Black Currant: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning
- 1 BLACK CURRANT
- 2 Overview Information
- 3 Uses & Effectiveness ?
- 4 Side Effects & Safety
- 5 Interactions ?
- 6 Dosing
- 7 Understanding Chlamydia — the Basics
- 8 What Is Chlamydia?
- 9 What Causes Chlamydia?
- 10 What to do with red spots on currant leaves?
- 11 Description and photo damage
- 12 Causes of
- 13 Fight and treatment
- 14 Prevention
- 15 Parkinson’s Disease: Causes, Symptoms, And Prevention
- 16 Causes of Parkinson’s Disease:
- 17 Signs and Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease:
- 18 Risk Factors for Parkinson’s Disease:
- 19 Complications of Parkinson’s Disease:
- 20 Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease:
- 21 Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease:
- 22 Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease:
- 23 News on Parkinson’s Disease:
Black Currant Seed Oil, Cassis, European Black Currant, Groseille Noir, Grosella Negra, Kurokarin, Nabar, Paper, Ribes Nigri Folium (Black Currant Leaf), Ribes Nero, Ribes nigrum.
Black currant is a plant. People use the seed oil, leaves, fruit, and flowers to make medicine.
Black currant seed oil is used for lowering high cholesterol. It is also used for high blood pressure, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Black currant berries, black currant juice, and black currant extracts are used for glaucoma. These are also used for Alzheimer disease, the common cold, the flu, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Black currant dried leaf is used orally for arthritis, gout, diarrhea, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.
Some people apply black currant leaf to the skin for wounds and insect bites.
In foods, black currant berry is used to flavor liqueurs and other products such as jams and ice cream. People also eat black currant berry.
How does it work?
Black currant seed oil contains a chemical called gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Some research suggests that GLA might improve the immune system, making it more able to fight off disease. GLA might also help decrease swelling. Black currant also contains chemicals called anthocyanins, which have antioxidant effects. There is interest in these chemicals to prevent skin aging and wrinkles.
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Possibly Effective for
- A group of eye disorders that can lead to vision loss (glaucoma). Early research shows that black currant might lower eye pressure in people with open-angle glaucoma who are already taking medicine for glaucoma. It seems to work best in people with glaucoma who are using only one other glaucoma medication. In these people, black currant might lower eye pressure by about 1.5 mmHg. But black currant doesn’t seem to lower eye pressure in people with glaucoma who are already taking more than one glaucoma medication.
- High levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia). Some research suggests that taking black currant seed oil can reduce total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or «bad») cholesterol, and blood fats called triglycerides. It also seems to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL or «good») cholesterol.
Insufficient Evidence for
- High blood pressure. Early research shows that taking black currant seed oil by mouth does not reduce blood pressure in adults with borderline high blood pressure. But it appears to reduce stress-related increases in blood pressure in adults with borderline high blood pressure.
- Allergy to Japanese cedar pollen. Early research shows that taking black currant by mouth does not improve allergy symptoms in people with Japanese cedar pollinosis.
- Muscle fatigue. Early research shows that taking black currant by mouth reduces muscle fatigue or stiffness after doing repetitive tasks.
- Narrowing of blood vessels that causes poor blood flow to the limbs (peripheral arterial disease). Early research shows that drinking a mixture of black currant juice and orange juice reduces markers of swelling in people with peripheral arterial disease.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Early research shows that taking black currant seed oil by mouth reduces joint tenderness in people with rheumatoid arthritis.
- Poor circulation that can lead to varicose veins and other conditions (venous insufficiency). Early research shows that taking black currant by mouth reduces pain and swelling in women with circulatory problems associated with taking birth control.
- Alzheimer disease.
- Bladder stones.
- Breast pain (mastodynia).
- Convulsions (seizures).
- Fluid build-up (edema).
- Insect bites.
- Liver problems.
- Lung infections.
- Menopause symptoms.
- Painful menstrual periods (dysmenorrhea).
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
- Whooping cough.
