Eastern Mongolian Steppes — UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Eastern Mongolian Steppes


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Property names are listed in the language in which they have been submitted by the State Party


1. Eastern Mongolian Strictly Protected Area

116 16 49.799 E 46 8 13.135 N

116 11 39.766 E 46 36 4.169 N

117 21 52.927 E 46 49 49.737 N

118 15 28.66 E 46 42 55. 58 N

117 22 6.248 E 46 21 38.269 N

118 27 45.617 E 46 44 26.753 N

2. Toson Khulstai National Park

112 29 42.532 E 48 17 24.388 N

112 58 5.412 E 48 21 5 .353 N

113 56 45.156 E 48 41 53.5 N

112 38 25.5 8 E 47 5 11.819 N

3. Bayantsagaan Steppe Natural Reserve

112 48 26.969 E 47 15 23.852 N

113 51 44.12 E 47 35 41.292 N

113 25 55. 89 E 47 6 .93 N

113 51 59.29 E 47 13 17.493 N

4. Jaran Togoon Steppe (two areas)

114 2 E, 47 17 N

5. Yakhi Nuur Natural Reserve

114 3 43.367 E 48 33 29.468 N

114 51 5 .336 E 48 56 34.459 N

114 22 24.313 E 49 5 37. 5 N

112 58 5.412 E 48 21 5 .353 N

The Eastern Mongolian Steppes are home to the largest remaining intact temperate grasslands of the Earth. The ecosystem of Eastern Mongolian Steppes is characterized by treeless flat steppes, gently rolling hills, wetlands, and interlinkages with the Khyangan Mountain Range all the way to the border with the People’s Republic of China. The proposed serial property has five components with a total surface area of some 2 million ha, outstanding components representing the vast ecosystem.

The Eastern Steppes are an exceptional ecoregion within the vast Eurasian Steppes spanning from the European Pannonian Steppe to the Mongolian-Manchurian grasslands due to its intactness, relatively high altitude and northern latitude. The main distinctive characteristic of the proposed property compared to other steppe ecosystems is that it is dominated by grasslands across thousands of square kilometres with several species of bush and shrubbery. The herds of an estimated 1.5 to 2 million of Mongolian white-tailed gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) are an inseparable element of the ecosystem, both inhabiting and shaping it. Furthermore, 25 species of mammals, 174 species of birds, 2 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles have been recorded.

The Eastern Mongolian Steppes are dominated by 5 types of grasses including Stipa krylovii, Stipa grandis, Festuca lenensis. There are a total of 11 3 species of flora in Eastern Mongolian Steppes. There are four species of endemic plants, 9 species of sub-endemic plants, critically endangered 1 species of plants, endangered 8 species, 18 species of medicinal plants and 7 species of other plants.

The Eastern Mongolian Steppes are the home of the Mongolian white-tailed gazelle (Procapra gutturosa) and secondly, it is the home of habitat for a number of Asian species such as raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), transbaikal zokor (Myospalax psilurus), and Asian particolored bat (Vespertilio sinensis), at the western edge of region. The Eastern Mongolian Steppes also represent the eastern limit of the Central Asian mountain ranges and the most eastern range of the habitats for a number of species including goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), Argali sheep (Ovis ammon), Mongolian marmot (Marmota sibirica), five-toed pygmy jerboa (Cardiocranius paradoxus), Kozlov’s pygmy jerboa (Salpingotus kozlovi), long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus) and great bustard (Otis tarda).

The following components are proposed as a serial property of the Eastern Mongolian Steppes:

— Dornod Mongolia Strictly Protected Area (589,9 6 ha);

— Toson Khulstai Natural Reserve (458,51 ha);

— Bayantsagaan Steppes Natural Reserve (332,362 ha);

— Yakhi Nuur Natural Reserve (251,218 ha); and

— Jaran Togoo Steppes (381,476 ha).

The five components have a total area of 2. 1 million ha.

