Susan E

‘Against them all for to fight’: Friar John Pickering and the Pilgrimage of Grace

Abstract This article has no associated abstract. ( fix it ) Keywords No keywords specified ( fix it ) Categories No categories specified
( categorize this paper ) DOI 10.7227/BJRL.85.1.4 Options

Download options

Upload a copy of this paper Check publisher’s policy Papers currently archived: 47,957

  • From the Publisher via CrossRef (no proxy)
  • openurl.ingenta.com (no proxy)

Setup an account with your affiliations in order to access resources via your University’s proxy server
Configure custom proxy (use this if your affiliation does not provide a proxy)

  • Sign in / register and customize your OpenURL resolver..
  • Configure custom resolver

References found in this work BETA

No references found.

Citations of this work BETA

No citations found.

Similar books and articles

Analytics

Added to PP index
2014-02-13

Total views
23 ( #413,537 of 2,293,973 )

Recent downloads (6 months)
2 ( #558,024 of 2,293,973 )

How can I increase my downloads?

My notes

This site uses cookies and Google Analytics (see our terms & conditions for details regarding the privacy implications).

Use of this site is subject to terms & conditions.
All rights reserved by The PhilPapers Foundation

Page generated Sat Apr 25 01:05:28 2020 on pp1

philpapers.org

Klopvred — all about insects and the fight against them

In the fight against Zika, bubonic plague, and other infectious diseases in the Amazon, microbial biologist and National Geographic grantee Ryan Jones has found an unlikely and adorable ally: puppies.

«We are collecting bloodsucking creatures like fleas and mosquitoes because these are the creatures that transmit diseases from wildlife to humans,» says Jones, who recently traveled to almost 50 villages in the Peruvian Amazon to collect thousands of insects. «Dogs live in very close proximity to humans, and fleas can easily bite a dog and then bite a human, transmitting diseases from dogs to people.»

It turns out that there are good bacteria that live in fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes, actually preventing the transmission of diseases like dengue, Zika, bubonic plague, or Bartonella,» Jones explains. Studying how the good and bad bacteria interact helps Jones understand why diseases may be so rampant in some areas and less so in others. That data can be used to predict which communities are at higher risk of infection and to develop strategies to combat further outbreak.

Fleas transmit bacterial diseases, like the plague and typhus. To collect and study the bacteria living inside the itchy and infectious critters, Jones and his graduate student, Nicholas Pinkham, went right to the very hairy source—dogs—but not without assistance from some very helpful, albeit unofficial, expedition partners: «Every little village that we pull our boat up to, we are immediately surrounded by all of the children who live there, and they quickly bring us to all the puppies and nice dogs in the village. It’s very exciting for them to get to take part in this, and it gives us an outreach opportunity to teach some basic science and to get the kids involved in research,» Jones says.

Working with locals was Jones’s favorite part of the expedition, but it did necessitate some unexpected diplomacy. «There’s one particular guy who really wanted us to acknowledge that we liked his dog. He had a Peruvian hairless dog, which is the national dog of Peru, and they just have a little bit of hair on their head and no hair on the rest of their body. There were probably 50 to a hundred fleas right in the little tuft of orange hair coming out the top of his head,» Jones recalls. «This guy would only shake our hands after we specifically said, ‘Yes, we like your dog very much.'»

Mosquitoes, which can carry Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and malaria, are a little simpler for Jones and Pinkham to catch. «Nick and I will just walk into the jungle and stand there and wait for the mosquitoes to land on each of us,» says Jones, «and then we suck them off of each other with aspirators. It’s actually relatively easy fieldwork, but I’ve never been itchier.»

Jones and Pinkham place all the bugs they catch in an alcohol solution that immediately kills them and any diseases they may be carrying. The scientists will then use DNA sequencing to figure out how the good and bad bacteria are distributed across the Amazon.