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate black currant for these uses.
Side Effects & Safety
Special Precautions & Warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking black currant if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Bleeding disorders: Black currant might slow blood clotting. There is some concern that it might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.
Low blood pressure: Black currant can lower blood pressure. In theory, taking black currant might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.
Surgery: Black currant might slow blood clotting. There is concern that it might increase the risk of extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking black currant at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
We currently have no information for BLACK CURRANT Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For glaucoma: 50 mg of black currant anthocyanins has been taken daily for up to 24 months.
- For high levels of cholesterol or other fats (lipids) in the blood (hyperlipidemia): Up to 3.6 grams of black currant seed oil has been taken daily for up to 6 weeks.
Understanding Chlamydia — the Basics
In this Article
In this Article
In this Article
What Is Chlamydia?
Chlamydia, which strikes over 4 million Americans a year, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. Scientists believe it’s twice as common as gonorrhea and 30 times as common as syphilis.
The good news is that chlamydia is easily cured by antibiotics. The bad news is that most people who get chlamydia don’t have symptoms or know that they have it. Only 10% of men and 5%-30% of women who have a lab test that confirms the disease even develop symptoms. About 30% of these women develop serious complications such as damage to the fallopian tubes (the tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus). This damage isВ caused by pelvic inflammatory diseaseВ and may result in infertility. Damage to the fallopian tubes can also increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy (when the fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus). Untreated chlamydia in pregnancy may result in premature birth.
The infection can be passed on to an unborn child and cause serious complications. Babies born to infected mothers may suffer from pneumonia or conjunctivitis, an inflammation of membranes in the eye that may lead to blindness. Pregnant women are screened because it is so common to be without symptoms, and the consequences for the fetus/infant can be serious.
Men with chlamydia may or may not have symptoms. If they do, their most common symptoms are pain with urination and a mucousy or watery discharge. They may develop epididymitis or orchitis, an inflammation of the testicles that can cause infertility. Men can develop a chlamydia urethritis (and infection of the tube that drains urine from the bladder) and symptoms of discharge from their penis or burning when urinating.
What Causes Chlamydia?
Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The disease is spread by oral, vaginal, or anal sex.
What to do with red spots on currant leaves?
Every gardener wants to have a rich and healthy harvest of fruits and berries every year. However, on the path to achieving the cherished desire can arise diseases or pests. Sometimes you have to notice how various spots appear on the leaves of a plant. So, there are frequent cases of the formation of red spots on the leaves of red currants — what it is and how to treat this disease, let’s understand together.
- Description and photo damage
- Causes of
- Gallic aphid
- Fight and treatment
- How to deal with aphids
- Spraying against redness
Description and photo damage
As a rule, spots appear in the summer. They can be dark red, burgundy, brown. At first they are small and may increase in size over time. Sometimes they resemble bloating. They can appear on both red and white currants, less often on black. Such a phenomenon is not the only trouble accompanying the plant and its owners. As a rule, he is accompanied by a change in the taste of the berries — for a more sour and chopping fruit. If you do not pay attention to the problem in time and do not begin to deal with it, it will spread to a wider area — entire branches can grow and dry up, and soon the whole bush.
There are two reasons for the appearance of red spots on currant leaves:
- anthracnose fungal disease;
- pest called gallic aphid.
Anthracnose is raised by the mushroom Colletotrichum orbiculare. Its spores are spread by sediment, insects and wind. Favorable factors for the spread of the disease are warm, wet weather, high acidity levels in the soil, and potassium and phosphorus deficiency in the plant.
The first symptom of the disease is the appearance of small dark red spots all over the leaf. As the disease progresses, the spots increase, they become more and more, and they merge into one huge spot.The leaf curls and dries. With a strong infection spots can also be observed on the shoots. Later, cracks appear on them, they become brittle, and the plant eventually dies. Sometimes the fungus can even affect the fruit.
The manifestation of the disease occurs in the summer, starting in June. It reaches its peak in the second half of summer.