Justification of Outstanding Universal Value

The Eastern Mongolian Steppes are a vast ecosystem representing the stipa grasslands of Central Asia. The Eastern Mongolian Steppes are a representative area for conservation of pristine grasslands of the steppe zone of not only Mongolia but of Central Asia; there are no comparable pristine steppe ecosystem in the world.

The Eastern Mongolian Steppes are able to represent an array of characteristics of intact grassland ecosystems of the world in its beautiful landscape, and it is home for the wildlife including Mongolian white-tailed gazelle and many rare and endangered species of plants (over 1 plant species), various species of migratory and resident birds that are specially protected.

Therefore, the Eastern Mongolian Steppes can be a World Heritage Site with outstanding universal value, protecting and conserving the most intact grassland ecosystems and its rich biodiversity.

Criterion (ix): The proposed area is a comprised of a network of five large protected areas jointly conserving the best representations of the last intact large-scale stipa grassland ecosystem in the world. The Eastern Mongolia Steppes represent on-going ecological and biological processes of the stipa grassland ecosystem and its native species of plants and wildlife that have adapted over years to the Eastern Mongolian Steppes ecosystem.

Criterion (x): The Eastern Mongolia Steppes are the eastern wing of the Eurasian Great Steppes and is the only natural habitat of the Mongolian white-tailed gazelle herds in the world, and home to other rare and endangered species of plants and animals. The Eastern Mongolia Steppes is the only place on earth where the white-tailed gazelle can be found and it is of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science and conservation, as the protection of Eastern Mongolia Steppes is critical to the conservation of biological diversity and survival of white-tailed gazelle.

Statements of authenticity and/or integrity

Certain parts of the Eastern Mongolian Steppes with extraordinary conservation values have been designated as Specially Protected Areas of Mongolia. The parts that have been protected include areas of pristine grasslands that show the characteristics of grassland ecosystems. Currently, there are no major or acute threats to the outstanding universal value of the Eastern Mongolian Steppes.

The proposed serial property has preserved the natural characteristics of grassland ecosystems at a very large landscape scale and protects the natural habitat of wild animals where they can migrate and breed freely. There is adequate management and financial resources, and favourable legal environment to continue conserving the various components forming the proposed property.

Comparison with other similar properties

There are no World Heritage sites that are fully comparable to the Eastern Mongolian Steppes. However, there are similarities with the World Heritage properties of “Saryaka — Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan” of Kazakhstan, and “Serengeti National Park” of Tanzania. While there are also similar temperate and tropical steppe ecosystems in North and South America, Central Asia and Australia, most of them have been heavily impacted by human activities and have lost their pristine conditions. The Eastern Mongolia Steppes are relatively unaffected by human activities. Similar large herd migration activity can only be seen in the Serengeti of East Africa, and in Saryaka steppe of Kazakhstan. Additionally the proposed property is home to the globally important populations of threatened species.


Saker Falcon bird. Description, features, species, lifestyle and habitat of the saker

Saker Falcon is the only falcon capable of producing a gazelle. The remaining birds of this detachment, when trying to attack big game, broke the sternum. The movements of this noble hunter are quick and polished, but not as lightning fast as his relatives, which gives more chances for maneuver. He is handsome, graceful, and very dangerous when hunting.

Description and Features

Among the variety of plumage tones, light gray from below and brown-red from above prevail. Saker flesh young and older painted in lighter colors. On the shoulders and wings are transverse elongated spots of ocher color.

Wax, paws and fledgling rings around the eyes of young animals are gray with blue. A strong beak bent downwards of the same color, black at the end. As they grow older, the color in these areas, except for the beak, becomes yellow.

Birds acquire their final permanent outfit after the first full molt, occurring in a year and a half. It begins in May and lasts 5 months. Wing — 37-42 cm, tail — 24 cm. Body length slightly more than half a meter. Balaban photo not bright, but the appearance is strict and elegant.

The size is slightly inferior to the gyrfalcon. In flight, it differs from the falcon in large tail size, wingspan. Females weigh 1.3 kg, males weigh 1 kg. A bird for decent weight and size is sometimes called golden eagle-balaban. But this is not true. Golden eagle is the largest of the order of falcons, except scavengers. Its weight exceeds the saker by four times. It differs from peregrine falcon in the absence of dark stripes running along the neck.

