Grasshopper quelea

Quelea – agent-based design for Grasshopper

Agent-Based Design for Grasshopper
+ A new paradigm for 3D modeling utilizing agents.
+ Assign forces and behaviors to systems of agents to create interactions.
+ Utilize any data to drive the system.
+ Easily debug your system by displaying individual force vectors.
+ High performance, parallel algorithms, spatial data-structures.
+ Write your own custom forces, no coding required.
+ Open source framework for others to build custom behaviors.
+ Boid forces: Cohese, Separate, Align, & View.
+ Contain Agents within Brep, Box, Surface, and Polysurface environments.
+ Forces: Path Follow, Attract, Contain, Surface Flow, Seek, Arrive, Avoid Obstacle, Avoid Unaligned Collision, Sense Image, Sense Point, & more to come.
+ Behaviors: Bounce Contain, Kill Contain, Initial Velocity, Eat, Set Velocity, & more to come.

+ Behaviors to drive simulations of people and vehicles.

+ Temporal inputs can change the actions of the system over time.

If you find any bugs or have any feature requests please post them on the GitHub Issue Tracker which will allow everyone to see which bugs are open or closed and allows me to update you when it is fixed.

This is an open source project so if you need custom defined forces or behaviors for your project reach out to me about becoming a committer.

View the project on GitHub

To get started check out this video tutorial on how to set up a basic particle scene. Follow along with this example script.

Learn how to set up a flocking simulation with agents in this video tutorial and example file.

To learn more about the polymorphic type system in the latest release of Quelea see this video explanation.

For questions on how to use Quelea, please create a new Discussion.

Hello Alex and everyone

Quelea is great. Thanks for sharing.

I was struggling with the combination of 2 or 3 quelea systems, I would like to have the output particules position from the 1st system as enviroment for another system. I have managed to make a working solution.

My problem is on 2nd system. It only gives me the results i want (number of particules, position and velocity) when engine is set to reset, thus not being able to produce cuntinuous behavior.

I recreated the file a couple of time to avoid mistakes. but still the same. Maybe my poor knowledge of the plugin or a code bug? I attached the gh file and a screenshot for a general view. Any suggestion is welcome. Thanks in advance.

Hi I’am architecture student of KMITL form Thailand.I wanna to write script about phototaxis of algae to their food ex. I have start point(Emiter) and agent will move to Food point and division itself.How to write the script? Thank you

doolittles

Can anyone please help me solve why the flow on surface definition that I followed according to the tutorial doesn’t seem to be doing the water simulations correctly on my hypar model?

www.grasshopper3d.com

Food4Rhino

Agent-Based Modeling for Designers
+ A new paradigm for 3D modeling utilizing agents.
+ Assign forces and behaviors to systems of agents to create interactions.
+ Utilize any data to drive the system.
+ Easily debug your system by displaying individual force vectors.
+ High performance, parallel algorithms, spatial data-structures.
+ Write your own custom forces, no coding required.
+ Open source framework for others to build custom behaviors.
+ Boid forces: Cohese, Separate, Align, & View.
+ Contain Agents within Brep, Box, Surface, and Polysurface environments.
+ Forces: Path Follow, Attract, Contain, Surface Flow, Seek, Arrive, Avoid Obstacle, Avoid Unaligned Collision, Sense Image, Sense Point, & more to come.
+ Behaviors: Bounce Contain, Kill Contain, Initial Velocity, Eat, Set Velocity, & more to come.

+ Behaviors to drive simulations of people and vehicles.

+ Temporal inputs can change the actions of the system over time.

View the source code on GitHub

Join the Group on Grasshopper3d.com

I have tested this project, but it is the first release and it might still contain bugs. Please use it “as is”, it does not come with warranties. I spent a lot of time developing the logic and implementing it, please give credit where credit is due.

If you find any bugs or have any feature requests please post them on the GitHub Issue Tracker which will allow everyone to see which bugs are open or closed and allows me to update you when it is fixed.

Before you install Quelea, uninstall the previous version called Agent to avoid conflicts. Just go to the Components folder and delete Agent.gha.

  • In Grasshopper, choose File > Special Folders > Components folder. Save the gha file there.
  • Right-click the file > Properties > make sure there is no “blocked” text
  • Restart Rhino and Grasshopper

To get started check out this video tutorial on how to set up a basic particle scene. Follow along with this example script.