«As a microbial biologist, I study the small things. Nobody has looked in the Amazon before for microbial diversity in insects, and so much of what we discover will be new life-forms that have never been observed before,» Jones explains. «I’m in the middle of the Amazon looking at parrots and river dolphins, fish and amazing birds, and so I love that as much as the next person. But the microbes on this planet are what are really driving life. They are shifting nutrients from one ecosystem to another. They’re responsible for all life on Earth, really.»

Microbes are small but mighty, critical in humanity’s fight against future outbreak. Scientists have already begun releasing mosquitoes with the beneficial bacteria into certain regions, and the results are in that this practice truly compromises diseases’ ability to spread.

Jones may be nicknamed «the flea hunter of the Amazon» and get 500 insect bites a day while he carries out fieldwork that few, if any, would call glamorous, but he is part of a larger, crucial effort to improve the health and lives of countless people, all while he gets to travel the world and study something he’s incredibly passionate about. As he puts it, «Having to work with fleas and mosquitoes is a very small price to pay for that experience.»

Ryan Jones is a grantee of the National Geographic Society’s Committee for Research and Exploration. Learn more about the science and exploration supported by the nonprofit National Geographic Society at natgeo.org/grants, and watch more explorers in action in the rest of the Expedition Raw series.

Check out more expedition photos from photographer Tom Rayner.

Producer/Editor: Nora Rappaport
Series Producer: Chris Mattle
GFX: Chris Mattle and Babak Shahbodaghloo
Video and Featured Image: Tom Rayner

Puppies and Scientists Team Up Against Zika and Other Diseases

In the fight against Zika, bubonic plague, and other infectious diseases in the Amazon, microbial biologist and National Geographic grantee Ryan Jones has found an unlikely and adorable ally: puppies.

«We are collecting bloodsucking creatures like fleas and mosquitoes because these are the creatures that transmit diseases from wildlife to humans,» says Jones, who recently traveled to almost 50 villages in the Peruvian Amazon to collect thousands of insects. «Dogs live in very close proximity to humans, and fleas can easily bite a dog and then bite a human, transmitting diseases from dogs to people.»

See also:  Red Bug Bites and Treatment, Truly Nolen

It turns out that there are good bacteria that live in fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes, actually preventing the transmission of diseases like dengue, Zika, bubonic plague, or Bartonella,» Jones explains. Studying how the good and bad bacteria interact helps Jones understand why diseases may be so rampant in some areas and less so in others. That data can be used to predict which communities are at higher risk of infection and to develop strategies to combat further outbreak.

Fleas transmit bacterial diseases, like the plague and typhus. To collect and study the bacteria living inside the itchy and infectious critters, Jones and his graduate student, Nicholas Pinkham, went right to the very hairy source—dogs—but not without assistance from some very helpful, albeit unofficial, expedition partners: «Every little village that we pull our boat up to, we are immediately surrounded by all of the children who live there, and they quickly bring us to all the puppies and nice dogs in the village. It’s very exciting for them to get to take part in this, and it gives us an outreach opportunity to teach some basic science and to get the kids involved in research,» Jones says.

Working with locals was Jones’s favorite part of the expedition, but it did necessitate some unexpected diplomacy. «There’s one particular guy who really wanted us to acknowledge that we liked his dog. He had a Peruvian hairless dog, which is the national dog of Peru, and they just have a little bit of hair on their head and no hair on the rest of their body. There were probably 50 to a hundred fleas right in the little tuft of orange hair coming out the top of his head,» Jones recalls. «This guy would only shake our hands after we specifically said, ‘Yes, we like your dog very much.'»

Mosquitoes, which can carry Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and malaria, are a little simpler for Jones and Pinkham to catch. «Nick and I will just walk into the jungle and stand there and wait for the mosquitoes to land on each of us,» says Jones, «and then we suck them off of each other with aspirators. It’s actually relatively easy fieldwork, but I’ve never been itchier.»

