PEST-CONTROL, COMPOSITIONS, AND METHODS AND PRODUCTS UTILIZING SAME — SMG Brands, Inc

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

The priority and benefit of the following United States patent applications are claimed: U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/635,840 filed Dec. 14, 2004 in the name of Allen L. Jones, Jr. for “INCREASING EFFECTIVENESS OF INSECT REPELLENT AND PEST CONTROL ACTIVES BY VOLATILITY MODIFICATION;” and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/117,271 filed Apr. 28, 2005 in the name of Allen L. Jones, Jr. for “PEST-COMBATING COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING SOY METHYL ESTER.” The disclosures of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/635,840 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/117,271 are hereby incorporated herein in their respective entireties, for all purposes.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to compositions having utility for controlling pests, and to methods and products for making and utilizing such compositions. In specific embodiments, the compositions of the invention include pest repellents, pesticides and pest attractant compositions, for control of pests, including, without limitation, mosquitoes, ticks, and other arthropods and insect species. The invention also contemplates volatility modification of active ingredients for use in pest control formulations.

DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART

In the field of pest control, much effort has been given to the development of compositions that are “environmentally friendly.” Accordingly, there has been a great interest in compositions that are readily biodegradable or otherwise compatible with human and animal use as formulations having little or no toxicity, as insecticides and pesticides, insect and pest repellents, and attractant compositions used for pest control.

Pest species include mosquitoes, ticks, flies and other insect species that are vectors of human disease-causing agents. Mosquitoes and ticks are of primary interest as disease carriers. Mosquitoes and ticks, for example, carry Lyme disease, encephalitis, and other diseases. Mosquitoes and ticks transmit the widest variety of pathogens out of all blood-sucking arthropods. As a result, there has been great interest in developing an insect repellent that is efficacious for control of mosquitoes and ticks, and which is more effective than repellents based on N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET).

Although there has been increasing use of various natural ingredients in pest-combating compositions, such natural ingredients typically are utilized in the form of isolates or purified species, rather than being chemically processed to other ingredient forms. This self-imposed limitation on the formulation of so-called “green” products has in many cases limited the chemical efficacy of the compositions for their intended pest-combating usage.

It has been known that insect repellent active ingredients (“actives”) may be found in the form of fatty acids commonly found in vegetable, animal and petroleum oils (such as soy, coconut, castor, rapeseed, canola, paraffin), specifically within the form of the oleochemicals family (i.e., fatty acid, fatty alcohol, and fatty acid methyl esters). These actives may be either naturally or synthetically derived. However, the effectiveness of such actives is commonly a function of their volatility.

In consequence, the art continues to seek improvements in natural product formulations for combating insects and other pests.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to pest-combating compositions containing as an active ingredient, soy methyl ester.

In one aspect, the invention relates to a composition including 2-undecanone.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a DEET-free pest-combating composition including soy methyl ester, e.g., wherein the soy methyl ester is employed as an active ingredient, or as a synergist or adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of an active such as undecanone or other active ingredient.

In a further aspect, the invention relates to a composition of a foregoing type, formulated as a spray, lotion or sunblock composition.

A further aspect of the invention relates to an article or region, to which has been applied a pest-combating composition comprising soy methyl ester.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a packaged insect repellent, comprising a container holding an insect repellent composition including soy methyl ester.

A still further aspect of the invention relates to a method of combating pests, at a locus containing or susceptible to the presence of same, such method including applying to at least a portion of such locus a pest repellent composition including soy methyl ester.

In a further aspect, the invention relates to modification of volatility of insect repellent actives by transesterification or methanolysis, or conversion of the fatty acids to alkyl esters. When such processes are applied to fatty acid actives according to the present invention, the volatility of the active is enhanced, resulting in an increased effectiveness of the insect repellency or pest control character of the active. Alternatively, the modified fatty acid active may be added to actives to enhance the volatility or other performance characteristics of such actives.

