Chicory: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning

CHICORY

Achicoria, Barbe de Capucin, Blue Sailors, Cheveux de Paysans, ChicorГ©e, ChicorГ©e Amère, ChicorГ©e Sauvage, Cichorii Herba, Cichorium intybus, Cichorii Radix, Common Chicory Root, Г‰coubette, Hendibeh, Herbe Г CafГ©, Hinduba, Kasani, Kasni, Racine de ChicorГ©e Commune, Succory, Wild Chicory, Wild Endive, Yeux de Chat.

Overview Information

Chicory is a plant. Its roots and dried, above-ground parts are used to make medicine.

Chicory is used for high blood pressure, heart failure, loss of appetite, upset stomach, constipation, liver and gallbladder disorders, cancer, and rapid heartbeat.

Some people apply a paste of chicory leaves directly to the skin for swelling and inflammation.

In foods, chicory leaves are often eaten like celery, and the roots and leaf buds are boiled and eaten. Chicory is also used as a cooking spice and to flavor foods and beverages. Coffee mixes often include ground chicory to enhance the richness of the coffee.

How does it work?

Chicory root has a mild laxative effect, increases bile from the gallbladder, and decreases swelling. Chicory is a rich source of beta-carotene.

Uses & Effectiveness ?

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Osteoarthritis. Early research shows that chicory root extract does not improve pain and stiffness better than a “sugar” (placebo) pill in people with osteoarthritis.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Heart failure.
  • Constipation.
  • Liver disorders.
  • Gallbladder disorders.
  • Cancer.
  • Skininflammation.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Upset stomach.
  • Other conditions.

More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of chicory for these uses.

Side Effects & Safety

Chicory is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when consumed in amounts found in food.

Chicory is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts. Taking chicory by mouth might cause minor GI side effects including gas, bloating, abdominal pain, and belching.

Not enough is known about the safety of using chicory for its other uses. Some reports show that handling the chicory plant might cause skin irritation. Inhaling powder from dried chicory roots might cause asthma.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking chicory by mouth in large amounts is POSSIBLY UNSAFE during pregnancy. Chicory might start menstruation and cause a miscarriage.

Not enough is known about the safety of using chicory during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Chicory allergy: If you are allergic to chicory, don’t take it by mouth or handle it.

Allergy to ragweed and related plants: Chicory may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae family. Members of this family include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and many others. If you have allergies, be sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking chicory.

Diabetes: Chicory may lower blood sugar in people with diabetes. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use chicory in amounts larger than the amounts normally found in food.

Gallstones: Chicory can stimulate the production of bile. This could be a problem for people with gallstones. Don’t use chicory without medical supervision if you have gallstones.

Surgery: Chicory might lower blood sugar and might interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking chicory as a medicine at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Interactions ?

We currently have no information for CHICORY Interactions.

Dosing

The appropriate dose of chicory for use as treatment depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for chicory. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

www.webmd.com

Bipinamite 10 Ampules (2 packs)

Bipinamite Application:

  • The Drug is used to combat varroa (varooz) bees.
  • One ampoule contains 1ml of solution.

Composition

  • The preparation contains amitraz (12.5%) as an active substance.
  • Transparent liquid without color or with a yellowish tinge with a specific smell.

Pharmacological Properties

  • Bipinamite has a systemic and contact acaricidal action against ticks of the genus Varroa. Bipinamite refers to compounds with moderate toxicity for warm-blooded animals (III hazard class).
  • The drug does not have a negative impact on the livelihoods of bee colonies and in the recommended concentrations does not affect their general condition, development and performance.

Application

  • The tool is used to combat varroa (varooz) bees.

Contraindications

Dosage

  • The drug is used in the form of an aqueous emulsion. A working emulsion is prepared by thoroughly mixing 1 ml of the preparation with 2 liters of clean drinking water.
  • The solution prepared in this way is used during the working day. Bee colonies are treated in the fall with a minimum amount of brood and during the formation of a bee club at an outdoor temperature not lower than 0 ° C.
  • Processing of bee colonies is carried out by small-drop irrigation of the drug emulsion on bees in the interframe space. The consumption rate of the working solution is 10 ml per one street of bees.
  • Recommended 2-fold application: the first treatment immediately after the end of the honey collection and pumping honey; the second — before setting up families for wintering (with the visible presence of varroa mites on adult bees).