When flying, flaps are infrequent. The bird glides and soars for a long time with the help of associated streams. The males differ from the females in smaller sizes, the plumage is identical. During mating games, the danger saker makes different sounds and even hoarse trills. Basically it is a dull and crude «hacking», «hecking» and «chacking».


There are six types of balabans, distinguished by places of settlements and plumage:

  1. Siberian Saker

Yellow-red spots of a brown back form cross-pieces. The head is also brown, but lighter by a couple of tones, decorated with dark streaks. The belly is white with yellow. Boca, plumage of tibiae light with a faint pattern.

It lives in the mountainous regions of Central Siberia.

The upper body is brown. Feathers on the edges are painted in ocher color. The head is distinguished by a lighter gray-brown tone with black streaks. On the neck common balaban the so-called mustache is weakly visible. On the white belly, dark spots are drop-shaped. Under the tail, on the sides, the plumage is plain.

The population is found in southwestern Siberia, Kazakhstan.

  1. Turkestan Saker

Unlike the previous species, the color of the Turkestan saker, which lives in Central Asia, is more saturated. The brownish-reddish head transforms into a brown-gray plumage of the back and tail with clearly visible transverse patterns.

  1. Mongolian Saker

A bright head stands out against the background of a brown back with crossbars. «Pants» and sides are decorated with a pattern of dark stripes and spots. Mongolian saker lives in Transbaikalia, Mongolia.

  1. Altai Saker Falcon

In size, the representatives of the species are similar to an ordinary balaban, the same large. The head is dark, body color is dark brown with a gray tint in the lumbar region. On the plumage of the paws, the sides there are pronounced transverse stripes. The distribution areas include the Altai and Sayan mountains in Central Asia.

  1. Aralocaspian saker

It lives in Western Kazakhstan on the Mangyshlak Peninsula, stands out with a light, brownish tint with its back with light cross-pieces. Dark blue loin, and «pants», sides adorn the longitudinal stripes of dark color.

Lifestyle & Habitat

Saker Falcon is found throughout Central and Asia Minor, Armenia, Southern Siberia, and Kazakhstan. A few individuals were seen in Hungary, Romania. Places for settlements are chosen open with nearby cliffs or forest edges.

Mountain falcons roam vertically, plains fly off to the coast of the Mediterranean, to China, India. Few groups are seen even in Ethiopia and Egypt. Saker Falcons are saddled in the southern regions. With a lack of places for nesting, birds build them on the supports of high-voltage lines, railway bridges.

They love to settle among herons, but the mutual benefits of living together by scientists have not yet been studied. Herons are supposed to warn falcons of danger.

Saker starts hunting early in the morning or in the evening, sitting higher on a single-standing tree, a cliff ledge, or hovering over the steppe. Seeing a suitable object, in flight hangs over the victim. Dives down at high speed or catches prey in horizontal flight.

There is no sound around at this moment. All living creatures hide in shelters, waiting for danger. The saker is capable of not only rushing down for prey, but also chasing it like a hawk in an open field or shrubbery. Therefore, hunting is always successful.

Grabbing the prey with its claws, the falcon carries it to a dry, elevated place where it begins the meal. The heat of the day waits on a tree in the shadow of a crown. With the onset of twilight flies for the night.

The hunting grounds of each pair extend 20 km from the nest. The fact that the saker does not get meat near the house, smaller birds use it. They live quietly and breed in the neighborhood, feeling protected. Experienced falconers say that the saker can be trained to hunt by hand in two weeks.

The owner first of all establishes a strong invisible connection with the bird. To do this, as often as possible take her hand, treat them with pieces of meat. Pheasant training begins during the gathering of young animals. Hunting skills and abilities will grow with them.

For sports hunting, they take home chicks from a nest or fledgling. To tame an adult balaban is not enough for a few. They train to get game not only from the hand, but also from the flight. In the second case, the presence of hunting dogs is assumed. Trained on a certain type of trophies. It can be a bird or a wild animal.