Learn how to set up a flocking simulation with agents in this video tutorial and example file.

To learn more about the polymorphic type system in the latest release of Quelea see this video explanation.

www.food4rhino.com

Quelea: an Agent Based Model Plug-in

An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole. It combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence, computational sociology, multi-agent systems, and evolutionary programming.

In most software, ABM is achieved with code written in C or Python. In Grasshopper we can program with C, VB or Python as well, but a Plug-in named Quelea created by Alex Fischer can help us to build up a simple ABM more easily.

First, what’s interesting, Quelea is a kind of gregarous bird, which means that they always appear as a group. That’s perfectly what we want to see in an ABM!

a general example:

In this example, an circle environment is set which limited the boundary Agent can move around. And several Obstacles are placed in the circle. That is a simple space model.

Component named System in Quelea is as important as Kangaroo in Kangaroo. It creates the Agents we looking forward to.

And Agent Rules Component is another important part in this plug-in, which sets rules to create some force to affect the way our Agents move along.

Here’s the program graph:

and here’s the trajectory of ten Agents we created.

parametriczju.org

Уважаемый абонент!

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www.linkedin.com

Product Range

Micron AU8115

The Micron AU8115 is a self-contained vehicle mounted Controlled Droplet Application (CDA) sprayer designed for a wide range of migrant pest, public health and agricultural spraying tasks. The sprayer utilises Micron rotary cage spray technology to produce spray droplets of a precise and consistent size.

The rotary atomiser is driven by a powerful airstream generated from an engine-driven blower mounted at the base of the unit. During operation, the airstream carries the spray droplets away from the vehicle and the operators. This can give an effective release height of up to 15 metres and enables a swath of over 100 metres to be achieved when using a drift spraying technique with a wind speed of 2.5 metres/second or more. Optional extension systems are available for treatment of tree locusts and quelea or for mosquito larviciding.

Applications in:

  • Migrant pest control including locusts, grasshoppers, quelea, armyworm and sunne pest
  • Public health e.g. mosquitoes, flies etc
  • Insecticide and fungicide application in tree and field crops
  • Environmental management (fly control in refuse sites etc.)
  • Powerful airblast to propel spray over large horizontal distances and up to 15m high
  • All controls operated from within vehicle cab for maximum operator safety
  • Rotary cage atomiser for precise control of droplet size
  • Low Volume (LV) and Ultra Low Volume (ULV) capability
  • Completely self-contained unit for reliability and ease of use
  • Solid and durable construction field proven in the harshest environments
  • All components compatible with all formulations and solvent

The AU8115 sprayer is available in two versions:

AU8115E incorporates an electric in-cab controller. This provides a choice of ten pre-set flow rates from 0.2 – 2.5 litres per minute, thus eliminatingthe need for manual calibration of the flow rate. The engine throttle is electrically operated from a switch on the control box.

AU8115M is supplied with a manual in-cab control box with a hand operated lever to control the engine throttle and a switch to operate the pesticide pump. Flow rate can be set by in-line orifice restrictor plates or by an adjustable flow control valve.

Applications

Locust and Grasshopper Control

The Micron AU8115 has a proven track record in locust control having been used in recent programmes to control the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria) in Africa and the Middle East, Italian and Moroccan Locusts in Central Asia and Oriental migratory locusts in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The Micron AU8115 can treat up to 500 ha in a single day using conventional contact insecticides, stomach poisons, insect growth regulators (IGR’s) or newer environmentally benign biopesticides such as Metarhizium fungal pathogens. High work rates, efficacy, ease of use and safety are essential features of the Micron AU8115 sprayer that are internationally recognised by locust control organisations in many countries. The Micron AU8115 was rated best in its class in a recent workshop organised by the UN FAO to evaluate the suitability of locust control equipment.

Public Health

The Micron AU8115 has been widely used for both adulticiding (to control adult flies and mosquitoes) and larviciding to control mosquito nymphs in open water or in drainage canals. The powerful airstream and precisely controlled droplet size allows for the space treatment of expansive urban or residential areas with typically up to 3 – 5 Km2 treated in a single evening. The spray can be projected to a height of up to 15m, ensuring targeting of the most inaccessible areas with an easily adjustable spray head.