Cautions

  • Before mass treatment of the apiary, the drug must first be checked for safety for bees and therapeutic efficacy in 1-2 families, on 1-2 streets, followed by 24-hour monitoring of their condition.
  • An overdose of the drug is dangerous for bees.
  • Do not handle families with a force of less than 4-5 streets. Honey collected by the treated families is used for food on a common basis.

Storage

  • Dry, cool, dark place at a temperature of from 0°C to 30°C.
  • Expiration date — 3 years from the date of production.

www.beebox2u.com

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

American Foulbrood — Prevention and Management

Introduction

American foulbrood (AFB) is the most serious and damaging brood disease of honey bees. This disease is caused by a spore forming bacteria, Paenibacillus larvae specific to honey bees (figure 1). It is highly contagious and will weaken and in most cases kill a honey bee colony. AFB also contaminates beekeeping equipment whereby the destruction of the equipment is required to prevent the spread of AFB to additional colonies. There is no cure for AFB. Beekeepers can only take steps to prevent an infection from establishing itself in a beekeeping operation.

Figure 1. Wax comb from the brood nest with dried AFB larvae.

Note: In the past AFB was known by the species name Bacillus larvae.

Management of AFB

Prevention of a widespread AFB outbreak in an operation is the best strategy. Finding an AFB infection as early as possible, and taking immediate action, is critical to prevent its spread within an operation.

Familiarize yourself with the symptoms of AFB (figure 2) and other pathogens of honey bees. Monitor the health of your colonies. Inspect the brood nest at least twice a year, in the spring and fall, and before treatment with drugs (oxytetracycline) which can mask some symptoms of the disease (figure 3).

Figure 2. Larvae infected with AFB may have a mucus-like consistency. (Ropey test)

Figure 3. Inspecting brood comb for symptoms of AFB.

Incorporate biosecurity practices into your beekeeping management. This includes regular sterilization of beekeeping equipment when moving between beeyards and taking precautions around equipment which has the greatest risk of contact with wax and honey that may harbour AFB spores.

Hive tools. Hive tools should be scraped free of wax and propolis and points of tools that have come in contact with honey bee colonies should be heated at high temperatures. Heating can be done with a propane torch or hive tools may be placed in a smoker where the beekeeper vigorously works the bellows. This should be done at a minimum between beeyard visits. If a colony shows symptoms of AFB the hive tools should be heat sterilized before being used on another colony. (figures 4 and 5)

Figure 4. AFB can easily infect beekeeping equipment.

Figure 5. Sterilization of hive tools is important.

Gloves. Leather gloves may become covered with wax and propolis. This material can be very difficult to fully remove from gloves. Scrub the outside of the gloves with soapy water containing household bleach (250 millilitres per five litres of water). Soap will not destroy spores on the gloves, but it helps remove materials such as wax, which can harbour spores. If beekeepers choose to wear gloves they can also use disposable gloves or gloves that can be easily cleaned (dishwashing gloves).

Washing hands. Although washing hands with soap and water will not kill the AFB spores, most of the spores will be removed from the beekeepers hands with vigorous handwashing.

Smoker. The main area of concern is the top part of the bellows where the smoker is held and worked. If the face of the bellows is wooden, the beekeeper can sterilize it by briefly scorching with a torch. If the face of the bellows is made of plastic (or wood), the beekeeper can wrap this area in duct tape. As the bellows are used, the duct tape can be peeled off to reveal a clean surface. Both wooden and plastic bellows can be scrubbed with soapy water to remove spores.

Beekeeping brush. A beekeeping brush may transfer limited numbers of spores from one frame to another. If possible, remove bees from a frame through shaking or if required use some long grass from the beeyard to gently brush bees aside. The grass is disposable and free.

Beekeeping suit and veil. These items have limited to negligible potential to transmit spores between colonies. As a standard practice beekeeping suits should be washed on a regular basis.

Maintaining records of the management and status of your colonies can be an effective tool to retrace infections.