The list of objects of hunting balabana falcon ornithologists studied by food residues in nesting places, riddles. It turned out that birds in the first place, according to preferences, are small mammals:

  • gray and red gophers;
  • mouse voles;
  • hamsters
  • jerboas;
  • young hares.

In addition to eating rodents that destroy agricultural crops, sakers eat lizards, numerous species of small and medium birds. The prey of the falcon is enough in flight or from the ground.

In the diet there are birds of the families:

  • pigeon-like (turtledove, vakhir);
  • corvids (jackdaw, jay, rook, magpie);
  • ducks (curlew, mallard, blacken);
  • blackbirds;
  • pheasant (partridge).

Of the largest in the claws of a balaban, geese, bustards, herons, and streptos come across. The period of feeding the offspring is characterized by the extraction of numerous small larks, rodents, which are obtained by parents for 5-15 km from the nesting site.

Reproduction and longevity

Maturity, the ability to care for offspring saker bird acquires by the year. Couples are formed only during the mating season, the rest of the time individuals live apart from each other. From the end of March, they begin to look for nests located in natural excavations on steep cliffs.

Saker Falcons, preferring forest-steppes, take away housing for future chicks from buzzards, ravens, kites, sometimes eagles, having slightly repaired them.

For a month, the female incubates three to five eggs that were laid back in April with red large interspersed eggs. The successful appearance of the chicks depends on the efforts of the male. He must take care of his girlfriend, feed twice a day, sometimes substitute. If for some reason the saker abandons his duties, the nest will be thrown.

Hatched chicks are covered with rare white fluff. Paws, beak and okologlazye of gray-blue color. Parents feed the offspring with small birds and rodents for a month and a half, until the brood is on the wing. Ornithologists have estimated that during their stay in the nest, one chick eats up to five kilograms of meat.

Parents do not teach young growth hunting, they have these skills laid down at the level of instincts. It is believed that adults do not hunt game near nesting sites to create food reserve for fledglings for the first time. Chicks fly out of the nest by two months, starting an independent life.

Saker falcons create one pair for several years, the offspring are bred once in two years. They live an average of 20 years. Some long-livers cross the 28-year frontier.Squirrel in the Red Book Russia is due to the threat of extinction.

Saker birds of rare species of wild birds are still caught and raised by poachers for falconry. The destruction of nests, poor environmental conditions, and the reduction of human-free habitat have led to the fact that the bird is listed in Appendix 2 of the Bonn and Vienna Conventions, is prohibited for international trade as an endangered species.

Over the past half century, the number of Saker Falcon in Russia has halved. The population in Poland and Austria completely disappeared. A rare guest was a bird on the Balkan Peninsula.

Growth limits the reduction of their main food resource — marmots. The marten is breaking its nests. Every year, about two hundred poachers are detained at the customs of Russia and Kazakhstan, trying to smuggle sakers abroad for resale to Arab fans of falconry.

In Altai, there are not enough natural nesting sites in the presence of marmot colonies. Zoodefenders try by all means to increase the number of endangered birds. They build artificial nesting places and plant wild birds in the nurseries for wild birds.

They monitor adulthood, feed them if necessary. Only by working laws and the efforts of caring people will they be able to save the rare species of the proud beautiful bird of the falcon order — the Saker Falcon.


Types of grasshoppers. Descriptions, names and features of grasshopper species

Grasshoppers are grasshoppers. This superfamily detachment of orthopteran insects. He has sub-squads. Grasshoppers are long-haired. In it one family of the same name. It used to be more, but the other long-wolf were extinct.

However, the number of grasshoppers closes the «gap». More than 7 thousand species are known. They are divided into genera. Consider examples.

Sarogolovye grasshoppers

Otherwise they are called fatheads, because they have a fleshy, broad body. The head of insects, as is clear from the name, is spherical. Antennae are planted on it below the eyes. Even sharogolovov shortened elytra. The organs of hearing are located on the fore tibia. There are visible cracks. This is the ears.