Jones and Pinkham place all the bugs they catch in an alcohol solution that immediately kills them and any diseases they may be carrying. The scientists will then use DNA sequencing to figure out how the good and bad bacteria are distributed across the Amazon.

«As a microbial biologist, I study the small things. Nobody has looked in the Amazon before for microbial diversity in insects, and so much of what we discover will be new life-forms that have never been observed before,» Jones explains. «I’m in the middle of the Amazon looking at parrots and river dolphins, fish and amazing birds, and so I love that as much as the next person. But the microbes on this planet are what are really driving life. They are shifting nutrients from one ecosystem to another. They’re responsible for all life on Earth, really.»

Microbes are small but mighty, critical in humanity’s fight against future outbreak. Scientists have already begun releasing mosquitoes with the beneficial bacteria into certain regions, and the results are in that this practice truly compromises diseases’ ability to spread.

Jones may be nicknamed «the flea hunter of the Amazon» and get 500 insect bites a day while he carries out fieldwork that few, if any, would call glamorous, but he is part of a larger, crucial effort to improve the health and lives of countless people, all while he gets to travel the world and study something he’s incredibly passionate about. As he puts it, «Having to work with fleas and mosquitoes is a very small price to pay for that experience.»

Ryan Jones is a grantee of the National Geographic Society’s Committee for Research and Exploration. Learn more about the science and exploration supported by the nonprofit National Geographic Society at natgeo.org/grants, and watch more explorers in action in the rest of the Expedition Raw series.

Check out more expedition photos from photographer Tom Rayner.

Producer/Editor: Nora Rappaport
Series Producer: Chris Mattle
GFX: Chris Mattle and Babak Shahbodaghloo
Video and Featured Image: Tom Rayner

video.nationalgeographic.com

Termite control chemicals

Many house owners are unaware that if there is a termite infestation in the house, usually home insurance companies do not cover the losses which termites cause.

But if you discover termites in the house, you have to find the way how to fight them and in this case different chemicals usage may be needed.

These chemicals are called termiticides.

Termite control chemicals

Termiticides are very effective against termites but today they are not very stable and do not stay in the soil, for too long.

About twenty years ago stable termiticides were applied (like chlordane, aldrin, lindane, etc., for example) but they were not safe for humans and the environment; that is why it has been decided to remove them from the market.

Today pest control industry has found many new chemical ingredients and other ways which are much safer if they are applied according to label instructions. Usually new termiticides stay effective in the soil for five to ten years but everything depends on the environment and type of the soil.

Types of chemicals against termites

There are different types of termiticides which can be applied in different places and against different types of termites.

Basically, termiticides can be divided into two groups:

  • repellents (permethrin, cypermethrin, bifenthrin);
  • non-repellents (fipronil, imidacloprid, chlorfenpyr).

Repellents are usually applied directly into the soil and are used for house protection and to control termite activity.

Another problem which may appear is that repellents do not destroy the whole colony: they kill only those termites which contact chemicals. Today pyrethroid soil treatments are the most popular among repellents.

Non-repellents is a relatively new type of termiticides and are believed to be very effective as they can destroy the whole colony.

Termites are not able to notice the chemical (or they get covered with it) and they spread it to the whole nest.

Non-repellents’ disadvantage is that you will not see the result immediately; you will have to wait for some time.

The reason is that non-repellents’ active ingredients attack termite nervous system (this causes termite death) and the process needs some time.

But unlike repellents non-repellents stay effective even if there are gaps in the treatment. Non-repellents’ active ingredients usually include fipronil, chlorfenapyr and imidacloprid.

There are two more types of chemicals which can be applied against termites, depending on the type of treatment:

Of course, pre-construction chemicals are more efficient. Furthermore, they are more cost effective. Post-construction chemicals are successfully applied as well, but they are more expansive and they need more house owner’s effort, especially when reaching hidden areas.

Biflex

Biflex is applied to soil and when termite makes a contact with a treated zone, it dies. The problem is that Biflex will not eliminate the whole colony: only those termites which contacted treated soil will be dead.