High work rates, ease of operation and safety of operators makes the Micron AU8115M a highly versatile sprayer for the control of the vectors of many important public health diseases, allowing health authorities to intervene rapidly to prevent the spread of disease.

Agriculture and Forestry

The Micron AU8115 is also used to control insect pest infestations in field crops such as cotton or wheat. The Micron AU8115 has been deployed to control severe outbreaks of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera and has been used in programmes to eradicate the cotton boll weevil. Timely and rapid intervention is possible due to the capability to spray at ultra low or low volume rates with droplet sizes optimised for deposition on plant foliage. The Micron AU8115 sprayer has also been widely employed to control Sunne Pest (Eurygaster integriceps) in Central Asia and the Near East in wheat crops where up to 50 ha/hour can be treated to prevent damage to the grain. The sprayer is also used for routine bird control (Quelea species) in Eastern and Central Africa to protect cereal crops from devastating damage by large flocks of birds. The Micron AU8115 can target roosting sites by propelling spray high into trees in late evening. An optional mast extension is available to increase spray height.

Insect pests in plantations can also be targeted efficiently where vehicular access is possible. Applications of contact acting pesticides, insect growth regulators and the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been successfully made with this sprayer. Where vehicle access is not possible control can be undertaken with the portable Micron AU8000 back mounted sprayer, which utilises the same rotary atomiser technology.

Environmental Management

The Micron AU8115 is used for routine nuisance fly control in waste disposal sites, landfill and refuse areas. The powerful airstream can disperse spray up to 100 m with a suitable wind to control adult flies. It can also be used to apply insect growth regulators and other products to treat soil or refuse directly to control insect larval stages. The Micron AU8115 can be fitted with an optional extension tube for the treatment of drainage ditches, sewers or other difficult to reach areas.

Micronair Spraytrac GPS track guidance system and Spraymaps software

We also offer Spraytrac precision guidance and reporting system developed specifically for vehicles used for migrant pest spraying. For more information, please download the GPS Handbook below.

www.microngroup.com

Grasshopper quelea

The bumper crop Ethiopia harvested in 1996 (for the 1995 cropping year) may have been a gift attributable to the timely rainfall and lack of severe pest infestation in all but a few locations in Ethiopia, both of which contributed to the record expected 9.4 million metric ton cereal and pulse crop. However, the 1996 prospective crop remains in jeopardy of crop diseases, especially when susceptible crop varieties are considered. This was true in the case of Helminthosporium leaf blight in the South-west and on the maize variety Beletech and the two hybrids BH 140 and BH 540. Late blight of potato is often present and could be destructive if successive moist periods occur without chemical fungicides. There was no armyworm migration in 1995, although already this year there is a possibility of serious outbreaks. Also, this past year several thousand hectares in North and South Welo zones (Amhara Region) were sprayed for grasshoppers and Welo bush crickets. Desert Locusts were not severe but vigilance and spraying controlled the African migratory locust in Eritrea before they reached the Afar national Regional State and Tigray Region. Finally, credit should be given to a record effort to control quelea birds and which resulted in saving grain crops from over 62 million birds that can consume up to 10 grams each per day.

In addition to favourable weather and increased fertilizer use, careful pest control measures will be needed to repeat the crop yields of 1995. The plant health clinic system in the country has been handed over to the regional crop protection departments from central experts. This hand-over has resulted in the employment of new staff only in some cases, whereas in the majority of regions there is no budget for additional manpower. The national strategy for co-ordinating pest control is unclear and some areas may be deficient in appropriate monitoring or implementing services. Although some basic assistance from the Desert Locust Control Organisation for East Africa (DLCO-EA) exists, it too is under severe budgetary constraints. A national priority need, which should be immediately implemented, is to fully fund, staff and train those who will be responsible for control of the expected hazards and for protocol procedures necessary to stave off serious crop losses.

Pesticide use of crop protection activities of the past year

The serious non-migratory crop hazards encountered in the 1995 crop included insect infestations in North and South Welo zones of Region 3, late blight on potato/tomato and leaf blight on maize. The Welo bush cricket ( Degeza ) and grass hopper frequently damage cereal crops of the Welo area because the dry climate with grasses and forks around the fields are inviting habitats for egg laying. Save the Children-UK has been training the Ministry of Agriculture staff in pest management and the MoA allotted some chemicals to North/South Welo for control of these pests. Several thousand hectares were ground sprayed and the local practice of thrashing with thorn branches was employed. Chemical safety is being monitored by the National Research Institute of England and is now seen as a necessary component of integrated food security.

