Steppe tolstun endangered species of grasshoppers
In the Black Sea steppe zone, among toots and grasses, there is a steppe steppe. It is a rare species of grasshoppers that is endangered. Large massive insects before the beginning of the 20th century. met in the south of Russia and Ukraine, in the foothills of the Caucasus. The economic activities of people and plowing virgin steppes led to widespread extinction of the species. Surviving individuals live in pristine protected areas of the steppe, the number of such places is constantly decreasing. Tolstun steppe fell into the European Red List and the Red Book of Russia.
Description of the species
Tolstun steppe or multi-hump-headed (Bradyporusmultituberculatus) representative of a family of true grasshoppers from the order of the Orthoptera. The endemic species of the Black Sea has become an extremely rare inhabitant of the steppe fauna. The body of insects is of unusual round shape, the length of the male is 50-80 mm, the female is 40-60 mm. The length of the saber-like ovipositor of the female is 14-22 mm. The upper part of the body of the grasshopper is bronze-black, the yellow-brown spots merge on the abdomen into two longitudinal bands. There are individuals with spotted and one-color body color.
Legs are walking, on the shins are large spines and powerful spurs. The head is spherical, the eyes are well developed. Oral apparatus of gnawing type. Antennae long, setiform, situated below the eyes. The large pronotum has two keels along the sides and four longitudinal convex ribs at the top. The insect has no wings, rudimentary elytra are hidden under the pronotum. The Orthoptera detachment is characterized by a considerable thickening of the hips of the hind legs. The bald man has weak limbs, he can not make jumps for a long distance.
Female shagoholovogo grasshopper
Interesting fact. Small elytra perform the function of an audible apparatus – with their help the grasshoppers produce chirping sounds. It is noteworthy that Bradyporusmultituberculatus females also have a stridulatory apparatus, although in other species it is found exclusively in males.
In the photo it can be seen that the body of the steppe thick man is securely protected by strong covers with tubercles. This feature was the reason for the appearance of the name “multi-humpbacked globules”, which was given to the insect by the Russian naturalist Grigory Fisher von Waldheim.
Studies conducted in the second half of the XIX century, speak of the spread to the Voronezh region in the north, to the Caucasus in the south and the Volga to the east. After 100 years, the range has decreased noticeably, in many places insects have died out. The habitat of the steppe thick man in the Rostov region, Nevinnomyssk (Stavropol), the Krasnodar Territory and Kabardino-Balkaria has been confirmed. Grasshoppers settle among motley grass and sod-cereal vegetation.
A multi-horned Tolstyan lives in the steppe zone
Insects prefer areas with rugged terrain, where ravines alternate with flat areas. They settle in a dense thicket of herbs and bushes, they enter the floodplain meadows. Males divide the territory among themselves, the neighboring sections are located at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other. From dusk until late at night, climbing on branches of a bush or a tall grass, they loudly chirk. Insects do not like heat, activity is manifested in the morning and evening hours.
Imago and their offspring herbivores, in the diet cereals and legumes, sage, plantain, dandelion, buckwheat. Tolstuny do not hunt, but replenish the stores of protein, eating soft tissues of dead grasshoppers.
The period of mating is in June. In sharkheaded grasshoppers, the number of males and females is approximately the same. The males are attracted by the sound of chattering. Pairing insects occurs several times. Two weeks after fertilization, the female proceeds to laying. With its saber-like ovipositor, it makes holes in the soil or turf. Eggs are deposited in portions of 6-8 pieces. Winged-wingers differ incomplete transformation, they do not have a pupa stage.
Mating of tolstones
The total fecundity of the female is 50-70 eggs. In natural conditions for the development of the embryo is characterized by diapause for 3 years, in conditions of captivity – 5 years. The larva appears in May to become an adult insect. She needs 5 moults. In the middle of June, the imago and larvae of the last age are neighbors.
Information. A long diapause explains the periodic increase in the population of multi-hooligan tolstuns.
In the XIX century. Steppe steppes flourished throughout the steppe and forest-steppe zone of Russia and Ukraine. Active economic activity has led to a critical reduction, and in some cases, to the complete destruction of the grasshopper population. Among the limiting factors:
- development and plowing of virgin lands;
- widespread haymaking;
- use in the fields of insecticides.
The extinction of the species required the adoption of strict protective measures. Grasshopper Bradyporusmultituberculatus is listed in the Red Book of Russia and several regions – Rostov, Stavropol, Voronezh. It belongs to the I category – the threat of extinction. The insect is protected in Ukraine, entered on the European Red List.