With what this red currant disease looks like, you had the opportunity to look at the photo, and how to carry out its treatment, consider below.
Gallic or red-headed aphid is a sucking insect of miniature size — 2.2-2.5 mm in length. May have a different color — from yellow to brown. Like all other types of aphids, lives on the bottom of the leaf plate. Autumn lays eggs for wintering in the cracks of currant bark. Winged females fly out in the first weeks of summer. For the season they take up to eight generations. In July, aphid goes from currants to weeds, and by the autumn it returns to berry shrubs for egg-laying.
Symptoms of plant infection are galls — formations in the form of blisters on the upper part of the leaf plate. Since the aphids drink juice from the bushes with useful substances, in order to heal the wounds, special tissues begin to form in the plant.Therefore, growths are formed in the injury site.
The most serious damage to aphids inflicts young shrubs. Favorable conditions for its active life are warm winters and hot summers without precipitations.
Fight and treatment
As in the case of the appearance of most other diseases or parasites in plants, anthracnose and aphids can be fought with preventive measures, sparing folk remedies (decoctions and infusions of insecticidal plants, soap solutions) and chemical treatments. Consider those and other measures to combat red leaves on currants.
How to deal with aphids
Among the popular recipes to combat gall aphids the most effective are the following:
- Infusion of marigolds. Dry and chop the marigolds so that the raw material is about half a bucket (5 liters). Pour the flowers with a bucket of hot boiled water and leave them to infuse for 48 hours. Then add a 50 gram bar of laundry soap. Use for spraying leaves.
- Infusion of tomato tops with onion peel. 2 kg of tomato tops pour five liters of boiling water. Infuse the solution for two hours, then boil for three hours. Pass through cheesecloth. Dilute with water in a ratio of one to two. A pound of husk pour two liters of boiling water, insist 48 hours. Then add 2 liters of water and liquid soap as an adhesive. Infusion tops and infusion husk mix and use for spraying.
- A decoction of tobacco dust. Half a cup of dust pour in a liter of water and boil for about 30 minutes. After removal from the stove, add water to the original volume. Insist in a dark place for 24 hours. Then pass the broth through gauze to filter and add liquid soap (one teaspoon) or laundry soap (10-15 g). Use for spraying.
- Infusion of laundry soap. 300-400 g of soap diluted in 400 ml of water. Use for spraying or wiping leaves, paying particular attention to the bottom and the stems.
- Infusion of white mustard powder. The powder (10 g) is diluted with a liter of water and infused for 48 hours. Filter out. For spraying, take 200 ml of infusion and dilute with 800 ml of water.
- Infusion of red pepper. Cut a pound of pepper pods and place in an enamel container. Add a bucket of water and boil for one hour. Insist two or three days. Strain. For spraying use 150 ml of infusion, diluting them with a bucket of water.
Spraying against redness
With a slight defeat by harmful insects, biopreparations will help: “Fitoverm”, “Biotlin”, “Agravertin”. The advantages of using these insecticides are that they do the least harm to the environment and are safe for humans.
If the strong spread of aphids could not be avoided, you will have to use chemistry. Today, the drugs that most effectively recommended themselves in the fight against this insect are: Aktellik, Inta-vir, Konfidor, Calypso, Kinmiks, Aliot.
It must be remembered that the use of chemicals before harvesting is strictly prohibited. Carefully read the instructions to the drug, which indicates the minimum interval that must be maintained between the processing chemicals and harvesting berries. Currant leaves, on which brown spots appeared as a result of anthracnose, must be removed and burned before treating plants with fungicides. If there is a strong infection, it is better to destroy the shrub.
For the treatment of anthracnose used: Oxyhom, Home, Abiga-Pik, Skor, Fundazol, Ridomil Gold MT, Profit Gold, etc.
Since mushrooms and insects can get used to the drugs, they should be alternated or changed. So prevention and control will be more effective.
