Safer Pest Control

Safer Pest Control

In this Article

In this Article

In this Article

When you see evidence of cockroaches in your home, your first inclination may be to reach for the strongest bug spray you can find. But before you do, take a deep breath and think again. While pesticides will likely kill whatever unwanted visitors are infesting your home, they can also be harmful to you and your family.

Children are especially susceptible to harm from pesticides, because their bodies and immune systems are still developing. They are also more likely to be exposed to pesticides by crawling on the floor and putting their hands and other objects in their mouths.

But household pests can also be a danger to your family. Cockroaches produce allergens that can trigger asthma and allergies. Mouse droppings can also trigger asthma or allergies. Flies and mosquitoes can carry germs and diseases.

Fortunately, there are ways to control pests and keep your family safe, too. Following an approach called integrated pest management (IPM) can do both — and also benefit the environment. Here are a few suggestions for safer pest control.

Pest Control: Practice Prevention First

The first step in IPM is prevention. The best way to control pests is to make your home unappealing to them. Just like us, pests need water, food, and shelter to survive, and if they can’t find these in your home, it’s likely they’ll go elsewhere.

Take these steps to discourage pests:

• Pick up all food spills and crumbs right away.

• Keep your counters, tables, sinks, and floors clean. Clean and dry dishes after having meals or snacks.

• Clean under large kitchen appliances, such as refrigerators and stoves. Food debris can often collect in these spaces and attract pests.

• Store food in containers with airtight lids or in the refrigerator. If food is stored in cardboard boxes, make sure the boxes are sealed. Cockroaches like cardboard and can get into opened boxes easily.

• Keep your trash in a container with a tight lid, and take out the trash often. Place outdoor trash bins as far from your house as possible.

• Fix household leaks and clean up any excess moisture on counters or sinks right away. Cockroaches like water and can swim.

Continued

• Try to keep your home free of clutter. Piles of magazines, newspapers, and boxes can attract pests and provide a place for them to hide.

• Vacuum carpets and cracks and crevices regularly.

• Don’t leave pet food out overnight.

• Fix any screens that have holes to prevent pests from entering.

• Check for any openings or cracks where pests may enter your house, such as behind sinks, along baseboards, and around windows. Seal them.

• If carpenter ants are a problem, look for damaged or wet wood and replace it. Carpenter ants are often attracted to damaged wood.

Check the foundation of your home for openings larger than one-quarter of an inch and seal them.

Choosing a Pesticide

If you’ve already tried prevention techniques and you still have a pest problem, you may need to use some kind of pesticide to treat the area. But first, be sure that you know what kind of pest you’re trying to eliminate. For example, if you’re not sure whether you have carpenter ants or termites, get help identifying the pest from your local extension service or exterminator.

Knowing what type of pest you’re dealing with will help you choose the right kind of pesticide for your problem.

The next step is to choose a pesticide that will work against the specific kind of pest you have and pose the least threat to your own health. Bait traps are often a good way to start. These are small plastic cups that attract pests with food mixed with an insecticide.

Using a bait trap allows you to confine the insecticide to a small area, rather than spreading it around. However, you’ll still need to take care that kids and pets can’t get into the bait traps. Tamper-proof bait traps are available and lower the risk of accidental exposure to the pesticide. You can buy bait traps made specifically for most household pests.

Pest Control: Playing It Safe

If you choose to use another type of pesticide, keep the following safety tips in mind:

Continued

• Be sure the pesticide will work on the type of pest you are trying to eliminate.

• Always read the label before use, and follow the directions carefully. Never use more than directed.

• Look for a product that is already mixed, rather than a product you have to mix yourself.

• Never use a pesticide indoors that is meant to be used outside.

• Apply pesticide to the smallest possible area, rather than over an entire room.

• Before applying pesticide, remove children, pets, toys, and food from the area. How long should they stay out? Check the pesticide’s label — it should tell you.

• Open the windows to air out the room after applying pesticides.

• Wear gloves, long pants, and sleeves to protect your skin when using pesticides. Wash your clothes and take a shower after you’re done.

• Only buy the amount of pesticide you need to use right away. If you have leftover pesticide, store it in the original bottle, out of the reach of children and pets.

• Don’t put leftover pesticides down your drain or in the trash. Follow the label instructions to dispose of it correctly.

• Never use an empty container of pesticide for any other purpose.