Sevchuk Servilya

This is a medium sized grasshopper. The two-centimeter body of the insect is dense, wide, looks short. Painted grasshopper in brown. The pronotum has yellow markings on the flattened pronotum.

Side keels of Servil expressed. By the way, an insect is named after an entomologist from France. Guy Odin-Serville dedicated his life to the study of orthoptera.

Its name sevchuk servily received in honor of the French entomologist

The European species, on the verge of extinction, is included in the species of large grasshoppers. The males of the species are 8 centimeters. The length of the females is 6 centimeters.

Grasshopper Fatun

The names of grasshoppers are often due to their appearance. Fatty, for example, looks plump, even fat. Due to this, the visually black-brown body of the insect appears shorter. Volumes are also added by sharp keels on the sides of the grasshopper pronotum.

Greenhouse Grasshoppers

They are hunchy and stocky. The body of greenhouse grasshoppers is shortened, but the females have a long ovipositor. Representatives of the genus are also long legs and mustache. The latter reach 8 centimeters.

Chinese Greenhouse Grasshopper

In length a little less than 2 centimeters. The shortened body surrounded by long, thin legs makes the insect look like a spider.

Painted Chinese grasshopper in brown. There are dark spots. They, like the rest of the body, are covered with short, silky hairs. They, together with the chitinous shell, are thrown off by an insect about 10 times in life. For grasshoppers this is a record.

Far Eastern grasshopper

Included in the species of grasshoppers in Russia. Insect is otherwise called cave, because it settles not only in greenhouses, but also karst cavities of rocks.

Far Eastern grasshopper of medium size, brown-gray. Insect is nocturnal. This distinguishes the look of most grasshoppers.


In the genus one species. In Russia, its representatives are the largest grasshoppers. Dyby green, on the sides have light stripes. Stretched body reaches a length of 15 centimeters.

She is a predator. Among the grasshoppers there are herbivores. Predation does not help steppe survive. Species declared endangered.

Steppe dybok no males. Females use partonogenesis. Eggs are laid and developed without fertilization. Other grasshoppers are not capable.

Steppe dybka listed in the Red Book of insects

Field grasshoppers

They have a laterally compressed torso with a spindle-shaped abdomen and slightly compressed from above. Even field grasshoppers, forehead and big-headed, are often devoid of simple eyes and tightly pressed lips. The jaws of insect groups are well developed.

Green grasshopper

Cannot be larger than 7 centimeters in length. Painted insect in green. Especially juicy color on the wings. Their 2 pairs. This is a feature of all grasshoppers. The first narrow pair of wings they use to protect the body at rest, jump. The upper wings are wide, used for flight.

On the wings of a green grasshopper on the edge can be placed brown. On the face of the insect are large eyes. They are faceted, that is, they are held on the head by a ring of cuticle — a stiff but flexible fabric.

There are subspecies of green grasshoppers. They all hide in the crown of bushes, trees. Therefore, insects do not jump out from under people’s feet. Accordingly, meetings with representatives of the group are rare.


This is a mini copy of a green grasshopper. Singing does not grow more than 3.5 centimeters. 3 more may be in the egg deposit.

The wings of a singing grasshopper end flush with the abdomen. The representatives of the green species wings significantly protrude.

Gray grasshopper

It grows up to 4 centimeters in length. The appearance of the grasshopper corresponds to the name. The abundance of brown spots on a green background makes the insect gray when viewed from a distance. See gray grasshoppers easy. Insects live in the field, steppe grasses, easily enduring the heat.

Due to the prevalence and large size of gray grasshoppers, they are confused with locusts belonging to the suborder of the short-arms. In its name lies the distinction of insects.

The antennae of a gray grasshopper are often longer than its body. Locust mustaches are short. The chaffing mechanism also differs. Locusts make sounds, rubbing their paws together. Grasshopper arching elytra.

Long-nosed grasshopper

Represents the fauna of Europe. Insect length does not exceed 6.3 centimeters. The color of the grasshopper is brown-green.

Long-nosed insect named because of the elongated front of the face. The grasshopper seems to be supplied with a proboscis.

Gray is one of the most common types of grasshoppers.

