Where does grasshopper come from people

Where does grasshopper come from people

The name Grasshopper describes a number of insects that fall under the scientific “suborder” Caelifera, which is in the order Orthoptera. Within this suborder there are over 11,000 species of grasshopper. That’s a lot of types of grasshoppers!

Like all insects the grasshopper has six legs, a head, thorax, and abdomen. It also has an exoskeleton which is a hard outer surface that protects its softer insides. They have two pairs of wings. The back wings are larger while the front wings are small and fairly hard. Their back legs are large helping them to jump.

They are normally brown in color, but they can vary in color including yellowish brown, reddish brown, and light green. Some are even striped.

These insects live all around the world except where it is too cold like the north and south poles. They have adapted to most every habitat including deserts, forests, and grasslands.

What do they eat?

Grasshoppers eat plants, primarily leaves, grasses, and cereal crops. A lot of grasshoppers can eat a lot of food and can cause serious problems for farmers by eating all of their crops.

How do Grasshoppers make noise?

Male grasshoppers will make a singing sound by rubbing a hind leg against one of their hard forewings. The rough leg causes the wing to vibrate and make a sound, almost like a bow playing a violin.

How are they different from Crickets?

Grasshoppers and Crickets are similar insects, both being of the order Orthoptera, but they are different and actually are in different scientific suborders. The main differences may be hard to see:

  • Grasshoppers have shorter antennae than crickets.
  • Grasshoppers make sounds by rubbing their forelegs against their wings, while crickets rub their wings together.
  • Grasshoppers hear with their abdomen, while crickets listen with their legs.
  • Grasshoppers are diurnal (active during the day). Crickets are nocturnal (active during the night).
  • Grasshoppers only eat plants, while crickets will eat other animals and are omnivorous.

What are locusts?

Locusts are a type of grasshopper. They typically live alone, but are famous for forming giant swarms that can swoop down and destroy massive areas of crops.

Fun Facts about Grasshoppers

  • A lot of people around the world eat grasshoppers. They are a good source of protein.
  • They lay eggs that hatch into nymphs. As the nymphs grow into full size adults they will molt many times.
  • The villains in the movie A Bug’s Life by Pixar are grasshoppers.
  • They have many predators including birds, sp >


Where does grasshopper come from people

The public talk was held on Thursday December 15th, 2011 at the Uganda Museum to discuss the topic Π²Π‚ΡšThe Natural history of the grasshopper and its lucrative trade in UgandaΠ²Π‚Ρœ.

The Grasshopper, commonly referred to as ‘Nseenene’ in Luganda is a short-horned bush cricket or katydid of the suborder Caelifera in the order Orthoptera. The coloring of different species of grasshoppers is often dependent on the environment with many species adapted to green fields and forests to avoid predators. Others have adapted to drier, sandy environments and blend in well with the colors of dry dirt and sand. In certain countries, grasshoppers are eaten as a good source of protein and in Mexico for example, they are regarded as a good source of protein, minerals and vitamins. They are usually collected at dusk, using lamps or electric lighting, in sweep nets. They are usually placed in water for 24 hours, after which they can be boiled or eaten raw, sun-dried, fried, flavoured with spices, drenched in lime, and used in soup or as a filling for various dishes.

In central Uganda, it is a delicacy as well as an important source of income. This insect is also eaten in neighboring areas of Kenya and Tanzania. However, little information is in peopleΠ²Π‚β„’s domain about their origin, breeding and migration patterns. Prof William Banage studied the natural history of these insects and Mr. John Loannis Gatsiounis has been following the trade patterns and shared this information at the public talk.

Prof William Banage informed us that the grasshopper lies in the class of Insephera (long horned) which also includes crickets. He mentioned that grasshoppers (Nsenene) occur in six color morphs, the most dominant being Green. The different color forms are for protection. The green ones mimic the green vegetation, brown – dry vegetation and purple – dying grass Green is the most dominant color of females and most of the brown ones are male. Other colors include green with purple head, green wih brown head, brown with green head and the most rare color is purple. This is Ecological morphism. These insects are norcturnal and breed in generalised areas. They inhabit in Central and West Africa – Zambia and are wide spread in intertropical areas.

We see the Nsenene during their breeding season these seasons being the rainy seasons, that is March – April and October – December. During this season, males are often seen chasing females, mating on traffic lights. They fly and land before day break.