In one aspect, the invention relates to a method of increasing effectiveness of a pest control active by volatility modification, comprising:

    • supplying a fatty acid;
    • subjecting said fatty acid to transesterification, methanolysis, or conversion to an alkyl ester to form an active with modified volatility; and
    • forming a pest control composition with said active with modified volatility.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a pest-combating composition, comprising an active selected from the group consisting of transesterified or methanolyzed oleochemicals having pest control character.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a pest-combating composition comprising an active selected from the group consisting of fatty acid alkyl esters having pest control character.

Yet another aspect of the invention relates to a pest-combating composition comprising an active selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters having pest control character, wherein said fatty acids have been subjected to transesterification, said fatty alcohols have been subjected to methanolysis, and said fatty acid methyl esters have been subjected to conversion from fatty acids.

A still further aspect of the invention relates to a method of modifying an active for use in a pest control composition, wherein said active is selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and fatty acid alkyl esters, said method comprising subjecting said active to transesterification, methanolysis, or conversion of fatty acids to alkyl esters, sufficient to produce an active of modified volatility in relation to volatility of said active prior to said transesterification, methanolysis or conversion of fatty acids to alkyl esters.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a method of modifying the volatility of a pest control composition to produce an increased duration of evaporation of an active thereof, comprising adding to said pest control composition a volatility-modifying amount of an additive selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters having pest control character, wherein said fatty acids have been subjected to transesterification, said fatty alcohols have been subjected to methanolysis, and said fatty acid methyl esters have been subjected to conversion from fatty acids.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a pest-combating composition, comprising soy methyl ester, e.g., in an emulsified form.

A further aspect of the invention relates to an article or region, to which has been applied a pest-combating composition comprising soy methyl ester.

The invention relates in another aspect to a packaged insect repellent, comprising a container holding an insect repellent composition including soy methyl ester.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a method of combating pests, at a locus containing or susceptible to the presence of same, said method comprising applying to at least a portion of said locus a pest repellent composition including soy methyl ester.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a pest-control composition, comprising soy methyl ester and undecanone.

A further aspect of the invention relates to a pest-control system for control of pests selected from group consisting of mosquitoes, ticks, cockroaches, thrips, flies, gnats, beetles and aphids, comprising one or more spray heads and a supply of a pest-control composition comprising at least one of soy methyl ester and undecanone, wherein said supply is coupled in pest-control composition supply relationship to said one or more spray heads.

Yet another aspect of the invention relates to an apparel article, incorporating therein a pest-control composition as herein described.

A still further aspect of the invention relates to a packaged pest repellent, comprising an aerosol dispensing container containing a pest-control composition comprising undecanone.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a packaged pest repellent, comprising an aerosol dispensing container containing a pest-control composition comprising an oleochemical that has been subjected to transesterification, methanolysis or conversion of the fatty acids to alkyl esters.

A further aspect of the invention relates to an article having pest-control character, said article incorporating a pest-control composition comprising at least one of soy methyl ester and undecanone.

Yet another aspect of the invention relates to a pest-control composition comprising at least one of soy methyl ester and undecanone, and a further active.

Another aspect of the invention relates to a pest-control composition comprising at least one of soy methyl ester and undecanone, wherein undecanone when present is in an amount of 8 to 30 weight percent, based on the total weight of the composition.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a pest-control composition, comprising soy methyl ester, undecanone and citronella.

Other aspects, features and embodiments of the invention will be more fully apparent from the ensuing disclosure and appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is an elevation view, in partial section, of a building equipped with a misting system adapted to mist the exterior environment in proximity to the building with a pest control composition of the invention.

FIG. 2 is an aerosol package for spraying or fogging a pest control composition of the invention.

FIG. 3 is a schematic perspective view of a portable fogger suitable for use in dispensing pest control compositions of the present invention.

FIGS. 4 (untreated control) and 5 (Composition D in the form of a 20 μL spray) show the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with deer ticks. (Test date: Oct. 12, 2005; 9:18 AM).

FIGS. 6 (untreated control) and 7 (Composition D in the form of a 20 μL spray) show the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with deer ticks (Test date: Oct. 13, 2005; 8:49 AM).