See also:  Termite Damage vs

Biflex as a repellent termiticide is perfect for termite prevention and if you do not have any gaps around the house in the treatment zone, your house will be protected. Another situation appears when you have house infestation and you are applying Biflex around the house: termites become locked in the property.

Termidor and Premise

Termidor and Premise are two very effective termiticides which belong to non-repellent category.

They were created on the water base, have no unpleasant smell (actually they do not have any smell at all) and are relatively safe to humans, pets and other mammals.

Furthermore, these two termiticides do not stay in the air and do not produce any harmful or unpleasant fumes.

Termidor’s and Premise’s active ingredient is fipronil which is widely used in many countries and for different purposes. For example, this chemical is popular against fleas on cats and dogs. Termidor and Premise are believed to be a new step in the fight against termites as they are safe and very effective.

In addition to this, they do not contain any organo-chlorine or organo-phosphate pesticides. Some time ago these pesticides had been removed from the market because they were determined as dangerous to the environment and humans’ health.

As far as Termidor and Premise are non-repellent termiticides, termites are not avoiding them. That means that when you apply these chemicals, termites are not trying to find the gap in the treatment and are not trying to move along the treated area.

Termites cannot see, smell or feel Termidor’s and Premise’s existence, that is why they easily enter the treated zone. After that termites transfer termiticides to other members of the colony and sometime after the whole colony is exterminated. Of course, elimination process will not happen immediately and you will have to wait for a couple of days.

Here you can learn more information about termite bait systems: Advance, Green, CSIRO, Nemesis, Exterra, Firstline, Terminate. Also find out how to make baits by yourself and how to refill them?

Risks when applying termiticides

You should realize that any kind of chemicals can be dangerous, so, in order to avoid risks, you should study all possible instructions and follow them carefully.

For example, if you study label instructions for termiticides and follow them safely, termiticide will bring less harm and danger to health than sprays’ usage against fleas or cockroaches.

The reason is very simple.

The majority of anti-termite chemicals must be applied outside the house, into the soil, while anti-other-insects sprays are to be used indoors.

Furthermore, almost all termiticides’ instructions recommend house owners take children and pregnant women out of the house for the treatment period.

After the treatment the place should be air-ventilated for several hours. If all precaution recommendations are followed, that minimizes the risk of possible health problems.

Which chemical to choose?

Today different pest control companies prefer different chemicals and if you have decided to get a professional advice from two companies, you might be confused. Usually the reason of companies’ preferences is their experience.

There are many factors which may influence their opinion (soil, environment, etc.), but this opinion is very important. If you ask them for the arguments, you can find a better solution of the termite problem.

There is no matter which product you are using, but the application rate is important; it also influences the period of how long the treatment effect will last.

How to make a chemical by yourself?

You should always remember that sometimes only professional pest companies may deal with termite infestation, but if you feel that you can do it by yourself, you can use borate.

Borate is a chemical which features are similar to boric acid. Borate can be easily dissolved in water and has low toxicity.

If you apply borate, you can protect the wood from termites; moreover, borate will save this wood from decay.

Of course, it is much better to use borate before or during construction. Spraying will be the most effective. Borate usage when termites are already in the house will be efficient but it will not solve the whole problem.

The main reason is that non-professionals cannot reach all the places where termites have located their nests. In addition, borate will not save you against Subterranean termite which prefer soil.

If you still have decided to use borate, you will find it in the store as a powder. When you apply borate and termite eats the treated wood, borate will attack termite stomach and it will die from starvation.

Regular home-made borax recipe includes:

  • two parts of borate;
  • two parts of confectioner’s sugar;
  • one part of cornmeal.

Mix all these components and leave them as bait. Sugar and cornmeal will attract termites.

While having termite infestation think that professional pest control companies also have borate-based products but these termiticides are much stronger and more effective.