Harvesting of these insects started in Masaka but it is now in Tooro, Bunyoro, Kampala by using electric lights and many other areas. There is however, no information about where these insects breed. Perhaps researchers will pick interest in this subject matter and avail us with the information.

We thank all those who attended the public talk and look forward to seeing you again for our next public talk and other events.


The Ugandan love of grasshoppers – and how to harvest them

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It is grasshopper season in Uganda, where they are seen as a nutritious delicacy – either boiled or deep-fried. They are so popular that some are worried about declining harvests, as the BBC’s Patience Atuhaire reports.

It is dusk. Rusty oil barrels are lined up in rows. Wooden scaffolding holds up unpainted iron sheets. The blindingly bright lights are rigged up as if for a sports stadium. But the four young men are not preparing to play football, they are here to catch grasshoppers.

At this time of year, during the rainy season, the scene is repeated in many towns across the country.

“When the season starts, we watch the cycle of the moon, and prepare. [They tend to come out at full moon]. We also keep hoping for rain. The larger numbers appear when it has rained,” says Quraish Katongole, one of Uganda’s most experienced grasshopper trappers.

He is the chairman of a group that coordinates the grasshopper trade around the country.

As his workers set up the last of the barrels at a trapping site here on the edge of Masaka town, he heads off to supervise work at other locations.

Salty, crunchy flavour

As it grows darker, the slim-bodied nocturnal insects start to swarm around the lights. Most of them are green, but there are sprinklings of ashy-brown and golden-brown.

The trappers burn fresh grass and the rising smoke makes the insects dizzy. The grasshoppers smash against the iron sheets, falling straight into the drums. It sounds like fat raindrops on a tin roof. And as the numbers increase, it becomes a steady downpour.

Women, schoolgirls still in their uniforms, even children, scour the bushes surrounding the traps, picking up the escapees that have avoided the barrels, before they can burrow further into the greenery.

The edible insects are a delicacy in many Ugandan communities, and for the urban population, a sought-after snack.

During rush hour in the capital, Kampala, young people with baskets or plastic buckets, weave through the traffic selling boiled or deep fried ready-to-eat grasshoppers to commuters. A tablespoonful costs 1,000 Uganda shillings ($0.27, Β£0.21).

Others sell fresh green ones, with the wings and legs already plucked off, that can be prepared at home.

Even though most Ugandans love the grasshoppers, I last tasted them as a child, so I vaguely remember the crunchy, salty flavour.

But the idea of popping a roasted insect into my mouth has never appealed to my grown-up taste-buds.

‘Eat more insects’

Ugandans, and others in the region, are among over two billion people worldwide who eat different species of insects, according to a UN estimate.

But in Uganda, the number of grasshoppers could be falling as their feeding and breeding habitats around Lake Victoria are shrinking.

Every year between 2010 and 2015 the country lost over 46,000 hectares (114,000 acres) of its natural forest cover, according to the National Forest Authority.

In the greater Masaka area, which is the traditional hub of the grasshopper industry, 9,000 hectares of wild habitat were converted into farmland or for settlement use between 1990 and 2005.

Nearby, on the road towards Bukakata Port on the shores of Lake Victoria, large trees have been felled in a forest reserve. Large swathes of what was formerly forest and grassland are now pineapple plantations.

Mr Katongole has witnessed this transformation.

“There was a huge natural forest and swamps in this area, and in the islands; they were all cut down. That resulted in the numbers of grasshoppers appearing in this region each season declining,” he says.

Speaking from 30 years’ experience in the trade, he adds: “You’d hear people say; ‘I am going to Masaka, that is where there are grasshoppers’, but that has changed.”

And the evidence from the night’s work backs that up.

The young men empty the drums pouring their catch into white sacks. For all that frenzied swarming, they manage to fill just two sacks.

Grasshopper transport

“There was a time when I would catch 20 to 25 sacks a night,” Mr Katongole comments, crestfallen.

At about 05:00 local time (02:00 GMT), he loads up a saloon car with sacks collected from around town and a colleague makes the three-hour drive to Kampala, where each sack can fetch at least $80 (Β£63).

But the demand for grasshoppers is not only in the capital.

