Black Bugs on Eggplant Leaves, Yikes! » Top Control Tips
How to Identify and Control Black Bugs on Eggplant Leaves
- 1 How to Identify and Control Black Bugs on Eggplant Leaves
- 2 Eggplant diseases and pests: symptoms and control methods
- 3 Diseases and pests of seedlings and adult plants
- 4 Pests and diseases of eggplant
- 5 Treatment with folk remedies
- 6 Purchased treatment
- 7 Why do eggplant leaves wither
- 8 Preventive actions
- 9 How to deal with eggplant pests by folk methods
- 10 Dealing With Flea Beetles
- 11 Flea Beetles
If you’re seeing black bugs on your eggplant leaves, they’re common pests, known as flea beetles. They belong to the Chrysomelidae family, and attack most solanaceous plants. Eggplant is very susceptible to the species, eggplant flea beetle (Epitrix fuscula). As with most pests, quick identification and control measures are best to save your plants and eggplant harvest.
How to Identify Flea Beetles
Below are the common characteristics of flea beetles.
- Oval, black adult insects
- About 1/16-inches long
- Thick, rear legs for jumping
- Antennae are 2/3 length of the body
- Slight hair on wing covers
- White or yellow-gray eggs
- Leaves have small circular holes
What Is a Flea Beetle’s Life Cycle?
These beetles overwinter in leaves, dead crops and wooded areas. In the spring, usually in late March when the temperature is about 50 degrees, the females lay eggs in the soil, leaves and near the roots of plants.
After about one week, the eggs hatch and tiny, white larvae begin feeding on the roots of eggplant seedlings for about three weeks. You won’t notice any damage to your crop until the larvae grow into adult beetles. This takes from a week to 10 days and then they begin eating the eggplant leaves for up to 2 months. Your garden can have as many as three generations in one season.
Damage to Eggplant Leaves
Adult flea beetles feed on the underside of leaves and stems of the eggplant, creating small shotgun holes and pits. This foliage damage causesyour plants to wilt and stunts their growth. Small plants suffer the most from flea damage, while adult eggplants with four or five leaves can usually survive.
How to Control Flea Beetles
You can do a few things to minimize the damage caused by flea beetles. At the end of the growing season, remove any plant debris that flea beetles could use to winter over. Weeding around your garden also helps reduce the beetles food supply, especially pokeweed and horse nettle.
You can also delay planting until the seedlings are big enough to withstand flea beetle infestations, and plant trap crops that surround your garden. If your seedlings start wilting and you see damage, applying insecticides to the foliage will take care of the problem. Unfortunately, organic chemicals cannot eliminate flea beetles.
Eggplant diseases and pests: symptoms and control methods
Diseases and pests on seedlings and already grown eggplant bushes are different, but most often are the result of disturbances in agricultural technology and accompany the basic errors of caring for the garden crop. The fight against them should be carried out when the first signs of damage are detected, therefore, before starting treatment, it is necessary to establish the cause correctly and know what methods of effective plant protection are available.
Diseases and pests of seedlings and adult plants
Growing eggplant in home gardening is a troublesome task, requiring an amateur grower a sufficiently large amount of time and knowledge, since any deviations from cultivation technology can cause weakening of the plant and damage to diseases or pests.
If the first signs of the disease are missed, then very often a critical decrease in yield occurs or the plant dies. That is why it is very important to timely process both seedling material and adult eggplant bushes with the right means.