Useful articles

If you interested in more information of termites we recommend you to read the following articles:

Final decision

Termicides can be dangerous to humans and animals but if they are applied properly, risks become minimal.

There are different types of chemicals but if you are planning to get rid of termites, it is much better to get an advice from professional pest control companies which have experience in this area.

The point is that there are different factors which can influence your choice of chemical and you have to take into consideration all of them.

Today repellents are mostly recommended as a preventative measure against termites and non-repellents are better to use when termites are already present.

If you have decided to apply chemicals by yourself, you have to be careful and read label instructions. Furthermore, if you decide to install chemical soil barrier, you will need special equipment and knowledge.

pests.guru

These common landscaping plants are now illegal to sell in Indiana. Here’s why.

Why Indiana forests are in danger

Paul McCartney slams China’s ‘wet’ markets, talks new Beatles film with Howard Stern

Known for their beauty, honeysuckles commonly adorn lawns across Indiana. But these delicate, sweet-smelling plants are also slow and secret killers.

Popular Searches

The honeysuckle starts in yards, purchased by well-meaning property owners looking for sturdy yet attractive foliage. But then they spread their seeds into other areas, including Indiana’s natural forestland. And when springtime comes, the charming honeysuckle doesn’t follow Indiana’s ecological rules.

These plants, and other non-natives like them, open their leaves earlier in the year than the state’s natural residents, including oak seedlings. In doing so, invasive honeysuckles rob light and water from surrounding plants, eventually choking them out and taking their space for its own.

The demure plant meant just to spice up a corner of the lawn has worked its way into toppling what could have grown into a mighty oak.

“And if you change the composition of the forest, you change the type of fruit and food that are available for birds or the insects … so it’s a bit of a chain reaction that you set in place,» said Cliff Sadof, an entomology professor at Purdue University. «It’s really bad, these things are really bad actors.»

See also:  How Long Do Mosquitoes Live Indoors, Mosquito Lifespan

To counteract these bad actors — and after years of effort — a new rule banning 44 species of invasive plants took effect April 18. Under the Terrestrial Plant Rule, these plants are prohibited from being sold, gifted, exchanged or even transported within the state, punishable by a $500 fine per incident per day. They can, however, still be owned.

The rule targets species often sold in the nursery trade, where many invasive plants first made their way in the U.S. The rule is a huge step, said Ethan Olson, director of native landscapes at Keep Indianapolis Beautiful.

«The Terrestrial Plant Rule is the first rule that actually directly looks out for the health and well being of terrestrial ecosystems,» Olson said. «This rule is a pretty big win for folks who care about the environment, and it’s hopefully a jumping off point.»

The fight against invasive species

The rule affects nursery owners most directly, said Claire Lane, an urban conservationist with Hamilton County’s Soil and Water Conservation District, but it’s meant to remind homeowners to think about what plants they’re buying.

«The rule is really kind of geared toward requiring purchasers and consumers to make better everyday decisions,» Lane said.

Some common species you can expect to see disappear are the Japanese barberry, Wintercreeper and, of course, honeysuckles — five different species of them.

Banning these plants could save cities a whole host of expenses, Lane said. Carmel Clay Parks and Recreation, for example, spent more than $140,000 in 2018 managing invasive species, she said. Statewide, an estimated $5.85 million was spent managing these plants in 2012.

Considering these costs, the state of Indiana has been working toward legislation addressing the invasive plants for some years. In 2007, a task force was formed and followed by the creation of the Invasive Species Council a few years later. The Council developed the Terrestrial Plants Rule, which was formally signed into law last spring.

Meanwhile, Cooperative Invasive Species Management Areas, or CISMAs, began popping up around the state. These organizations are partnerships between local agencies and interested groups geared toward tackling invasive species in the area, usually within a county. CISMAs normally meet regularly, host events like «weed wrangles» and advocate for policy changes.

The Hamilton County and Marion County CISMAs were both formed a little more than a year ago. Olson acts as co-chair of the CISMA in Marion County, and Lane helps to spearhead the one in Hamilton County.