The morning brings a whirlwind of activity in the main market on the outskirts of Masaka. To attract buyers, vendors call out prices, while some adopt a musical approach by singing and clapping their hands.

Some sell out of barrels, while others use large plastic buckets or trays. Grasshoppers in all forms are on display; sellers measure out cupfuls or handfuls of fresh ones into plastic bags.

Saucepans of boiling insects sit on charcoal stoves.

Agnes Nansamba is smiling as she cooks. A smaller harvest means more customers for her. She lifts a pan and shakes it, turning the grasshoppers over.

‘God-given’ treat

“We used to sell here all day and you would not get enough customers. But today, I’ve boiled just 12 cupfuls. I will sell each at 5,000 Uganda shillings ($1.35). A few weeks ago, the price was [even] higher,” she says.

As we speak, a truck with sacks hanging from metal railings pulls up. Many of the traders run over to replenish their stock.

In the melee, no-one gives a thought as to where the insects appear from. They just know that they come in May and November, when the rains fall. They see them as a gift from God.

But a group of Ugandan scientists are trying to understand more about their life cycle to see if they can be harvested in a more sustainable way.

Prof Phillip Nyeko, the lead researcher, says that apart from loss of habitat, aggressive harvesting presents another threat.

“They do not swarm to be eaten, they swarm to feed and breed. But when you put up lights and collect them in the thousands, you’re upsetting their life cycle.

“You don’t know if you’re picking egg-laying ones, male or female. So don’t be surprised if there are fewer the next season.”

More from Patience Atuhaire:

Artificial breeding

His team is researching the possibility of breeding and rearing grasshoppers in a controlled way to make them available all year round.

“We are trying to develop procedures or protocols on how you can mass-rear these insects. Developing the feeds that are nutritious, and the feeds that produce the insects that we want in terms of their quality, in terms of their taste,” he explains.

Prof Nyeko says his team will experiment with mass breeding at the end of next year.

If they succeed, Ugandans will be happy to know that they can continue to enjoy a grasshopper snack and not only during the rainy season.


10 Fascinating Facts About Grasshoppers

Find Out More About These Amazing Insects That Predate Dinosaurs

Jim Simmen / Getty Images

Animals & Nature

Famed fable writer Aesop portrayed the grasshopper as a ne’er do well who fiddled away his summer days without a thought to the future but in the real world, the destruction wreaked by grasshoppers on farming and ranching is far from a harmless parable. Although grasshoppers are extremely common, there’s more to these summertime critters than meets the eye. Here’s a list of 10 fascinating grasshopper-related facts.

1. Grasshoppers and Locusts Are One and the Same

When we think of grasshoppers, most people recall pleasant childhood memories of trying to catch the jumping insects in meadows or backyards. Say the word locusts, however, and it brings to mind images of historic plagues raining down destruction on crops and devouring every plant in sight.

Truth be told, grasshoppers and locusts are members of the same insect order. While certain species are commonly referred to grasshoppers and others as locusts, both creatures are short-horned members of the order Orthoptera. Jumping herbivores with shorter antennae are grouped into the suborder Caelifera, while their longer-horned brethren (crickets and katydids) belong to the suborder Ensifera.

2. Grasshoppers Have Ears on Their Bellies

The grasshopper’s auditory organs are found not on the head, but rather, on the abdomen. A pair of membranes that vibrate in response to sound waves are located one on either side of the first abdominal segment, tucked under the wings. This simple eardrum, called a tympanal organ, allows the grasshopper to hear the songs of its fellow grasshoppers.

3. Although Grasshoppers Can Hear, They Can’t Distinguish Pitch Very Well

As with most insects, the grasshopper’s auditory organs are simple structures. They can detect differences in intensity and rhythm, but not pitch. The male grasshopper’s song isn’t particularly melodic which is a good thing since females don’t care whether or not a fellow can carry a tune. Each species of grasshopper produces a characteristic rhythm that distinguishes its song from others and enables courting males and females of a given species to find one another.

4. Grasshoppers Make Music by Stridulating or Crepitating

If you’re not familiar with those terms, don’t worry. It’s not all that complicated. Most grasshoppers stridulate, which simply means that they rub their hind legs against their forewings to produce their trademark tunes. Special pegs on the inside of the hind leg act like a percussion instrument of sorts when they come in contact with the thickened edge of the wing. The band-winged grasshoppers crepitate or loudly snap their wings as they fly.