To prevent gall aphids, the following activities should be carried out:
- regularly remove weeds;
- conduct early spring preventive spraying Bordeaux liquid (3%) or other drugs of similar action;
- carry out insecticidal sprays before bud break, for example, using the Sparkle Double Effect, Prophylactin, Nitrafen preparations;
- plant in close proximity to currant bushes dill, parsley, cumin, cilantro, mustard in order to attract beneficial insects (ladybugs, earwigs, golden-eyed, hoverlings) that feed on pests
- plant near currants strongly smelling plants that are able to scare away aphids, for example, chamomile, calendula, marigolds;
- destroy ant hills and destroy garden ants that are aphid vectors;
- Drain the plant and the tree circle with hot water (+ 80-90 °) before sap flow, this will kill the parasites after wintering.
To avoid anthracnose infection, you need:
- early spring spraying Bordeaux liquid, Nitrafen, copper sulfate;
- before flowering, to process immunostimulating preparations according to the “Epin”, “Zircon”, “Immunocytophyte” type;
- to properly fertilize shrubs, thereby increasing the sustainability of the culture;
- conduct sanitary pruning of shoots;
- in the fall, carefully remove plant residues and carry out a deep digging of the trunk circle;
- after harvesting spray Bordeaux liquid;
- timely remove weeds;
- thin out thickened landing;
- choose varieties of currants that are resistant to this disease, for example, Victoria, Dutch red, Firstborn.
By carrying out these simple activities, you can avoid the development of diseases and the invasion of parasites, as well as save yourself from the hassle of thinking and looking for information on how to deal with red currant leaves.
Parkinson’s Disease: Causes, Symptoms, And Prevention
Parkinson’s Disease (a.k.a. Shaking Palsy) is a neuro-motor degenerative disorder. This disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease and affects the people above the age of 60 years. Increase in the life expectancy of people in this modern era, lead to the rise in the number of patients with Parkinson’s disease. This disease is most common in males than in females.
Causes of Parkinson’s Disease:
Parkinson’s disease is not caused by a specific factor. The reasons for this disease include both-genetic and environmental factors.
Genetic mutations lead to improper cell function and also to the complete destruction of cells. The Parkinson’s disease affects the nerve cells, which produce the chemical dopamine. Role of dopamine is to control the motor functions of the body. A decrease in the production of dopamine affects the body movements. Increase in the age of a person also affects dopamine-producing cells in the brain and acts as a factor for Parkinson’s disease.
Environmental factors like stress, prolonged exposure to hazardous chemicals and severe brain injuries, may lead to Parkinson’s disease.
Signs and Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease:
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease vary according to the stage of the disease. The symptoms in the early stages are:
- Shaking movements or tremors at rest
- Slowness in the (motor) activities like walking, eating and self-dressing
- Stiffness or rigidity in the muscles
- Loss of balance and coordination
- Difficulty in walking (shuffling gait)
- Problem in speech
The symptoms in the later stages are:
- Weakness in the muscles
- Frequent episodes of fall (balance issue)
- Forgetfulness or loss of memory
- Other systemic problems like bowel and bladder problems
- Psychological issues like anxiety or depression
These disease symptoms also differ from person to person.
Risk Factors for Parkinson’s Disease:
Identification of risk factor is crucial in the case of Parkinson’s disease, to avoid the progression of the disease. Some of the risk factors are:
- Age above 60 years
- Family history, especially in the parents or first cousins
- Occupational exposure to dangerous chemicals
- Severe head injury leading to damage of brain cells
- Male gender
Complications of Parkinson’s Disease:
There are many complications associated with Parkinson’s disease, as like with any other neurological disorder. The main difficulties are the loss of motor control and the loss of bowel and bladder control.
In severe cases, the patients cannot even sit or stand, and they keep on moving and falling and the fall injuries are prevalent. Feeding the patients may become difficult, as the muscles, controlling the chewing and swallowing get affected. Bowel and bladder complications may be worrisome and affect the social life of the patient. The patients gradually isolate themselves from the family and society (social isolation) and end up in depression.
Diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease:
Early and correct diagnosis is vital to managing the disease, and also to improve the quality of life of the people, suffering from Parkinson’s disease. Diagnosis of the disease involves:
Physical examination plays a significant role in diagnosing Parkinson’s disease and in ruling out the other motor-related disorders. A precise history of the patient including both family history and past medical history is essential.
This examination is mainly done to know about the motor control (movements) of the body (voluntary or involuntary) and also the tone of the muscles affected (spasticity or rigidity). Coordination, balance and fine-motor activities (activities with fingers) are also evaluated to understand the severity of the disease.
There are many Parkinson’s disease rating scales, to measure the progression of the disease.
Other tests like blood tests, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans are performed to rule out other neurological disorders.
Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease:
There are various approaches to the method of treatment of Parkinson’s disease. It all depends upon factors like age of the patient, severity of the disease and the extent of loss in motor functions.
In early stages, medications like levodopa or carbidopa are given to either act like dopamine or to reduce the loss of dopamine. They are effective in reducing the symptoms like loss of motor control. But, at the same time, prolonged use of these drugs has adverse side effects, like painful muscle cramps and general weakness.
Surgery is a rare choice of treatment and is done in the later stages of the disease, where there is a severe loss of voluntary motor control of the body.
Deep Brain Stimulation- Artificial stimulation of the brain is performed by placing electrodes in the deeper parts of the brain. This stimulation of the nerves helps in gaining control of the muscles (and motor activity).
Physiotherapy along with medications can bring drastic relief in the life of a patient with Parkinson’s disease.
The primary goal of physiotherapy management is to make the patient independent in his activities of daily living, to maintain the flexibility or mobility of the joints and also to improve the balance and coordination.
The treatment of physiotherapy includes:
- Exercises for upper and lower limbs to improve the mobility of the joints and also to maintain the muscle strength
- Exercises for chest and abdomen to improve the deep breathing capacity of the lungs
- Exercises for trunk like trunk rotations, to improve the spinal mobility
- Exercises to improve balance and coordination and gait training for balance (usage of a walker) and activities like nose to finger touch for coordination
- Exercises for hands and fingers like squeezing a ball, to maintain fine motor control
Other management practices for Parkinson’s disease include occupational therapy, speech therapy and stem cell therapy.
Prevention of Parkinson’s Disease:
Parkinson’s disease cannot be prevented, but, the progression of the disease can be halted. Some of the measures to stop the disease progression include:
- Lifestyle modifications like regular exercise and reduction of stress.
- Environment modifications like avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals either at home or work
- Dietary modifications like including green tea or coffee
Parkinson’s disease does not affect the life-span of the patient, only the quality of life is decreased. For a patient with Parkinson’s disease, constant motivation, to keep him or her active, is essential; and a role of both the family and the healthcare professionals is helpful.
News on Parkinson’s Disease:
Cure for Parkinson’s: Japanese Researches Inject Stem Cells into Brain
In order to come out with a cure for Parkinson’s, researchers in Japan have transplanted stem cells into the brain of a patient suffering from the disease. The operation turned out to be successful and the patient will be observed for 2 years. 2.4 million cells had been implanted into the left side of the brain and the operation took 3 hours to complete. However, the patient will be observed for 6 months and if there are no side-effects, then another 2.4 million stem cells will be implanted into the right side of the brain.
The operational trial was experimented on seven different participants and aged between 50 and 69 and it involved injecting stem cells into the brain in order to cure Parkinson’s. This disease is considered a chronic degenerative neurological disorder that basically affects the body’s motor system. Some of its symptoms include shaking, shivering and stillness in the body. According to the Parkinson’s Disease Foundation, about 10 million people worldwide are said to be suffering from this illness.
The medical experimentation also figured out that the disease was coming to a halt, meaning that the operation had blocked the progression of the disease. However, this operation was tried on monkeys before being used on a Parkinson’s patient. One striking part of this research was that the injected stem cells had not turned into tumours when experimented on monkeys.