In 2014, in the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, a mass appearance of the Tolstoy was recorded. It is seen on the Tersky Range, where the landscape and turf-cereal vegetation create optimal conditions for the existence of the species. Dryness of the climate and mountainous terrain have become natural limits of economic activity. The find makes it possible to re-qualify the steppe steppe from the category in III – a species common in a restricted area.
As protection measures for the preservation of the relic species, it is necessary to organize islets of virgin lands with mixed grass. Natural natural areas will become a haven for endangered insects. In such areas it is necessary to prohibit grass mowing, cutting of shrubs, grazing. In nearby fields, the use of insecticides is limited.
Sinanthropic insects: cockroaches, ants, bugs are uninvited guests in a human dwelling. Assortment of funds from household pests regularly updated with new names. One of the most effective modern drugs is Get from cockroaches, as well as other flying and creeping insects. Insecticide is used in the professional disinsection of premises. Its composition is safe for humans and warm-blooded animals. The special technology of using chlorpyrifos microcapsules allows to completely destroy a colony of domestic insects.
Structure of the preparation
The active substance of the preparation is 5% chlorpyrifos. This is an insecticide belonging to the class of organophosphorus compounds. It has been used to fight insects for about 20 years. During this time the substance proved itself as a reliable means of a wide spectrum of action. The compound retains the poisonous effect for a long time. In the company Get products a unique technology is applied – the active insecticide is placed in polymer capsules. Chlorpyrifos is located under the shell of a capsule of microscopic size.
Nano capsule with insecticide
Information. In the Get vial, there are billions of nano capsules with an insecticide.
The microcapsules are in an aqueous medium, the stabilizers make the composition homogeneous. Chlorpyrifos belongs to the second class of danger for humans, the use of an insecticide under the polymer coating reduces the level of toxicity for humans.
Mechanism of action
Insecticide is able to penetrate into the body of red and black cockroaches in three ways:
- through the respiratory organs;
- together with eaten food;
- through the covers of the body.
The preparation in the form of an aqueous solution of the suspension is applied to various surfaces. Upon contact with them, the insect clings to the feet of hundreds of invisible capsules with a toxic substance. Upon contact with water, the granules are activated. After a while, chlorpyrifos begins to leak onto the surface of the shell. During this period the cockroaches manage to bring the insecticide into their nest and infect the relatives.
Microcapsules on the legs of cockroaches
Getting into the body of an insect, the compound causes tremors, spasm and paralysis. They refuse all life support systems and death occurs. The use of capsules provides a prolonged action of the Get agent. The period of its activity is up to 180 days. The drug is effective in combating a large number of domestic pests:
Ways to use Get
The appearance of synanthropic insects in the home or institution requires the adoption of adequate measures. In the shortest time in the premises it is necessary to conduct disinsection. Cockroaches are one of the most undesirable neighbors. Their population is rapidly expanding, harming food, interior items and human health.
Attention. Red cockroaches are the peddler of pathogens of many diseases: staphylococci, tuberculosis, diphtheria, helminthiasis.
A universal insecticide is available in several forms:
- the main product is Get Thotal – a white suspension with microcapsules of 5-80 microns in size, packed in 100 and 1000 ml bottles;
- Get Express – suspension with granules filled with high-speed lambda-cyhalothrin, packing 50 ml and 1 l;
- a solid form – a pencil and soap for insecticide treatment of surfaces.
Get-No.1 from cockroaches
Before using the suspension Get from cockroaches, it is necessary to perform preparatory work, including several stages:
- General cleaning in the house. It is necessary to remove all rubbish, especially to pay attention to crumbs and the rest of food.
- Search for cockroach nests. The best way is to go into the room at night, when the insects are active, and turn on the light. They will begin to scatter, go to their shelter. It is necessary to trace their path. Favorite places of cockroaches: behind cabinets and a refrigerator, under a plinth, a bathroom, a bowl.
- Close access to water. Moisture-loving insects will not survive in such conditions. Without food, a cockroach can live for almost a month, and without water a week.
- Prevent the migration of insects from a neighboring apartment. To do this, it is necessary to seal the cracks around the drain in the bathroom and in the kitchen.
- From the treated premises should bring people and pets. If there is an aquarium, it is also taken out. The absence time will be 5-8 hours. During this period, the rooms are processed and the composition dries.
Processing space behind the plinth
Attention. It is recommended to use three Get tools: Total, Express and Dry. The combination of drugs guarantees 100% extermination of any synanthropic insects. They disappear within 3-14 days, the rate of extermination depends on the degree of spread and persistence of the population.
Preparation of the solution
For the preparation of the composition will require:
- a concentrated remedy for cockroaches Get;
- container for mixing the solution.