The late blight fungus, Phythopthera infestans, got its name from the blackened leaf symptoms developed late in the growing season just when the tiny potato tubers or tomato fruits formed are enlarging. Surface leaf moisture from late season rain or dew allows fungus growth to quickly defoliate plants leaving only bare stems and small tubers or fruits. Chemical sprays like Zineb must be on the leaf prior to the moisture to revert fungus germination and infection. If rainfall continues to wash off the protection, repeated application is required until tuber filling or fruit growth has matured. As genetic resistance is difficult to stabilise due to different races of the fungus, the Institute of Agricultural Research is encouraging early belg planting as well as spraying programmes to avoid the high moisture regimes conducive to late blight fungus formation during the meher season.

Leaf blight on maize, Helminthosporium turticum , is common throughout the world and develops during warm moist conditions. Long periods of leaf surface moisture allow fungus development and toxin production. Leaf lesions prevent carbohydrate synthesis and starch accumulation resulting in shrunken grain. however in this case stable genetic sources of resistance have been utilized to adequately control the disease. In the case of Ethiopia, use of the high yield potential variety Beletech and the hybrids BH 140 and 540 which are susceptible to leaf blight will have to be limited.

Although Desert Locust did not develop this year, the related African Migratory Locust did necessitate preventative measures (Table 1). Forty crop protection staff each at Dire Dawa and Mekele received training in March, just in time for the outbreaks that occurred in early May around Dire Dawa/ Jijiga and moved north through Eritrea just touching the edge of Afar, Welo and Tigray. Several thousand litres of chemical were applied largely in Eritrea and 60 of the 100 scouts remain under deployment, 20 in Afar, 10 in Tigray, 10 around Jijiga, 10 around Dire Dawa and 10 around Dhegehabur. Scouting continues because summer, winter and spring breeding and migration depends on rainfall and vegetation, both of which are present.

The major activity within Ethiopia in 1995 concerned the quelea quelea bird populations that developed in the Weyto area of South Omo, migrated through the sorghum producing areas of Konso and Gidole, and finally expanded throughout the Rift Valley as fare north as Shewa Robit. Although grass seeds are their natural food, considerable damage occurs n sorghum and wheat. The flocks break up and eat as much as 10 grams per bird through the day, but return en mass to water sources and roost in brushy areas. Control consists of scouting the roosting sites at early dawn and dusk followed by aerial spraying of roosting birds just before darkness with Queltox, a feather-oil solvents that results in death by hypothermia. An estimated 62.2 million quelea birds were killed by spraying 3,275 litres of chemical over 1,642.5 hectares of roosting sites. Consumption of a potential 6,200 quintals/day over a 45-60 day breeding and nesting period would have seriously reduced cereal harvests, not to mention the additional damage of stem breakage caused by the weight of feeding birds.

Pesticide inventories for combating crop production hazards in 1996

The current stocks and tenders for chemicals to control both migratory and common non-migratory pests are listed (Table 2a, b and c). There is a good stock of chemicals in inventory, although a large portion is at the port waiting customs clearance and others are in central stores and are not yet allocated. The government policy is to maintain a supply of migratory pest chemicals while encouraging private importation of other agri-chemicals. One company is reported to be importing Actellic (used for the protection of harvested grain) in 5 gram packets, enough to treat one quintal of crop. This packet size is more convenient for the small farmer, although it is admittedly more expensive than the 10 kg package.

It also appears that the government is encouraging more judicious usage of pesticide inventories. During the current (1996) armyworm outbreak, regions and zones were given their allocation of pesticide and told to utilise them only on cropland that was affected beyond the economic threshold. Priority was given to farmers participating in the extension demonstration programme. Rather than handing out chemicals and sprayers to farmers and to avoid improper use in Region 5, where many development agents are yet inexperienced, spraying teams were formed to assess the need for spraying as well as to control application.

Responsible organizations and current capacity to function

The plant health clinics have been turned over to the respective regions and no system has been put in place for monitoring outbreaks and co-ordinating control operations. While the Sholla Plant Protection remains responsible for national monitoring of remote areas and co-ordinating control operations, it has no authority to direct surveillance in the regions, to assure proper forecast data collection or to manage supplies and equipment needed to combat outbreaks. It is important to delineate an interim structure or contingency plan until the regions are clear about their role and their clinics become fully operational to cover the entire nation.