FIGS. 8 (untreated control) and 9 (Composition D in the form of a 20 μL spray) show the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with deer ticks (Test date: Oct. 13, 2005; 2:25 PM).

FIG. 10 shows the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with American dog ticks to assess the repellency of Composition E in the form of a 20 μL spray (Test date: May 2, 2005).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION, AND PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS THEREOF

The disclosures of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/635,840 filed Dec. 14, 2004 in the name of Allen L. Jones, Jr. for “Increasing the Effectiveness of Insect Repellent and Pest Control Actives by Volatility Modification,” and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/117,271 filed Apr. 28, 2005 in the name of Allen L. Jones, Jr. for “Pest-Combating Compositions Comprising Soy Methyl Ester” are hereby incorporated herein by reference, in their entireties.

The present invention in one aspect contemplates that fatty acid compounds suitable for pest control actives, such as insect repellent actives, are modified by transesterification or methanolysis of the oleochemical or conversion of the fatty acids to alkyl esters. The resulting materials can then be used directly as pest control actives, e.g., insect repellent actives, and/or be combined with active(s) as a synergist or adjuvant for modification of the performance characteristics of the pest control composition.

The process of transesterification or methanolysis is outlined in a paper entitled “Transesterification of Vegetable Oils: a Review,” J. Braz. Chem. Soc., Vol. 9, No. 1, 199-210, 1998. In addition, this process is being used within the so-called “biodiesel” industry (http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/Production.PDF, the disclosure of which hereby is incorporated herein by reference). Processing of a vegetable oil by transesterification is described in “Transesterification Process to Manufacture Ethyl Ester of Rape Oil,” Roger A. Korus, Dwight S. Hoffman, Narendra Bam, Charles L. Peterson, and David C. Drown, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843. Methanolysis of diethyl acetal is described in Appendix 4 of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/635,840 filed Dec. 14, 2004 in the name of Allen L. Jones, Jr. for “Increasing the Effectiveness of Insect Repellent and Pest Control Actives by Volatility Modification,” the disclosure of which hereby is incorporated herein by reference. Also noted in this respect are U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,525,126; 5,578,090; 5,713,965; 6,174,501; 6,398,707; 6,399,800; 5,389,113; 5,424,467; 6,015,440; 6,203,585; and 6,235,104, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. None of the aforementioned patents or documents suggest using such processes on insect repellent actives and/or formulating an insect repellent or other pest control composition using actives modified by the described process(es), and it is a discovery of the present inventor that such processes can be usefully employed to achieve superior test control compositions.

By enhancing the volatile nature of actives, the pest control character, e.g., insect repellency, cidal character, attractive character, or other property, of the actives can be controlled to achieve an optimized result.

As an optional use, the volatility of other types of insect repellent, insecticide, and pest control actives (such as those based on acetals, ketones, fatty acids, or derived from soybean, rapeseed, coconut, citronella, rue, eucalyptus, pyrethrum and chrysanthemum) can be further enhanced or controlled by adding the chemical substance of said method.

Further, adding a short to medium chain fatty oil, such as coconut, can stabilize the composition so that the volatility is controlled over time, resulting in an increased and optimized duration of the evaporation of the active.

The process of the present invention increases the effectiveness of the active by directly processing the active according to said method or adding an amount of the chemical substance of said method to other insect repellent actives. The resulting materials and/or compounds are then formulated into a pest control composition, e.g., an insect repellent, insecticide, insect attractant, etc., in a conventional fashion.

The invention therefore contemplates in one aspect a method of increasing effectiveness of a pest control active by volatility modification, in which a fatty acid is supplied and subjected to transesterification or methanolysis of the oleochemical or conversion of the fatty acid to an alkyl ester to form an active with modified volatility, and the resulting active is used to form a pest control composition with modified volatility.

Pest control compositions of the invention can variously include pest repellents, pesticides, pest attractants, etc., as may be useful for pest control in a given application. For example, the pest control composition can be employed to control the pest such as mosquitoes, ticks, cockroaches, thrips, flies (e.g., house flies, black flies, deer flies, fruit flies, horse flies, horn flies, stable flies, etc.), gnats, aphids, beetles (Coleoptera, e.g., Japanese beetles) and the like. In one preferred embodiment of the invention, the pest control composition is formulated and utilized to control insect pests.