«We just thought if we could all come together, we could increase our impact,» Lane said. «It’s been a long battle to try and get something going.»

How it’s impacting nurseries

© Provided by Hamilton County Invasives Partnership Garlic mustard creeps through the undergrowth. This invasive plant has also been banned from sale under the state’s new Terrestrial Plants Rule.

The Terrestrial Plants Rule was passed a year before it took effect, giving nursery owners some time to prepare for the changes. Erick Brehob, a manager at Brehob Nurseries, said some of the plants on the rule’s list are big sellers for him.

The colorful Japanese barberry, he said, pulls the nursery roughly $60,000 per year, and the low-lying Wintercreeper earns them another $20,000. Yearly, the nursery sells more than 6,000 units of these two plants alone. It’s a small portion of the nursery’s overall income, Brehob said, but it will have an impact.

«Any time you take material that we sell and you take it and tell us we can’t sell it, it’s going to affect us,» Brehob said.

Even so, Brehob supports the Terrestrial Plants Rule. He understands the need for banning invasive species. However, he said he wishes these two particular plants, the Japanese barberry and Wintercreeper, had been specified further, as he said some species of these plants aren’t actually very invasive.

«It was painted with a broad brush, and I understand,» Brehob said. «But as a grower, there should be a little more specificity with the species.»

The banned material at Brehob Nurseries has been shipped out of state in preparation for the new law, Brehob said. Now, the question for nurseries is what plants should take the place of these popular staples.

«We’ve had to do some research to figure out what other plant material could be grown in place of it, but that’s like having a crystal ball in order to predict trends,» Brehob said. «You sort of have to wait to see where the market goes.”

The bad seed left off the list

To the dismay of many, the ubiquitous Callery pear tree, also known as the Bradford pear, was left off of the list of banned plants. This tree, although filled with beautiful white blossoms in the springtime, is highly invasive, and it has raided Indiana.

«It’s probably the most commonly sold landscaping tree or ornamental landscaping tree within in the Midwest,» Olson said.

Aside from choking out other species, these trees are also structurally weak, meaning they often break and cause severe damage whenever a storm rolls through. Lane said much of the damage street departments in Hamilton County deal with is broken Callery pears.

© Provided by Hamilton County Invasives Partnership Callery pear trees spread across the landscape. These trees are highly invasive, but were left off of the list formed by the Terrestrial Plants Rule, a decision that some in the environmental community opposed.

When finalizing the plants for the Terrestrial Plants Rule, the state decided the economic impact of banning Callery pears — and the Norway maple, another invasive tree — would be too large on growers.

At Brehob Nurseries, Callery pears are one of the highest-selling trees. And yet, Brehob said he would support banning them.

«Pear trees should have been on the list,» Brehob said. «We all agree that they’re totally invasive. They’re everywhere.»

Olson said it’s not economically responsible to wait to address the issue of Callery pears, as they spread quickly and are expensive to eradicate.

“The more the population of that invasive plant grows, thus the more money we need to spend to control that invasive plant,» Olson said. «Eventually, it might reach a tipping point where the cost of removing or eradicating that plant is too great to bear.»

The rule isn’t perfect, Sadof said, and draws some criticism from both sides. However, he said it’s a good start toward addressing a long-standing issue.

“I would like to commend the state for their efforts on passing this legislation,» Sadof said. «It is much needed. It is a great first step, there are other places we can go, Callery pears being one of them.»

Contact IndyStar reporter London Gibson at 317-419-1912 or [email protected] Follow her on Twitter @londongibson.

Connect with IndyStar’s environmental reporters: Join The Scrub on Facebook.

IndyStar’s environmental reporting project is made possible through the generous support of the nonprofit Nina Mason Pulliam Charitable Trust.

www.msn.com

Share:
No comments

Добавить комментарий

Your e-mail will not be published. All fields are required.