Clinics are located in Zway, Awassa, Goba, Harar, Kombolcha, Mekele, Bahir Dar and Jimma. However, the Awassa clinic, which formerly served Borena as well, now has to get permission from Addis Ababa to enter areas adjacent to Sidama and areas south-west of the Jimma clinic are monitored form Awassa. The Harar clinic, which formerly served Afar, Oromiya and Somali Regions, has been claimed by Region 13 (Harar). Structurally, the clinics are now under the regulatory division of the regional agriculture bureaus. Some of the people who were sent from the centre have left and have been replaced by regional staff to eliminate some duplication. Most of the clinics have received a budget; however, it will be up to the region, and not Addis Ababa, to determine the adequacy of staff levels and operational costs.

The rational behind decentralisation was that regional mandates should make the clinics more responsive. But the nation as a whole may be threatened if any of the regions lack trained manpower, adequate budgetary capacity or willingness to share limited resources when the time comes to co-operate in controlling a national threat.

The Sholla Plant Protection Laboratory of the MoA retains the mandated for monitoring and co-ordinating at the national level but will be more involved with training and assisting the regions. There is no immediate plan to dismantle the laboratory system and they continue to provide a pool of expertise should the need arise or if any region requests assistance.

Personnel from Sholla, along with assistance from USAID’s Africa Emergency Locust/Grasshopper Assistance Project, gave training t 100 regional staff in Dire Dawa (Oromiya Region), Dessie (Amhara Region) and Mekele (Tigray Region) areas. The emergency pest management course covered biology, surveying and control of grass hoppers and locusts. USAID now has an environmental impact statement which would allow it to participate in emergency control operations and supply of chemicals. Although Ethiopian staff are now up to date on technical information, the supply of chemicals, distribution to remote areas and logistics of control operations are seriously lacking; moreover, inter-regional co-ordination system is now questionable.

About 100 armyworm pheromone traps are operating in the countryside, but their capability of forecasting an armyworm outbreak may be unreliable. Although training was given in 1995, appreciation or even possibility of reporting outbreaks is not known. Occurrence of greater than 10 moths on any one day signals an outbreak within a week. Reporting is usually monthly by mail or in person and often arrives too late to be of forecasting use. Trap operators are requested to notify the wereda the same day of an impending outbreak but often even the wereda has no phone service. Sholla plans to evaluate the capabilities of the individual regions and advise corrective measures.

Sholla is also concerned about the capability to adequately control quelea birds across the regions. Quelea is more likely to occur on a perennial basis than migratory insects but damage is not so well recognised. Since spraying is confined to aerial application at dusk, proximity to a landing strip is critical. Maintenance of local gravel runways in the Rift Valley is necessary. Sholla also plans to explore prediction of Quelea migration and damage by other grain eating birds.

The Desert Locust Control Organization – East Africa (DLCO-EA) is almost defunct since only Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya and potentially Tanzania have paid their dues. Past accounts have not been settled and only the most urgent activities are carried out at present. The transfer of control to the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) has not yet materialised. The DLCO aircraft and vehicles are badly in need of retro-fitting and spare parts. About a half million dollars is needed to:

  • -re-engine the aircraft and purchase spare parts
  • -replace/repair ground support vehicles
  • -support ground and air operations
  • -payment of terminated personnel One aircraft is presently in Tanzania combating quelea and red locusts, which are becoming more widespread, but a second requested aircraft has thus far been denied. An operational base has been strategically established in Dire Dawa to co-ordinate the usually active eastern front where locusts, grasshoppers, quelea and armyworm can frequently be expected. Cross border surveys and information is lacking from Sudan and Somalia, except from Hargeysa (north-west Somalia). Armyworm traps in Gode and Dollo (Ethiopian Somali Region) as well as western Kenya can compensate to some extent. However, as per diem funds are not available for verification of reported outbreaks in Kenya and Tanzania, confirmation reports have not been forthcoming. Already outbreaks of armyworm in South Omo, Borena and West Hararghe zones (Oromiya Region) are being confirmed by the Ministry of Agriculture.

    www.africa.upenn.edu

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