Although there is no cure for AFB, beekeepers should consider using prophylactic antibiotics (oxytetracycline). Make sure the label specifies that the drug may be used with honey bees, follow all label instructions and do not use antibiotics during a honey flow. Oxytetracycline is the only registered antibiotic for use with honey bees in Ontario. Other antibiotics are illegal and may not be safe to use. It is very important to note that antibiotics are not a cure or treatment for AFB infections. Antibiotics may only inhibit the infection taking place since they affect the vegetative stage of AFB and inhibit the development of AFB in the gut of the larvae. This may prevent AFB from rapidly multiplying within a colony. Antibiotics have no impact on AFB spores. Therefore, once a colony is infected with high levels of spores it is too late. Beekeepers not using antibiotics should take extra precautions to monitor colony health.

Although antibiotics can be effective at preventing infections from establishing they can also suppress the visible symptoms of AFB, thereby masking an infection. It is important to inspect colonies before treatment. Beekeepers should also be aware that AFB infections can still take place even when antibiotics have been used.

Swarms may be contaminated with AFB spores. Beekeepers should place new swarms into a hive with a new foundation, treat prophylacticaly with antibiotics and maintain this colony in a separate beeyard until the colony’s health is certain and a full round of drugs have been administered. Be aware that AFB is one of many pests and diseases that may be present in a swarm. It is important to inspect swarms for other pests and diseases, particularly before introducing the swarm colony to an established beeyard.

Beekeepers should be mindful not to encourage robbing behaviour in beeyards. This includes: not working a colony during a nectar dearth, ensuring a colony has sufficient feed during a dearth, removing discarded wax comb and honey from the bee yard, and ensuring that all colonies are healthy and populous and colony entrances are reduced during a major nectar dearth.

Dead bee colonies («deadouts») and exposed wax comb should not be left in situations where bees can rob this material. Deadouts are often a source of AFB. Material from a dead colony should be taken to a storage location that is secure and «bee tight». When a honey bee colony dies, inspect the brood comb for scale and ensure the cause of death is not AFB.

Being aware of the beekeeping activity in the area where you manage your colonies is important. One of the best ways of doing this is by joining a local beekeeping association and keeping in contact with local beekeepers. If you use equipment from another beekeeper, such as a honey extractor, ensure that you are familiar with their beekeeping practices and disease status.

If you find any sign of AFB in your own beekeeping operation contact your local apiary inspector immediately. It is a requirement in the Ontario Bees Act that beekeepers report this disease and follow any Orders issued by the Apiculture Program. Apiary inspectors can answer questions and make a field diagnosis. If you are confident that it is AFB, promptly destroy the infected colony.

Early detection and destruction are important. It is better to destroy one or a few colonies rather than have AFB spread so that large numbers of colonies must be destroyed. One beekeeper’s disease status can impact someone else’s livelihood. The Bees Act also requires a beekeeper selling honey bees or used beekeeping equipment to have a permit demonstrating the material has been inspected and determined healthy through the process of third party validation.

Whenever a beekeeper intends to make a sale the beekeeper must either hold a signed Queen and Nuc Permit issued from the provincial apiarist or a Selling Permit issued from an apiary inspector. The selling beekeeper simply contacts the local apiary inspector or the Apiculture Program to schedule an inspection. There is no charge for an inspection or permit. To sell without a valid permit is a provincial offence.

Even the most diligent beekeeper can contract AFB. This is particularly true in areas of Ontario where there are beekeeping operations in close proximity to each other. Honey bee colonies are exposed to diseases at other colonies within a 3 to 8 km radius. Therefore it is important that newly affected beekeepers take immediate steps to eliminate AFB where it is found in the beekeeping outfit and restrict movement of potentially infected material.