5. Grasshoppers Catapult Themselves Into the Air

If you’ve ever tried to catch a grasshopper, you know how far they can jump to flee danger. If humans could jump the way grasshoppers do, we would be able to easily leap the length of a football field. How do these insects jump so far? It’s all in those big, back legs. A grasshopper’s hind legs function like miniature catapults. In preparation for a jump, the grasshopper contracts its large flexor muscles slowly, bending its hind legs at the knee joint. A special piece of cuticle within the knee acts as a spring, storing up all the potential energy. The grasshopper then relaxes its leg muscles, allowing the spring to release its energy and fling the insect into the air.

6. Grasshoppers Can Fly

Because grasshoppers have such powerful jumping legs, people sometimes don’t realize that they also have wings. Grasshoppers use their jumping ability to give them a boost into the air but most are pretty strong fliers and make good use of their wings to escape predators.

7. Grasshoppers Cause Billions of Dollars in Damage to Food Crops Annually

One lone grasshopper can’t do too much harm, although it eats about half its body weight in plants each dayβ€”but when locusts swarm, their combined feeding habits can completely defoliate a landscape, leaving farmers without crops and people without food. In the U.S. alone, grasshoppers cause about $1.5 billion in damage to grazing lands each year. In 1954, a swarm of Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) consumed over 75 square miles of wild and cultivated plants in Kenya.

8. Grasshoppers Are an Important Source of Protein

People have been consuming locusts and grasshoppers for centuries. According to the Bible, John the Baptist ate locusts and honey in the wilderness. Locusts and grasshoppers are a regular dietary component in local diets in many areas of Africa, Asia, and the Americasβ€”and since they’re packed with protein, they’re an important nutritional staple as well.

9. Grasshoppers Existed Long Before Dinosaurs

Modern-day grasshoppers descend from ancient ancestors that lived long before dinosaurs roamed the Earth. The fossil record shows that primitive grasshoppers first appeared during the Carboniferous period, more than 300 million years ago. Most ancient grasshoppers are preserved as fossils, although grasshopper nymphs (the second stage in the grasshopper lifestyle after the initial egg phase) are occasionally found in amber.

10. Grasshoppers May “Spit” Liquid to Defend Themselves

If you’ve ever handled grasshoppers, you’ve probably had a few of them spit brown liquid on you in protest. Scientists believe this behavior is a means of self-defense, and the liquid helps the insects repel predators. Some people say grasshoppers spit “tobacco juice,” probably because historically, grasshoppers have been associated with tobacco crops. Rest assured, however, the grasshoppers aren’t using you as a spittoon.



by Julie Johnson

Early settlers battled drought and disease while trying to make a living on the Great Plains, but perhaps their most devastating plague was the periodic infestation of grasshoppers. Black clouds of these plant-eating insects were said to reach for miles, coming down in drifts two or three inches deep in some places. Their strong hind legs make them good jumpers and it’s said that nothing survived their hunger; tender or tough, everything was stripped. Today scientists and farmers have devised several methods-chemicals and other insect life-to control these ravenous creatures.

Despite its classification as a major pest, the grasshopper affords the classroom teacher a marvelous opportunity to incorporate science, mythology, history, and literature into a learning experience.

SCIENCE : Grasshopper is the name applied to almost 9,000 different species of singing, jumping insects in two families of the order Orthoptera. Grasshoppers are long, slender, winged insects with powerful hind legs and strong mandibles, or mouthparts, adapted for chewing. They range from Β½ to 4 in. (1-10 cm) in length. They have a front pair of rigid wings and a hind pair of larger, membranous wings, often brightly colored. When the wings are at rest, the hind pair folds and is covered by the front pair. Some species fly well, others poorly or not at all. There are three pairs of legs, all used for walking. The muscular hind legs are also used for jumping and for initiating flight. Grasshoppers can jump up to 20 times their body length.

