophagous — microorganisms that parasitize insects.
This small sucking insect infects the leaves of the bush, making them «marble», after which they dry and fall. These larvae live on the inner side of the leaf, and winter is spent under fallen leaves. By damaging the leaf, mites dramatically reduce the yield and quality of the fruit. Most often the spider mite appears on the weeds, and then «moves» to the bush. It is necessary to fight ticks before the female lays eggs: spraying any of the acaricides will be an effective method.
Important! Requiredalternate drugs, as ticks develop immunity, and the effect over time will not be.
A good folk method is to water the currant bushes with hot water with the addition of potassium permanganate (the water should be pale pink).
This pest winters in the backward currant bark. You can distinguish the young mole — it is red, and the old one is olive-green. The bud moth feeds on buds and berries, and also damages the shoots in winter. Eggs are laid in green berries, from where seeds are eaten away, preventing the berry from reaching. The methods of struggle are as follows: cutting of damaged bushes and shoots in the autumn, treatment with Malophos (10%) no more than two times per season. It is also very important to monitor the planting density and, if necessary, clean the landing site.
Currant gall midges
There are three types of gall midges that can attack your currants: shoots, flowers and leaves. The principle of action is very similar, although they appear at different times: shoots — during the flowering period of currants, leaf — at the beginning of flowering, and flowers — during the formation of buds. They also lay eggs in different ways: leaf — on young leaves, not allowing them to dissolve; flower — in buds, which eventually turn yellow or redden and do not fall down without blossoming; shoots — on the bottom of the shoots, which are already covered with a wood coating. To combat gall midges, you need to cut out damaged shoots and bushes and spray insecticides during the formation of buds.
Currant Zlatka — It is a greenish-copper beetle, small in size. Overwinter usually in shoots. The larvae hatch in late May — early June. Larvae pave «tunnels» in the middle of the shoot. The branches that have damaged the goldfish dry and die, and the growth on the remaining ones is very small. They fight golds with the destruction of damaged shoots and their burning. In early spring, you can spray the bushes Parisian greens (15 g per 10 liters of water, and for the best effect, you can add another 30 g of lime).
Currant Kidney Mite
Currant Kidney Mite — the most dangerous insect pest for currants, because it affects the kidneys, feeds on them and, worst of all, winters in them. During the season, several generations of mites may appear in the garden; for the rest of the plants they are usually carried by wind. The best method of dealing with a kidney tick is timely cutting of damaged bushes and uprooting completely infected bushes. To prevent ticks, you can also plant onions or garlic between the bushes — ticks do not like harsh odors. It is important to use healthy material for planting, for complete certainty you can keep the seedlings in hot water for 15-20 minutes.
Currant glass bowl
Female glasslayers lay eggs in the damaged bark of the branches and trunk. Гусеницы, которые вылупляются, могут прокладывать туннели до 40 см. Гусеницы проводят два сезона в коре, постепенно «пробираясь» к выходу.The glasshouse itself appears after flowering. The butterfly is scaly, lilac-black in color with transverse stripes on the belly. Fighting with a glass bowl on currants is a complex process. It consists primarily in the timely pruning of the bushes, spraying with insecticides, regular inspection of the bush and lubrication of the sections with a disinfectant.
Preventive Pest Control
Prevention of pests should begin before winter: spraying shrubs in the fall, cleaning fallen leaves — all this will help you protect your bushes from diseases and pests currants. A very important factor in prevention is the correct selection of chemicals: it is important that they do not have nitrogen in their composition. In addition, it is necessary to loosen and dig up the ground in time, which will destroy the pests that live in the upper layers of the soil. Of course, every gardener dreams of a lush garden with a lot of berry bushes, but do not forget that too thick planting will only harm your plants. The life span of your berry bushes depends only on how you take care of them, because everything grows and develops , if you put your love in it.