If AFB is found

  1. Inform the Provincial Apiarist of a local bee inspector immediately of any sign or suspicion of AFB.
  2. Colonies found with AFB will be ordered to be destroyed — do not try to salvage an infected colony and infected comb. This behaviour will prolong the infection and will likely result in more colonies becoming infected. Early destruction and intervention is critical. All infected honey bees must be killed and all wax comb and accompanying frames in the colony, including all brood frames, foundation and honey frames and bottom boards, must be destroyed by fire. Only certain wooden ware may be salvaged if thoroughly sterilized by scorching. This includes wooden supers, inner covers, telescoping lids and queen excluders. See AFB Destruction protocol.
  3. Other honey bee colonies in the infected yard may be ordered to be treated with preventative antibiotics. This will depend on the season and conditions in the field.
  4. A beeyard with AFB will have an AFB Quarantine Order issued for a period of two years. During the quarantine, no colonies or beekeeping equipment may leave the site. This reduces the risk of spreading AFB to other beekeepers and/or other beeyards within the same operation. Honey supers from colonies that are not ordered to be destroyed may leave the site but should be returned to the same beeyard where they originated and should be harvested separately from other non-infected and quarantined yards.
  5. After two years the quarantine is lifted and the beeyard may undergo another inspection by apiary inspectors to validate the disease status.

Sterilization of contaminated equipment

Beekeepers also have the option of sterilizing contaminated equipment that is free of honey bees by irradiation. This option allows beekeepers to salvage wax comb that is infected with AFB spores. Consult with the Apiculture Program for available resources and contacts.

Sterilization method:

  1. All honey should be extracted prior to equipment irradiation. Use a specially designed small extractor for this purpose. This is different than a regular honey operation extractor.
  2. Containers used for extracting honey should be labelled «honey contains AFB».
  3. Frames with AFB, frames with no honey, boxes, inner covers and hive lids are acceptable for irradiation. Also send smokers, coveralls and gloves to irradiation.
  4. The beekeeper shall retain a copy of the irradiation certificate and the irradiation certificate shall be made available to the bee inspector upon request.
  5. All irradiated equipment must be clearly marked as irradiated before being put back into use.

Note: This is the only method of sterilizing wax comb.

Other equipment

Honey extractors, equipment used with processing honey and vehicles used to transport honey supers may have limited to low potential for spreading AFB. All surfaces should be thoroughly cleaned and rinsed with clean, potable water.

Proper use of antibiotics

In other jurisdictions, strains of AFB resistant to registered antibiotics (oxytetracycline) have developed. This means that these preventative measures are no longer effective. It is important that beekeepers prevent or delay the development of resistance in AFB.

  • Beekeepers should never use «extender patties» to administer antibiotics to honey bee colonies. «Extender patties» are mixtures of vegetable oil, sugar and antibiotics. Due to the antibiotics being present in colonies for long periods of time, this method risks contaminating honey, and developing antibiotic resistance in AFB. This is off label use of a drug and not permitted. Oxytetracycline should not be mixed in sugar feed. Oxytetracycline is to be mixed with powdered sugar. Follow the label instructions and consult with treatment recommendations for the correct dosage and timing of applications.
  • Beekeepers must also ensure they follow all protocol if importing bee stock, honey bees or used equipment into Ontario. An import permit is required. This is based on an inspection of the material from the other jurisdiction to ensure the material is disease free.

Resistant bee stock

Although researchers have identified strains of honey bees that exhibit some tolerance to AFB through genetically inherited traits, these traits are not sufficient to manage an AFB outbreak and do not offer any protection to honey bee colonies (and equipment) without the «resistant stock». As well, all the infected equipment may remain highly contaminated with a large number of AFB spores. «Resistant stock» is not a recognized or accepted practice in Ontario for control of AFB.

www.omafra.gov.on.ca

Processing bees bipinom

Apiary » Bees » Processing bees bipinom

by admin · Published 12.06.2017 · Updated 05.10.2017

Treatment of tick bipinom

Treatment of bee mite bipinom spring, autumn.

Processing bees bipinom – one way treatment varoatozu, contagious disease invaziynnoho, caused by ticks.

Beekeepers well known, mites that are present in small quantities in all apiaries permanently and completely get rid of them is very difficult, if not impossible.

With a minimum percentage of viable enough zaklischennosti bdzholosim’yi, properly develop and maintain the proper level of their performance.

When the mass of the parasite as it radically changes.

Such as varroatoz disease can quickly weaken colonies and even lead to their death.

Therefore, measures to prevent outbreaks of the disease and spread it to the apiary beekeeper should be conducted regularly.