Pests and diseases of eggplant
|Damaging factor||First signs of the disease||Defeat result|
|Fusarium||Infected seedlings are thin and stunted, adult shrubs turn completely yellow and quickly fade.||The result of Fusarium wilting is the complete death of the root system|
|Late blight||The first symptom of the disease is the appearance of brown spots, which in the rain are covered with a characteristic white coating||If you do not make attempts to cure the plant, then the fruits rot, and the aerial part of the bush dies quickly|
|Cruciferous fleas||“Living” black dots appear on the plant, which quickly eat up green leaves||This pest in a few days is able to completely destroy eggplant seedlings|
|Whitefly||White small midges appear on the plant||The pest eats plant juices, weakening bushes and reducing productivity|
|Aphid||Small insects, which, depending on the species, may have different colors and sizes.||The pest eats plant juices, weakening bushes and reducing productivity.|
|Spider mite||Ticks are located mainly on the underside of the leaves, but with a strong defeat, also on the apical part of the shoots, forming a clearly visible web||Gnaws the skin on the leaves and sucks the liquid contents of the cells, as a result of which the plant weakens or completely dies|
|Blackleg||The root neck becomes darker and tighter, and the bush begins to wither away quickly enough||In the presence of soft moist soil and high humidity, the death of the plant occurs very quickly|
|Botritis||The appearance on the aerial part of the plant of dark increasing spots, covered with a gray coating||A fungal disease can completely destroy plantings in a short time|
|Stolbur||Red leaves appear, the fragility of the stem part of the plant and the empty flower are observed||Cycadic disease often causes total crop loss|
|Mosaic||On the surface of leaves and fruits, a colorful mottled pattern and tan spots||Viral disease quickly causes wilting and complete death of the eggplant bush|
|Sclerotinia||Leaves or fruits are streaked with brown rings||The shoots die off quickly enough, which can cause a complete loss of crop|
Treatment with folk remedies
In recent years, amateur vegetable growers have less and less begun to use chemical preparations for the treatment of garden crops, due to the desire to get an environmentally friendly crop. With a slight damage to the eggplant bushes by pathogenic microflora, it is enough to treat the plants with folk remedies. It should be remembered that mMassive damage to garden crops by diseases or pests will require more serious therapeutic measures, and the use of folk remedies in this case is completely ineffective.
|Damaging factor||Recommended remedy||Application technology|
|Cruciferous flea||A solution of a bite diluted with a glass of 9% table vinegar or a couple of tablespoons of 70% vinegar essence in a bucket of warm water||Weekly spraying of plantings in the early morning hours|
|Spider mite||Grind several heads of garlic and add water for three tablespoons of garlic per 500 ml of water. Insist under the lid, in a dark place for a week, and then add so much water||Treat infected plants with a spray bottle or wipe leaves with a damp cloth|
|Whitefly, aphid||Hang glue traps or use garlic infusion, for which five large cloves of garlic chop and dissolve in a liter of warm water||Pour the prepared strained infusion into the spray bottle, then spray the plants and soil around the bushes as thoroughly as possible.|
|Late blight||In 10 liters of water add half a bucket of ash and leave for three days, stirring occasionally. Bring to a volume of 30 liters, add 30 g of chopped laundry soap||Seedling treatment after adaptation, before flowering and immediately after the first ovaries|
|Blackleg||Ash pubescence under the land||Loosen the soil and sprinkle with wood ash or dust based on crushed charcoal|
|Botritis||Soda solution based on 70 g of soda diluted in a bucket of water with vegetable oil and a small amount of dishwashing detergent||Sprayer processing must be carried out in cloudy and dry weather.|
|Stolbur||Use of tobacco, garlic or soap solution||Spraying is carried out in cloudy, but not rainy weather, after transplanting seedlings into the ground and then after two to three weeks|
|Sclerotinia||Top dressing + removal of damaged areas with crushed coal treatment||For top dressing in 10 liters of warm water, dilute 10 g of urea, 1 g of zinc sulfate and 1 g of copper sulfate|
If the garden culture is sick, and the defeat has become widespread, then fight with a disease or pests should be the most effective, powerful chemicals.