The formulation of the pest control composition can include combining the active produced in accordance with the invention with a suitable carrier or vehicular formulation appropriate to the end-use administration of the pest control composition. For example, the pest control composition may be formulated with appropriate ingredients to provide a desired form of the composition, including, without limitation, lotions, oils, creams, gels, spray formulations, etc.

Fatty acids that can be utilized for pest control compositions of the invention include fatty acids such as those derived from vegetable, animal and petroleum oils.

In one embodiment, the fatty acid includes a fatty acid selected from among soy, coconut, castor, rapeseed, canola and paraffin fatty acids.

Pest-combating compositions according to the invention can be formulated with modified volatility appropriate to provide a desired duration of pest-combating activity, by subjecting a fatty acid to transesterification or alcoholysis (preferably methanolysis), or conversion to a corresponding alkyl ester, to provide a pest-combating active that is of appropriate volatility for the intended application, or which can be blended with active(s) to provide a synergistic effect, and enhanced duration of the pest-combating action, relative to the active(s) alone.

In one embodiment, the pest-combating composition includes an active selected from among transesterified and methanolyzed oleochemicals having pest control character. In another embodiment, the pest-combating composition includes an active selected from the group consisting of fatty acid alkyl esters having pest control character, e.g., fatty acid alkyl esters comprising fatty acid methyl esters.

The pest-control composition in another aspect includes an active selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters having pest control character, wherein such fatty acids have been subjected to transesterification, methanolysis, and/or conversion to fatty acid methyl esters.

In a corresponding method for modifying an active for use in a pest control composition, in which the active is selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and fatty acid alkyl esters, the method includes subjecting the active to transesterification, methanolysis, or conversion of fatty acids to alkyl esters, sufficient to produce an active of modified volatility in relation to volatility of the active prior to such transesterification, methanolysis or conversion of fatty acids to alkyl esters.

In a further aspect, the method of modifying volatility is employed to modify the volatility of a pest control composition to produce an increased duration of evaporation of an active of the composition, by adding to the pest control composition a volatility-modifying amount of an additive selected from the group consisting of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and fatty acid methyl esters having pest control character, wherein such fatty acids have been subjected to transesterification, methanolysis, and/or conversion to fatty acid alkyl esters. The additive in such method may for example include a fatty oil such as coconut oil, or other suitable modifying additive, to produce the desired volatility character of the pest control composition.

The pest-control compositions of the invention may be in any suitable form, such as for example oil-in-water emulsions, or other emulsified forms, or in water-based formulations or in silicone or alcohol or other formulations in which the pest-control active is encapsulated in lipid vesicles or other time-release or sustained action forms, or in any other suitable carrier or vehicle formulations appropriate to the end-use of the pest control composition.

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The pest-control composition may additionally contain any suitable additional ingredients, including further actives, as well as inert ingredients. For example, the composition may contain one or more additional ingredients such as fillers, dispersants, water, non-aqueous solvent media, surfactants, suspension agents, sticking agents, stabilizers, preservatives, dyes, pigments, masking agents, emollients, excipients, and post-application detection agents.

The pest-control composition may be packaged in any suitable container or source structure affording a desired supply of the composition for its intended purpose. For example, the pest-control composition may be packaged in an aerosol container, as a fogger or spray unit, for fogging, misting or spraying of the pest-control composition to a desired locus of use. The pest-control composition alternatively can be packaged in a container equipped with a hand pump dispenser unit or other applicator, administration or dispensing elements.

Pest-control compositions of the present invention may contain undecanone as an active ingredient, in combination with, or in lieu of, other actives. In one embodiment, the pest-control composition contains soy methyl ester and/or undecanone.

The compositions of the invention are preferably free of DEFT and pyrethrum as well as pyrethroids generally.