The grasshopper lives in the Malay Archipelago.

The combination is only found in New Zealand. It weighs about 70 grams, that is 2 times more than a sparrow. The length of a well-fed grasshopper reaches 15 centimeters. The rest of the appearance is not remarkable. The insect is painted in beige-brown tones.

The legs are of medium-sized giant whiteness, the eye is of medium size, and the mustache is of mediocre length compared to the size of the body.

The gigantism of New Zealand grasshoppers is due to the absence of small mammals on the islands. For lack of enemies, the ues almost reached their size. However, in the 20th century, mammals were brought to the fields of Zealand. Because of this, the number of giant grasshoppers is declining.

Flightless grasshoppers

Some grasshoppers are devoid of wings. As a rule, they are inhabitants of fields, stony mounds. Grasshoppers, climbing on the trees, the wings retain. However, there are species with spikes on the legs. Needles, like spurs, dig into the stalks, fixing insects.

Various grasshopper

The Latin title is opean varicolor. The body of the grasshopper is colored white, red and blue. There is a orange-black subspecies. However, the grasshopper is not only interesting. The insect is devoid of wings.

Opean varicolor articular antennae powerful, pointed at the ends, straight. Power and rear legs are different. The limbs of the insect, like all grasshoppers, 3 pairs. There is a species in Colombia.

Mormon Grasshopper

A large representative of the long-strikers, drawn out by 8 centimeters. Almost half of them in females may occur in the egg-deposit.

Mormons are wingless, herbivorous. As a rule, insects lodge among legumes and wormwood. Geographically, Mormons-grasshoppers to the western regions of North America.


This grasshopper mimics, that is, takes the form of another being. It’s about the ant. Taking its form, macroxifus reduces the number of potential enemies.

Grasshopper in Macroxifus produce long hind legs and elongated antennae. The rest of the insects are similar to large black ants.

Exotic grasshoppers

There are types of grasshoppers hardly recognized as such. The case in unusual shapes, colors. Non-standard grasshoppers live in the tropics.

Peruvian Grasshopper

Opened in the 2006th year in the mountains of Guyana. Grasshopper imitates the color of the fallen leaf. Externally, the insect also reminds him. The outer side of the folded wings is dotted with a grid pattern. He repeats the capillary pattern on the dried green.

In order to resemble a fox in shape, the grasshopper folds its wings, closing its sides and solid space above the back.

The wrong side of the wings of the Peruvian grasshopper is painted as a butterfly. Peacock eye. She chose such a pattern to scare away predators. Seeing the «eyes» on the wings of an insect, they take it for a bird and another animal. The same trick is used by the Peruvian grasshopper. It also bounces characteristically in order to resemble the head of a large bird.

The Peruvian grasshopper opens its wings and looks like a butterfly.

Grasshopper rhino

It also resembles a piece, but green. The color is juicy, closer to light green. The antennae of the insect are forest-like threads. They are barely noticeable, translucent, much longer than the body.

The name of the insect is associated with the presence of a horn on its head. It is also green, attached to the back of the head, like a leaflet.

Spiny Devil

Considering the types of grasshoppers in the photo, it is difficult not to stop looking at the devil. It has an emerald tone and is covered with triangular needles. They are located all over the body.

At length, the devil’s grasshopper does not exceed 7 centimeters, although it is a tropical inhabitant. However, the sharp needles and the manner of the insect swinging the limbs with them in front of the enemies scare them away. The devil does it in the forests of the Amazon.

Grasshopper Spiny Devil

Exotic grasshoppers are found among the ordinary. Here it is no longer a matter of form, but of genetic abnormalities. In the world of grasshoppers erythrism occurs. This is the lack of pigment. Erythritic grasshoppers resemble albinos, but not past ones. Pink color is found in one individual from the 500-from. Erythrism grasshoppers in 1987th year.

Finally, we note that in the eyes of the inhabitants, grasshoppers are not only true representatives of the suborder, but also crickets, fillys. The latter tendrils are shorter and bodyier. Crickets differ spherical head, as well as flat and short body.


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