Pest Control: Keeping It in Perspective

No matter what type of insecticide you use, you may not be able to get rid of pests completely. And even the strongest pesticides won’t continue to work over time if pests find easy access to food and water in your home. But by following basic prevention tips and using pesticides sparingly when needed, you will likely be fine.

Sources

EPA web site: “Protecting Children From Pesticides;” “Play It Safe: Reduce Your Child’s Chances of Pesticide Poisoning;” “Pesticide Safety Tips;” “The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality;” “Cockroaches and Pests;” “Preventing Pests at Home;” and “Do’s and Don’t’s of Pest Control.”

University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources web site: “Pesticides: Safe and Effective Use in the Home and Landscape.»

American Lung Association web site: “Cockroaches and Pests.”

New York State Department of Health web site: “Mouse Control.”

Washington State Department of Health web site: “Biting and Stinging Bugs.”

Cornell University web site: “IPM for Homes.”

www.webmd.com

Peach Tree Diseases and Pests

If you can grow peach trees in your climate, consider yourself lucky. However, there are a few things you should know about common peach tree diseases and pests.

Beautiful, fragrant flowers in the spring, followed by sweet, luscious fruit in the summer: just two of the joys of growing a peach tree. These popular stone fruits can be grown in USDA Zones 5 through 8, but they’re happiest in the moderate temperatures of Zones 6 and 7.

Plant your peach tree in a sunny spot with loamy, well-drained soil, and keep it well watered, fertilized, and pruned to encourage the largest harvests.

For the healthiest peach trees, you’ll need to start with a cultivar suited to the average hours of winter chill in your area; all varieties of peaches require sustained temperatures of 45 degrees or less during the winter to stimulate flowering and fruit production in the spring. While most need 500 or more hours of chill, there are a few varieties that do well with as little as 100 chill hours.

See also:  CDC - African Trypanosomiasis - General Information - West African Trypanosomiasis FAQs

But no matter how well you care for your tree, you’ll need to be on the lookout for the many peach tree diseases and pests that plague these plants. Here are some of the most common peach issues you may face.

Peach Tree Leaf Curl

Probably the most common peach tree fungus is Taphrina deformans, which causes peach tree leaf curl, sometimes referred to simply as leaf curl. This frustrating disease stunts the tree’s growth and severely hampers fruit production. It’s hard to miss the signs of this fungal infection, which also attacks nectarines. New growth in the spring first turns red, with the leaves thickening and puckering into curls. As the disease progresses, the foliage turns yellow or gray and eventually falls from the tree. Although healthy growth often replaces the fallen diseased leaves, the energy the tree uses to produce the second set of foliage tends to reduce the amount of fruit for the season.

The most effective peach tree leaf curl treatment is proactively spraying peach trees with a fungicide after the tree drops its leaves in the fall and goes dormant. Depending on where you live, this can be as early as November or as late as January. You’ll need to repeat the treatment annually to prevent reoccurrence of the infection.

You can also greatly reduce the odds of your trees becoming infected with leaf curl by initially choosing varieties that are resistant to the peach tree fungus. Pruning away any infected leaves as soon as you spot them also helps reduce the spread of this common and persistent fungus, but generally it will return the following spring, especially if conditions remain damp and cool.

Other Peach Tree Fungal Diseases

Peach tree fungus isn’t limited to leaf curl. Two other common fungal peach diseases are:

  • Peach scab, caused by Cladosporiumcarpophilu. This fungal disease, which thrives in warm, humid climates, causes the fruit to crack and rot.
  • Brown rot, which is an infection of Moniliniafructicola, turns peaches from tasty fruit into dried, withered, brown “mummies” clinging to the tree.

You can slow the spread of both conditions by removing diseased foliage, fruit, and twigs at the first sign of infection, as well as spraying the peach trees with fungicide once or twice during the growing season.

Life Cycle of a Peach Tree Borer

While there are other peach tree pests, including leafhoppers, white peach scale, mites, and aphids, none of these is as big a problem as the peach tree borer. This troublesome insect—its scientific name is Synanthedon exitiosa—is not only fond of peaches, however. It also infests other stone fruits, including plums, cherries, apricots, and nectarines.