Why do eggplant leaves wither
|Damaging factor||Recommended remedy||Application technology|
|Whitefly, aphid, cruciferous flea||Edited by Aktara, Aktellik, Double Effect, Admiral, Commander, Mospilan, Tanrek or Oberon||Dilute the drug according to the instructions and spray the aerial part of the plant with the resulting solution at a frequency recommended by the manufacturer.|
|Spider mite||Apollo based on clofentesin, diluted in an amount of 0.4 ml per liter of water||Spraying is carried out in cloudy, but not rainy weather, after transplanting seedlings into the ground and then after two to three weeks|
|Late blight||«Concento», diluted at the rate of 20 ml per 5 liters of water||Processing bushes during the growing season. The first is preventive, and all subsequent ones with an interval of a week|
|Fusarium||Preparations from the group of benzimidazoles, such as Fundazol and Benazol||Etching with these drugs is carried out a couple of weeks before sowing, and spraying and spilling of the soil — at the vegetation stage|
|Blackleg||The drug «Profit», diluted at the rate of 20 g per 10 liters of water||You can repeat the treatment after a couple of weeks, but no more than three times during the growing season|
|Botritis||The use of the drug TMTD according to the manufacturer’s instructions||Spraying eggplant bushes with a solution based on the drug at the beginning of flowering.|
|Stolbur||Processing eggplant bushes with such preparations as Decis, Aktara, Actellik, Fitoverm or Fufanol||Spraying is carried out in cloudy, but not rainy weather, after transplanting seedlings into the ground and then after two to three weeks|
|Mosaic||To treat the bushes with a solution of «Karbofos», diluted at the rate of 75 g of the drug per 10 liters of water||Eggplant plantings are processed in cloudy but not rainy weather, as needed|
|Sclerotinia||The drug «Oksihom» in an amount of 20 g or «Topaz» in the amount of one ampoule per 10 liters of water||Processing plants must be carried out in cloudy and dry weather|
The main preventive measures are standard for garden crops and consist in observing crop rotation, mandatory destruction of plant debris, steaming soil, timely removal of diseased plants, and the use of biological and chemical seed dressing. It is necessary to ensure that eggplant seedlings do not stretchtoo
long stems during transplantation need to be buried to the cotyledon leaves.
It is much more difficult to treat eggplant diseases than to prevent damage to a garden plant by pathogenic microflora:
- for the prevention of lesions with a black leg, one should thin out crops in a timely manner, as well as observe the regimes of irrigation measures and temperature indicators;
- gray rot can be prevented only by removing all diseased plants from the ridges, followed by soil fumigation and treatment of the remaining bushes with fungicidal agents;
- to prevent massive damage to eggplant bushes by mosaic, it is necessary to disinfect the entire garden tool when signs of the disease are detected, and burn the affected plants;
- prevention of a fairly common white rot is the use of only warm water for irrigation, as well as the powder of suspicious eggplant bushes with chalk or a layer of wood ash;
- damage by vertebral rot can be prevented by strict observance of agricultural technology, control of the chemical composition of the soil, balanced introduction of nitrogen and basic mineral fertilizers;
- watering eggplant bushes with a solution based on Planriz or Pseudobacterin-2 gives a good result in the prevention of fusariosis after planting in a permanent place at the rate of 100 ml per plant.
How to deal with eggplant pests by folk methods
The main causes of diseases of the greenhouse eggplant are represented by frequent and plentiful watering, excessive humidity, the use of infected seeds or soil, and the lack of ventilation. It should be remembered that, unfortunately, greenhouse walls are not able to protect plants from damaging factors, therefore the treatment and prevention of diseases and pests inside the greenhouse is mandatory.
Dealing With Flea Beetles
SDSU Extension Entomology Field Specialist
Flea beetles are a common pest in South Dakota vegetable gardens. This spring was relatively warm and dry throughout much of the state, making ideal conditions for flea beetle activity. Recent weather, especially in areas affected by drought, has caused flea beetle populations to increase rapidly and become more of an issue than usual for many gardeners.
Profile & Behavior
Flea beetles overwinter as adults and become active by mid-spring. The adults will feed for about a month before they begin laying eggs in the soil. Larvae soon hatch and burrow down to feed on the roots of nearby plants. After another month, the larvae pupate and emerge as adults. This cycle may continue through a second and even a third generation, depending on the species.
Flea beetle adults cause the majority of injury to plants, and exhibit characteristic defoliation known as “shot hole” injury. This occurs when the beetles chew numerous small holes on the leaves of infested plants, making them look as if they have been hit by a shotgun blast (Figure 1).The adults are small (