The most effective treatment is considered himpreparatamy, one of which is bipin.

On drug

Bipin – This system acaricide contact action.

Active ingredient of this drug is amitraz – one of the most powerful and effective substances, designed to combat mites.

Product bipinu Bee – glass vials, packed in a cardboard box 10 pcs. The volume of one ampoule – 0,5 ml.

Outside bipin looks like colorless or slightly yellowish transparent liquid and has a specific unpleasant and pungent smell.

This means relates to compounds of the third class of danger (conditionally toxic) and subject to the conditions of preparation and use is safe.

In the doses recommended in the instructions bipin no negative impact on the general state of bee colonies, level of performance and individual development of each individual insects, included in their composition.

Keep the medication should dry, well protected against the penetration of sun light, at positive temperatures, range which can reach 30 ° C.

Bipin retains its properties over 3 years from date of manufacture.

When the processing

Treat bees need only bipinom, When the family is no brood. Restrictions apply and the period medosbora.

Bipin against varroatozu

According to the instructions, bipinom treatment available only at positive temperatures.

It turns out, that is only two periods during the year when you need to handle bees bipinom – Spring and autumn.

In the spring this time falls at the time of clearing the flight of bees and lasts until the beginning of the first medosbora.

The drug overwintered mites destroy the old bees, allowing new stay healthy and strong, energetic and hardworking.

But in practice, often handling bees from mites spend the fall bipinom.

If the hive after plidnooho season there is a high degree zaklischennosti, begin the process of destruction of the parasites in the hive bee can immediately after the last pumping honey.

Home drug treatment is performed at a stable temperature drops, when insects begin to form a club and prepare for hibernation.

These days, the bees will not fly for tricks, gathered together in the hive, which will guarantee higher quality disinfection.

Disinfected bee family after being treated more comfortably survive the winter and spring to get large and strong will.

How to cook bipin

Bipin, in the form, in which he produced sale, is a concentrate for processing must be dissolved in water in certain proportions according to the instructions.

Sequence prepare the working solution is as follows:

  • One vial bipinu for breeding in one liter of clean water;
  • water should be pre-heated to 40 WITH;
  • one street must 10 ml;
  • necessary amount of drug is calculated based on the cultivated area and the number of hives;
  • now need to take a container of appropriate size and dissolve it in preparation;
  • bipinu aqueous solution becomes white.

The resulting working fluid necessary to use within days after preparation.

After this period of its use should be abandoned and a new cook, if there is a need.

The main container of solution kept firmly closed, because the drug is quite volatile and can quickly evaporate.

When preparing the medicine should increase given in the instruction of the drug, as even slight excess of recommended doses entail the loss of not only tick, but also many bees.

How to handle bees

disinfection process bees from varoatozu – it is responsible. To process was efficient need to know how to handle hives bipinom. In fact it is a snap.

First you need to determine the capacity, through which the drug can be delivered directly to the bees.

To handle can be used:

  1. plastic bottles, a cover which is inserted a small tube, ending with a drip needle. A large amount of vessels will use the solution, allowing disinfected several bee houses. At the same time the application of this container will be difficult to meet the exact dosage, in fact processing is performed on the eye.
  2. Syringe. In this case, the situation is exactly the opposite. The advantage is, that a drug can be more accurately reconcile the amount of drug, Irrigation is required for certain areas. The dosage is very accurate.

Less well this choice is, which often have to recruit new solution, same processing will take longer and be more troublesome.

Now directly on how to treat bee. Procedure for processing can be described as:

  1. you must first remove the lid from the hive, you want to disinfect;
  2. clean pillow-heater (if the processing carried out in early spring), then holstyk of frames;
  3. Take a container of liquid and quickly pour the contents on street;
  4. repeat this step until all will be treated beehive;
  5. holstyk back in place, put a pillow-heater (if the procedure is carried out in autumn) and close the hive;
  6. after some time will only remove dead mites, which would be at the bottom of the hive.

Processing bipinom bees – reliable and long-tested method of dealing with varroatozom.

It is equally effective for small and large apiaries.

This drug, which will save bees from parasites, reduce the likelihood of disease outbreaks and help keep productivity and viability of each individual bee.

bee.net.ua

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