It’s not the adult peach tree borer, which resembles a wasp, that causes trouble. It’s the creamy-white larvae that create havoc in your backyard orchard. After mating in mid- to late summer, the female peach tree borer lays her red eggs on the bark of the tree. The eggs hatch within a week or two, and the larvae chew their way into the heart of the peach tree, making use of any existing cracks in bark and generally staying close to the soil line. The hungry larvae continue to feed inside the tree until winter, which they spend underground on the tree’s roots. At the return of warm weather, the developing larvae feed even more voraciously, causing more damage before transforming into their pupal form in the early summer. The peach tree pests emerge as adults around a month later, starting the entire cycle over again.

Signs of Peach Tree Borer Infestation

One of the early signs of a peach tree borer infestation is a reddish, lumpy, sticky mass around the base of the peach tree’s trunk. This messy substance is a mixture of sap, sawdust, and frass, which is insect droppings. You may also spot smaller holes in the lower tree trunk oozing clear sap.

As the insects continue to damage the living tissues underneath the tree bark, it becomes more and more difficult for water and nutrients to travel from the tree’s roots up into its leaves. Eventually, a heavily infested tree will wilt, lose leaves, or even die. Predictably, fruit production is greatly reduced in these peach trees.

Peach Tree Borer Treatment

The most effective peach tree borer treatment is insecticidal spray applied to kill larvae before they penetrate the tree bark. This means you’ll need to spray the lower portion of your peach trees no later than the first week of July, and generally once again in early August. Spray heavily infested trees a third time in late August.

Insecticides with permethrin or carbaryl as the active ingredient generally work very well to kill peach tree borer larvae and have good residual action to continue killing the pests as they hatch. When spraying peach trees for these insect pests, wet the lower portion of the trunk until the pesticide runs down to the ground. This forces the larvae to crawl through the insecticide as they chew into the bark.

Knowing the signs and treatments for common peach tree diseases will help you keep your backyard orchard growing healthy and strong.

www.bhg.com

15 Essential Oils for Fleas on Cats and Dogs (DIY Oil Repellent)

Essential oils are a natural, pesticide-free way to get rid of fleas. Chemical regimens exterminate fleas, but they can cause unwanted side effects such as respiratory problems, skin irritations, and vomiting. Fleas can also become resistant to chemical treatments over time.

There are many benefits of using essential oils as remedies since only a small amount of oil is needed to have a useful effect. Oils are effective because in nature, plants create oils as a protective agent. Plants produce essential oils as a shield from pathogens, pests, and other invasive growth such as fungus or other plants. The natural production of essential oils is a stress response to changes in environment and climate. By harvesting and using these oils, we benefit from the immunological power of plants. There are a number of essential oils which are potent for treating flea infestations.

Table of Contents

Best Essential Oils for Fleas

1. Lavender

Lavender oil is a well-known, versatile oil that has uses as varied as reducing nausea and anxiety to healing insect bites. Lavender oil comes from the plant, which is a flowering bush indigenous to northern Africa and the Mediterranean region. Ancient civilizations such as the Arabians and Egyptians used lavender oil for mummification purposes and perfumes. It is heavily used in aromatherapy. Research has shown that lavender acts as an effective flea repellent. It works best as an indoor and outdoor preventive treatment against fleas. When used regularly, it deters fleas from problem areas. Also, lavender oil acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and is soothing for skin irritations. It can be used on both humans and animals to relieve itchiness from flea bites. Add a few drops of lavender oil to shampoo or create a spray made of water and oil. Lavender oil is to be used externally only and should not be consumed orally. Applying pure lavender oil to skin, especially open sores or wounds, can cause irritation. It is better to first mix it with a carrier oil, such as coconut or olive.

Cold-pressed from the rind of lemons, lemon essential oil has antibacterial, deodorizing, and disinfecting qualities due to the high content of limonene. It features heavily in eco-friendly household cleaners. Lemon oil also acts as a mood enhancer and has even shown to be effective in aiding weight loss. Used for thousands of years, lemon oil can be used as an insect and flea repellent. Make a natural flea collar by placing several drops of essential lemon oil on a fabric dog collar or cloth bandanna. The oil fragrance repels fleas and keeps them away from your pet. It is not advised to use this oil on felines, as some cats can be allergic to citrus oils. Lemon oil can also make human skin more sensitive to sunlight. If lemon oil is directly applied to your skin, stay out of direct sunlight for at least eight hours and to be safe, use sunscreen before going outside.