In most species the singing, or stridulating, is performed only by the males. Both sexes possess auditory organs. In the late summer, the fields buzz with the singing of male grasshoppers inviting female grasshoppers to court. Rubbing their back legs against their wings, each species sings its own song. After mating, the female grasshopper lays 2 to 120 eggs in the soil, dying soon afterward. However, throughout the winter the eggs remain carefully hidden in the soil. Hatching in the spring, every grasshopper is an orphan. Young grasshoppers look like miniature adults, though they lack wings. It takes nearly two months for hoppers to become adults. As they grow, hoppers molt five or six times because they outgrow their exoskeletons just as children outgrow their clothes. After the last molt, two pairs of wings are present. The heavier, leather-like outer wings protect and cover the membranous hind wings.

Most grasshoppers are plant feeders, attacking crops such as wheat, barley, corn, rye, and oats. The migratory grasshoppers, including the locusts, are a serious threat to agriculture.

Grasshoppers are typically found in temperate regions. If you put a grasshopper’s head under water it would not drown, because grasshoppers do not breathe the way humans do. Along the sides of a grasshopper are a row of ten tiny holes. These are breathing pores. Grasshoppers have one large compound eye on each side of their head. This makes it possible for them to see to the side, back, and front, They also have three single eyes but no one knows for sure what these do. They are classified in the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, order Orthoptera, suborders Caelifera and Ensifera, families Tettigoniidae and Acrididae respectively.

A grasshopper jumps by extending its back legs from a folded position, so that they thrust against the ground. A good jump requires two things: First, the legs have to thrust on the ground with a lot force. If the thrust is too low, the animal doesn’t get a fast enough take-off and it doesn’t jump very far. Second, the legs have to develop this force quickly. If the thrust builds up too slowly, the legs will extend before the thrust reaches its maximum. Once the grasshopper is standing on tip-toe, it can’t thrust against the ground anymore. For an animated view of a grasshopper jumping seewysiwyg://9/http://www.st-and.ac.u. _sbms/pers/wjh/jumping/problem on the internet.

Science Activities: (1) Identifying the individual parts of a grasshopper is a logical place to start any science activity.

(2) Determining the population of grasshoppers in a specific area is an activity that would be useful in a biology study. The Grasshopper Mark and Recapture (GMR) activity gives students the opportunity to learn a method for estimating the size of a population. It is an activity that could be used instead of an insect collection; it allows students to get outside; it is a hands-on activity that requires a team effort. For a detailed description of the process see:

(3) When I was growing up, one of the favorite activities of the neighborhood kids was a grasshopper hopping contest. Each of us would capture a grasshopper, confine it in a jar with air holes, and provide some food. Then on someone’s driveway or in the cul-de-sac we would mark off a “field.” At the appointed time, each of us would come with our grasshopper for the contest. We had great fun with the contest. You and your students might want to develop your own guidelines for a grasshopper contest. Some of the questions you would want to consider are:

1. When and where will the event take place?

2. How long should the “playing field” be?

3. How many grasshoppers should jump at a time?

4. If different heats are run, how will the events be timed?

5. Who will be allowed on the playing field?

6. Who will act as the judge in the case of a disputed outcome?

7. Will individuals or teams be allowed to practice with their grasshoppers ahead of time?

8. How long can grasshoppers be kept prior to actual contest?

9. Where should grasshoppers be released when the contest is over?

SOCIAL STUDIES: According to Charles C. Howe in his book This Place Called Kansas, the state has lost about six thousand geographical designations in her history. He records the interesting story of the town of Grasshopper Falls and the Grasshopper River in northeastern Kansas. Grasshopper Creek today drains southeast to form the Delaware River, which flows into Perry Reservoir and eventually into the Kansas River. At one time the Delaware was called Grasshopper River and the town of Valley Falls, on the upper end of Perry Reservoir, was called Grasshopper Falls. The numerous grasshopper infestations and the accompanying damage that they caused farmers in the state made the people living in the town and along the river unenthusiastic about the name. For some years they sought a change from the Kansas Legislature. Finally the state legislature agreed to change the name of the town to Sautrelle Falls and the river to the Sautrelle. Someone in the legislature had a good laugh in substituting the French word for grasshopper in the names. The citizens were more irate than ever when they discovered what had happened. They informed legislators that if they had to have the name grasshopper they wanted the good old American word and not some French version. The legislature changed the names to Valley Falls, and the river was renamed the Delaware.