Before preparing the formulation for treatment, the vial with the preparation should be shaken thoroughly. The optimal concentration of insecticide is 1:10, with insignificant insects enough 1:15. Water should be at room temperature (22-25 °). The solution is prevented until homogeneity is achieved. The finished formulation is poured into a spray gun.
Sequence of solution preparation
Furniture should be moved away from the walls in order to free access to the skirting boards and back walls of cabinets. The solution is evenly sprayed onto cabinet furniture, walls, slopes, a bathroom, sewer pipes, space behind a stove, washing machine and other household appliances. The work takes place with closed windows and doors. The composition is left for 2-3 hours until completely dry. After that, the premises are ventilated.
Attention. The prepared solution is stored for 1 day. The bottle with concentrate in printed form is suitable for use within 5 months.
When working with chemicals, it is necessary to protect the respiratory tract, mucous membranes, open areas of the skin and eyes. Before starting the treatment of the room, you will need to stock up on the following items:
- latex gloves;
- respirator or mask;
The means of protection are put on during the mixing of the solution, but are removed after the processing is completed.
Means of protection and solution preparation
Airing an apartment you can start cleaning. It will be necessary to wash the soap-soda solution with all surfaces with which the tenants touch each day. To prepare the composition will require 50 grams of soda per liter of water. In places where contact is limited, the Get facility will continue to work. After 2 weeks, apply a pencil Get along the skirting boards, ventilation, cracks for prevention.
An integrated approach to combating synanthropic insects increases the chances of success. In addition to spraying the insecticide, it is worth preparing a poisoned bait. To do this, you should take food, which is preferred by cockroaches – baby puree, cheese, egg yolk. The base is mixed with the Get concentrate in a ratio of 10: 1. Flat containers with bait are placed near the intended nests. Individuals who have eaten the contaminated product will poison themselves and bring capsules with a toxin to their home. This method is optimal with a small number of cockroaches.
Council. Food in traps is replaced every 5 days.
Line of funds from the cockroaches of Get
Get Express is the fastest drug in the series. It is produced in the form of a suspension with the active substance lambda-cyhalothrin. It has an intestinal, contact and repellent effect. Refers to a class of pyrethroids that block the activity of the nervous system. The chemical compound quickly affects the adults, but does not kill the eggs. Residual action on the treated surface persists for 1-2 months. From the moment of drying, the product passes into the fourth hazard class (minimal health hazard). The pluses of the suspension include:
- speed – red and black cockroaches die after 2 hours;
- safety for people and animals;
- destroys insects that have resistance to other drugs;
- does not leave stains on furniture.
Form of issue Get
Council. Professional disinsectors recommend mixing in the processing of apartments two means – Express and Total. The obtained composition acts quickly and retains a toxic effect for 6 months.
The product can be used in industrial and residential premises, medical and children’s institutions. The recommended dosage of the solution is 50 ml of Get Express for 1 liter of water. For organizations, the drug is available in a 1-liter vial.
A modern universal preparation is guaranteed to rid of cockroaches and other pests.
Benefits of the tool:
- does not endanger the health of adults and children;
- shows a long-term effect, after treatment protection is maintained for 6-18 months;
- completely destroys the population of domestic insects;
- there is no unpleasant odor, stains and stains after treatment;
- easy to use.
If it is necessary to process large areas, you can buy the drug in a 1 liter package.
Pencil Get Dray
Solid insect pencil is designed to handle a variety of surfaces: concrete, plywood, fabric, whitewash. The agent is not absorbed by keeping the active substance chlorpyrifos in areas where the appearance of the Prusak is possible. One package is enough to apply for 8 square meters. m. Get Dry has several advantages:
- microcapsules remain on the surface from 1 to 1.5 years;
- a universal remedy capable of destroying any domestic pests: cockroaches, bedbugs, ants;
- pencil does not pose a danger to people.
Pencil Get Dray
Soap Get from cockroaches has the effect of an insecticide. It is used as an aid. The soap is applied to the water-absorbing surface: fabric, wood, concrete, fiberboard. They handle the furniture in the kitchen, the seams of upholstered furniture and curtains. This treatment creates a lasting effect of protection against cockroaches and other insects. To use soap simply – a bar rub the chosen surface. It is recommended to wear rubber gloves during the treatment. One piece of soap with a weight of 175 g is designed for 6 square meters. m surface. The product is stored in the original packaging (tin can) and is used as needed.
Soap Get from cockroaches
The main recommendation for the prevention of the appearance of cockroaches is the maintenance of sanitary standards for cleaning the room. Insects should be denied access to food and moisture. To do this, it is important to eliminate all leaks, to wipe the spilled water in a timely manner. Pencil or crayon Get creates an invisible, but effective barrier for insects, penetrating from neighboring apartments. The composition of the periodic update protects against repeated invasion for 6-12 months.