See also:  How to Overcome Your Fear of Ticks and Lyme and Get Outside Again

The eucalyptus tree, or sometimes called Tasmanian Blue Gum, is an Australian native evergreen. It is the main food source for koala bears and other wildlife. The essential oils extracted from eucalyptus leaves have powerful medicinal and healing properties and have been used by tribal Aborigines for centuries. Leaves are dried, crushed, then distilled to extract the potent, colorless oil. The healing benefits of eucalyptus oil originate from an organic chemical known as cineole. Eucalyptus oil can be used to eliminate fleas and prevent more from entering your home. Spraying a mixture of eucalyptus oil and water onto furniture, carpets, and other items will infuse them with the aroma of the oil which fleas hate. Do this several times a week to prevent fleas. An added bonus of this essential oil is that it is also very effective against pet odor. Using a few drops of eucalyptus oil in pet shampoo can control both fleas and odor.

Peppermint is a cross between the spearmint and water mint plants. This herb has been used worldwide for centuries as a medicinal aid. It has been suggested that it is the world’s oldest medicine as historical accounts document its use in ancient European, Chinese, and Japanese folk medicine. Peppermint essential oil is extracted from peppermint leaves and flowering plant tops through steam distillation. With its high menthol content, this oil has a recognizable smell and taste. It is used in many toothpastes and chewing gums. Peppermint oil is also very effective as a digestive aid as it soothes muscles of the digestive tract. Peppermint oil is a multipurpose flea control solution as it can also soothe skin and itching irritations on a pet’s body. Place cotton pads or balls which have been soaked in peppermint oil around the house to deter fleas. You can also place these pads or cottons balls into a sachet, which is then placed into a vacuum cleaner bag. Use the vacuum to clean flea eggs and larva from bedding and carpets.

Cloves are the aromatic, unopened flower buds of the evergreen tree indigenous to Indonesia and Madagascar. The buds are handpicked, dried until they brown, then ground to a powder. The powder is used in cooking or converted into an essential oil. Eugenol found in clove oil is a powerful anti-inflammatory and it is widely used as an antiseptic to soothe toothaches and prevent oral infections. The Environmental Protection Agency released findings in 1996 stating that it approved certain essential oils, including clove oil, as safe for common use as an insecticide. It is, however, recommended that you use clove oil carefully and sparingly and ensure that your cat or dog is not able to ingest the oil. There have been incidents of negative reactions from pets when this oil is consumed.

The rosemary plant resembles lavender, is a relation of mint, and smells slightly woodsy and citrus-like. The shrub came to be known as the “Rose of Mary” when the Virgin Mary spread her blue cloak over a bush and the white flowers turned blue. The small pine-like plant leaves are widely used as a culinary ingredient. Rosemary oil is distilled from the fresh flowering tops of stems. It is used medicinally and in aromatherapy. It is said to even improve brain function and cognitive capabilities. Rosemary oil is commonly found in hair care products as it has been shown that it stimulates follicle growth, leading to healthy hair production. While the scent of rosemary is pleasing to humans, the smell repels fleas and functions as an insect repellent. Used in pet shampoo, rosemary oil will produce shiny coats on pets, stimulate their hair growth, and repel fleas. Rosemary oil is considered safer for use on cats compared to other essential oils.

Cedar oil, also known as Cedarwood oil, is an essential oil extracted from conifer trees of the pine family. Oil is obtained from leaves, roots, and sometimes stumps from trees felled for timber. The Egyptians used the oil to embalm their dead as it deterred insects from infesting the body. Cedar oil has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Unlike other oils listed here, it is not merely a flea repellent but it is toxic to insects including fleas. Interestingly, cedar oil does not harm beneficial insects like bees and butterflies. It does kill fleas in several ways including dehydration, inhibition of breathing, pheromone obstruction, and decomposing of larvae. It is non-toxic to humans and pets. The oil can be used in vaporizers indoors to keep away fleas, sprinkled in pet and human bedding, and can be sprayed in yards to kill fleas.