The compositions of the invention may be administered to combat pests, at a locus containing or susceptible to the presence of same, by applying to at least a portion of said locus a pest-combating composition, by any suitable administration technique, device or applicator, such as a fogging system, volumizer, nebulizer, aerosolizer, disperser, drip application system, etc. In one embodiment, a pest control system, e.g., for control of pests such as mosquitoes, ticks, cockroaches, thrips, deer fly, gnats, beetles and aphids, is provided as including one or more spray heads and a source of a pest-control composition of the invention, e.g., comprising at least one of soy methyl ester and undecanone, wherein such source is coupled in pest-control composition supply relationship to the aforementioned one or more spray heads.

The pest-control system in one embodiment is adapted for mounting of the spray heads to portions of a building.

The invention further contemplates articles incorporating the pest-control compositions of the invention. Such articles may be of any suitable type that have present or potential benefit from having a pest-controlling character imparted thereto, and include, without limitation, apparel articles, industrial equipment, recreational equipment, vehicles, building structures and assemblies and components thereof, food articles and packaging, communications equipment and devices, packaging per se, computational devices, lighting products, books and other articles and media including paper or other cellulosic or materials susceptible to adverse effect from pests.

By way of example, apparel articles may incorporate the pest-combating compositions of the invention, in any suitable manner, including, for example, compositions applied as surface coatings, impregnated formulations, etc. In one embodiment, the pest-combating composition is applied for the treatment of the apparel articles in a formulation including a silicone carrier medium, e.g., containing cyclomethacone, and the apparel article in connection with such treatment can be plasma-treated to enhance the affiliation or loading of the formulation or pest-controlling active thereof on or in the apparel article. Cyclomethacone is a preferred thermal protectant when the pest-control composition is applied to an article, location or organism involving elevated temperature treatment.

In a specific embodiment, the apparel article incorporating the pest-control composition may include a fabric formed from natural or synthetic fibers, such as cotton or nylon.

The pest-controlling compositions of the invention as packaged can include an oleochemical that has been subjected to transesterification, methanolysis or conversion of the fatty acids to alkyl esters. The package may include and aerosol dispensing container, or other reservoir or vessel, coupled or provided with applicator or dispensing members, as appropriate to the specific end-user application involved. The composition may include at least one of soy methyl ester and undecanone and other actives, e.g., citronella, p-menthane 3,8-diol (PMD) and/or picaridin (also called Bayrepel; see www.picaridin.com).

In a specific pest control composition, comprising undecanone, the undecanone is present in an amount of 8 to 30 weight percent, based on the total weight of the composition.

In another aspect, the present invention is based on the discovery that soy methyl esters are unexpectedly and highly effective as pest-combating active ingredients in the pest control formulations. As used herein, the term “soy methyl ester” refers to methyl ester(s) of fatty acids or oleochemicals of soybean oil, and sometimes is referred to as soybean oil methyl ester or as soybean methyl ester. Soy methyl esters are readily produced by subjecting fatty acids and oleochemicals of soybean oil to transesterification chemical reaction, e.g., a base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil. Soy methyl esters of widely varying types are usefully employed in the practice of the invention. One particularly preferred soy methyl ester comprises a mixture of C16-C18 saturated and C18 unsaturated methyl esters, identified by Chemical Abstracts Registry Number (CAS#) 67762-38-3.

Soy methyl esters usefully employed in compositions of the present invention are readily commercially available, e.g., under the brand name “Enviro-Saver” from Columbus Foods Company (Chicago, Ill.), under the brand name “Ecoline Soya Methyl Esters” from Cortec Corporation (St. Paul, Minn.), and otherwise as fatty acid methyl ester from Cargill Industrial Oils & Lubricants (Minneapolis, Minn.), as methyl soyate from Cognis Corporation (Cincinnati, Ohio), and as soy methyl esters from Vertec BioSolvents, Inc. (Downers Grove, Ill.), Lambent Technologies Corporation (Gurnee, Ill.), soy-based fatty acid esters from Chemol Company, Inc. (Greensboro, N.C.), SoyGold 1000 from Ag Environmental Products (Omaha, Nebr.), and Steposol SB-D and Stepasol SB-W soy methyl esters from Stepan Company (Northfield, Ill.).