There are numerous references to grasshoppers in the Annals of Kansas. For example, at the Cincinnati Centennial Exposition in August 1888 a seven-foot grasshopper guarded the entrance to the Wichita Building. Inside was a four-story pagoda filled with samples of corn, wheat, rye, oats, cotton, grasses, and cocoons raised on Osage orange.

In August 1919 27 Kansas counties, cooperating with KSAC (Kansas State University) in a war against grasshoppers, fed the insects 5,500 tons of mash containing 2,000 tons of bran, 100,000 gallons of syrup, 60,000 lemons, and 100 tons of arsenic.

LANGUAGE ARTS: Grasshoppers also make numerous appearances in the literature of the Great Plains. A quick review of Great Plains children’s books yields the following titles that have references to grasshoppers in them.

Grasshopper Year by Neola Tracy Lane

Grasshopper Summer by Ann Warren Turner

The Sodbuster Venture by Charlene Joy Talbot

Winter Wheat by Jeanne Williams

On the Banks of Plum Creek by Laura Ingalls Wilder

Young Pioneers by Rose Wilder Lane (originally published in 1933 as Let the Hurricane Roar)

Grasshoppers by Jane Dallinger

There are also some adult books with grasshopper references. These would be appropriate for reading aloud or for more advanced readers. In Sod and Stubble by John Ise, see chapters nine through twelve.

Grasshoppers can also offer an opportunity for vocabulary enrichment. Any or all of the following words could be incorporated into an exercise for dictionary practice, spelling, or a word puzzle.

chirr-to make a characteristic shrill trilling sound as a grasshopper

Eos-in Greek mythology, goddess of the dawn

grasshopper-any of numerous orthopterous insects having hind legs adapted for leaping and chewing mouth parts

grig-n. Brit. dial. a cricket or grasshopper

jump-to spring clear of the ground, to leap

katydid-any of several large, usually green, American long-horned grasshoppers

molt-to shed feathers, skin or the like, that will be replaced by new growth

Orthoptera-order of insects including cockroaches, mantids, walking sticks, crickets, grasshoppers, and katydids

pest-an insect or other small animal that harms or destroys plants, trees, etc.

Tithonus-in Greek mythology, a prince of Troy who was changed into a grasshopper by Eos

FOLKLORE: There are many tales about grasshoppers that have become part of Great Plains folklore. As reported in theAnnals of Kansas (July 16, 1913) A Barton County farmer said that they (grasshoppers) were so big that his chickens ran for shelter thinking they were hawks. A Ness County man said it was nothing to see one or two grasshoppers tugging against a steer for a stalk of corn.

Among the most original responses of folk inventors on the plains to chronic grasshopper infestations was a device called the hopperdozer. Used during the 1870s and again during the 1930s, the hopperdozer was a sort of sledge pulled or pushed through a field by a team, or during the 1930s sometimes mounted on a truck bumper. The base was a reservoir filled with coal oil. Rising vertically from the back of this pan was a barrier or screen, cloth, or tar paper. The idea of the contraption was that the hoppers would fly up in front of it, hit the barrier, and die when they fell into the coal oil. Although hopperdozers made little dent in grasshopper populations, farmers at least felt better if they could kill some of the creatures destroying their crops. For more information about hopperdozers see Plains Folk: A Commonplace of the Great Plains by Jim Hoy and Tom Isern.

In 1875, just after the great grasshopper year of 1874, a correspondent of the Prairie Farmer proposed that residents of the region infested with the insects turn the plague to their own advantage by promoting the creatures as food. He pointed out that Egyptian sculptures depicted people eating and selling locusts, that the Book of Leviticus called them clean meat, and that Europeans in India ate the insects curried. The writer himself had tried the hoppers boiled, baked, fried in lard, and cooked au jus. Suggesting that butter and mint seasoned them nicely, he reported that grasshoppers had a distinctive taste that could be cultivated.

Although this may be an activity that you won’t want to try with your students, we include the suggestion to point out that the range of learning opportunities related to grasshoppers is wide and hope that you will find ways to use the information and activities in your classroom.

Annals of Kansas, edited by Kirke Mechem (Topeka: Kansas State Historical Society, 1954, 1956).

More True Tales of Old-Time Kansas. David Dary (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1987).

Plains Folk. Jim Hoy and Tom Isern (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987).

Sod and Stubble. John Ise (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997).

This Place Called Kansas. Charles C. Howes (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952).


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