Pennyroyal is the most diminutive mint family member, and has some peculiar properties. People may not agree with the taste and odor of pennyroyal, which is far more full-flavored than other mints. Historically used as a mint flavoring in herbal teas and foods, pennyroyal tea is useful for relieving colds, coughs, indigestion, and headaches. It is, however, disagreeable to insects, and pennyroyal oil has been used as a natural insect repellent for centuries. The plant is a useful herb in the garden to keep insects away. The oil works best when strewn around the home as a flea repellent. Because this essential oil can be toxic when absorbed through skin, pennyroyal oil is not to be used directly on your skin or your pet’s fur.

Basil essential oil, from the basil plant, is widely used in cooking to flavor many dishes. Aside from its flavor, research has shown that basil safeguards against food-borne illnesses. It can also be used to heal infections and wounds, and to treat nerve and muscle conditions. Naturally antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic, basil oil has been traditionally used in Asian Indian medicine. Basil is considered sacred and holy in India. Long ago, women in Italy even wore basil oil to attract possible mates! It has the opposite effect on fleas, as the volatile oils found in basil can repel them and prevent their bites. Basil oil is considered safe for use on dogs and cats.

Catnip, also known as catmint, is a member of the mint family. It grows wild as a weed, but may be cultivated in herb gardens. With antibiotic and astringent properties, catnip oil is used medicinally. It can tighten skin and muscles and promote healthy appetites. It does combat various pests such as cockroaches, termites, fleas, and ticks. Since catnip oil is safe to use on cats, it is one of the best flea treatments for cats. Rather than using pure catnip oil on your cat, dilute it with a carrier oil such as fractionated coconut oil. Place a few drops of the diluted mixture on your cat’s bedding or scratching post if it has one. Catnip oil can be used on human skin topically as an insect repellent but it must never be used undiluted. The drawback about this essential oil is that it does not have a long shelf life.

This refreshingly fragrant plant is a perennial, which flourishes in tropical regions such as China and Southeast Asia. It is a tall plant with sharp, pointed leaves similar to grass and grows in dense clusters. Lemongrass is a favorite seasoning in Asian cooking and is also used to make tea. Lemongrass oil is extracted from plant leaves and has a lemony, earthy scent. It is often added to cosmetic and skin care products and also works as a deodorizer. Lemongrass oil is a known insect repellent as well. Kill fleas by spraying diluted lemongrass oil on your pet’s fur. You can also soak your pet’s collar in the mixture or spray it on bedding. Never use lemongrass oil on cats, as it can be very toxic to felines and cause liver damage.

Citronella oil has been registered for use in the United States since 1948 as a plant based insect repellent, and can be found in many insecticide products, such as lotions, sprays, and candles. The Environmental Protection Agency classifies it as a non-toxic bio-pesticide. It is extolled for its efficiency in repelling mosquitoes for about two hours. Humans can also use it as an antibacterial agent to prevent bacterial growth and to help with infections in various organs such as the colon, bladder, and kidneys. This oil is also used in aromatherapy and can assist with reducing feelings of anxiety and nausea. As with many other essential oils, citronella should be used only in a diluted form. It can successfully be partnered with other essential oils to create a flea repellent. Research also found that citronella oil can help calm anxious dogs and ease unnecessary barking.

See also:  How to Identify Cockroaches with Roach Pictures

Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil, is made from the leaves of the tea tree plant. It is a member of the myrtle family, which is an Australian native. Aboriginal communities prized the plant for its unique healing properties. They simply applied crushed tea tree leaves to burns and cuts. Tea tree oil has a crisp scent resembling camphor. The chemicals in tea tree oil kill bacteria and reduce allergic skin reactions. However, veterinary toxicologists studying undiluted tea tree oil found that when it is applied to the skin of cats and dogs, it caused allergic reactions. Tea tree oil may be toxic to pets if ingested so use it carefully. It is an effective repellent due to its highly disagreeable smell to fleas. Tea tree oil will also kill existing fleas on pets but use a very low concentrated, diluted mixture.

Thyme oil is derived from the perennial herb of the same name. Thyme essential oil has long been used for its antimicrobial properties, especially in Mediterranean countries. It is added to massage oils to help relieve rheumatism and sore muscles. It has been shown to alleviate fatigue, promote oral health, and treat respiratory issues. Thyme oil is also used as an insecticide and insect repellent, as well as a salve for flea bites. It should be used minimally on pets and only in diluted form. It can be effective when mixed with other essential oils that repel fleas.

Neem oil has natural pesticide properties and is found in neem tree seeds. This oil has been used for centuries and was documented in ancient Indian texts. Neem trees are considered good luck in India and are highly treasured. Since neem trees were used so widely, Indians fondly referred to the trees, which can live up to 200 years, as the “village pharmacy”. Today, neem oil is used in care products such as soap, lotions, and pet shampoos. It is highly effective as a flea repellent because it contains azadirachtin. This component of neem oil reduces insect feeding and interferes with hormone systems, making it harder for them to grow and lay eggs. Bathing your pet with a neem oil pet shampoo discourages fleas as does a neem oil spray.

Some Additional Tips

Adding a few drops of various essential oils to an absorbent collar is a useful method to take down parasitic invaders. There are some more tips that I’d like to discuss that are slightly outside the purview of the article above, so I will list them here.

Spray Bottle (For Dogs Only)
If you have a clean spray bottle on hand, you might want to give this method a go. After you have confirmed that your dog doesn’t have any allergic reactions to all of your essential oils, you can start misting them with a diluted mixture of those testing oils. Try to keep a rough ratio of no more than 30 drops of total oil to each cup of water. The difference between a medicine and a poison is often determined by the dose, so the ratio is important. It should be noted that cats are too sensitive to essential oils to use this method, and they don’t react to kindly to being sprayed with water (oddball exceptions aside)

Clean All Fabrics
This might feel like a hassle, but it won’t after you start finding fleas inside your blankets. *Shiver* Wash the blankets, and vacuum the couches, carpets, and the mattresses. This will help to keep the flea population under control. The last thing you want is to start feeling the nibbling pinches of these parasites when you are trying to fall asleep. It’s gross…but I am speaking from personal experience. Clean. Every. Fabric. Afterwords, take the vacuum bag, throw it into a sealable plastic bag, and freeze the suckers.

Fleas Harbor Tapeworms
As if fleas weren’t irritating enough, they are also a source of tapeworms. During the larvae stage of the flea life cycle, the occasional tapeworm egg is swallowed. As the flea continues on with its life, it eventually delivers itself and the egg to your tormented pet for ingestion. That isn’t its intention of course. It wants to drink up your pet’s blood, and your animal is just trying to bite at the irritating flea.

To check for a tapeworm infestation, you will need to check the animal’s excrements. The castoff terminal segments look like little white pieces of rice, and they can be found crawling upon the surface of the feces. You will also likely find them around the pets anus, so it shouldn’t be difficult to spot.

Treat the Grass
Did you know that you can treat your grass for fleas? It might just be my own personal bit of ignorance, but I hadn’t come across that until recently. Most fleas are accrued through pet-to-pet playtime, and by parading through the mostly great outdoors ( I’m knocking Mother Nature down a few points for things that want to eat me ) . Pet interaction is largely under my control, but I am thrilled to find out that I can affect the grass component too. You can take care of fleas with any of the typical insect killer products that you apply to your grass.

Conclusion

Using natural, holistic measures to control fleas is beneficial for humans, pets, and the environment. There is no danger of harsh chemicals getting absorbed into soil, through skin, or getting mistakenly ingested. Instead of applying synthetic repellents, natural remedies such as essential oils offer a safe, effective alternative.

While these oils are generally safe, it is wise to carefully monitor pets especially if oils are being applied to the pet’s fur or collar. Always follow instructions carefully and take note if your pet has any reaction to the smell or the application of the oil on their fur.

Consider customizing essential oil treatment regimens depending on flea infestation severity. If fleas are prevalent, try a flea killer like neem or cedar at first. Once the infestation is under control, try a repellent, such as lavender for a dog or catnip for a cat. You can use a variety of essential oils and experiment with mixing them to combat fleas. This variety means that you should be able to find an essential oil blend that has a pleasurable smell to you and is effective in dealing with flea troubles as well.

When using essential oils for fleas on cats and dogs make sure that you only use pure oils from trusted brands .

If you would like some more information regarding this topic. Consider clicking over to this post at the CDC. Natural Remedies are listed, as well as a fantastic reference list of articles and studies that delve into this topic even further

Johnathan R. Smith

As an avid user of Essential Oils for the last 3 years I have seen first hand the many benefits they have to offer. My goal is to provide you with reliable, and trusted research on the proper use of essential oils.

healthwatchlist.com

Share:
No comments

Добавить комментарий

Your e-mail will not be published. All fields are required.

×
Recommend
Adblock
detector