In formulating the soy methyl ester in useful formulations for combating pests such as mosquitoes and ticks, the soy methyl ester is advantageously formulated as an emulsified base to which are added carrier, adjuvant and other ingredients of the composition. For example, the additional ingredients may include fillers, dispersants, water or other solvent medium or media, surfactants, suspension agents, sticking agents, stabilizers, preservatives, dyes, pigments, masking agents, emollients, excipients, post-application detection agents, and additional active ingredients. Such additional active ingredients may include, for example, additional pest-combating ingredients, such as repellents or cidal agents. By way of example, the soy methyl ester emulsion may be formulated with an insect repellent ingredient such as 2-undecanone. As another example, the soy methyl ester emulsion may be formulated with a sunscreen formulation.

A particularly advantageous composition in accordance with the present invention includes soy methyl ester in combination with 2-undecanone. Such composition has been found to provide superior repellency against mosquitoes and ticks. Due to the volatility of 2-undecanone, it is desirable to formulate the composition containing such ingredient with a sticking agent, so that the 2-undecanone in the composition persists at the point of application, to extend the duration of active repellency of the composition. Compositions containing 2-undecanone, in addition to mosquitoes and ticks, exhibit repellency against cockroaches, thrips, deer fly, gnats, aphids, and the like.

Compositions in accordance with the present invention may be formulated in any suitable manner appropriate to the ingredients involved. The soy methyl ester preferably is utilized as an emulsified base for the composition.

The soy methyl ester can be used at any suitable concentration in the compositions of the invention. Preferably, the soy methyl ester has a concentration in the composition of from about 2% to about 15% by weight, based on the total weight of the composition. More preferably, the soy methyl ester has a composition concentration in a range of from about 2.4% to about 12% by weight, based on total weight of the composition. Most preferably, the soy methyl ester has a concentration in the composition in a range of from about 3 to about 10% by weight, based on total weight of the composition.

In one embodiment of the invention, the composition is formulated as a spray composition for administration to the skin of a user. Such composition may contain 2% by weight of soy methyl ester, in a carrier base including, as inert ingredients, purified water, coconut oil, glycerin, geranium oil, citric acid, lecithin, sodium bicarbonate and vanillin.

In another embodiment of the invention, the composition is formulated as a lotion composition for administration to the skin of user. Such composition may also contain, as inert ingredients, purified water, coconut oil, glycerin, geranium oil, citric acid, lecithin, sodium bicarbonate and vanillin.

In yet another embodiment of the invention, the composition is formulated as a spray composition for administration to skin or fur of pets. Such composition may contain 2% by weight of soy methyl ester, purified water, coconut oil, glycerin, geranium oil, castor oil, lecithin and vanillin.

Other compositions of the invention may be formulated as sunblock compositions, containing, in addition to soy methyl ester, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, and/or small amounts of other sunscreen agents, as well as ingredients such as coconut oil, purified water, glycerin, geranium oil, citric acid, lecithin, sodium bicarbonate, and vanillin.

In addition to compositions of the invention that are formulated for application to body surfaces of users, compositions may be formulated for application or administration to any locus in which it is desired to repel pests against which the compositions of the invention are repellently effective. Such loci may contain or include apparel, furniture, personal accessories, plastic products, cloth products, camping equipment, automotive and vehicular interiors, and the like. For indoor or outdoor usage, the compositions of the invention may be formulated for broadcasting by misting systems or other distribution equipment.

Referring now to the drawings, FIG. 1 is an elevation view, in partial section, of a building 15 equipped with a misting system 10 adapted to mist the exterior environment in proximity to the building with a pest control composition of the invention.

As illustrated, the misting system 10 includes a supply container 12 holding a quantity of a pest control composition 14 according to the present invention. The supply container is disposed in an interior space 17 of the building, and may be of any suitable size, such as for example a 55 gallon drum containing the pest control composition.

The container 12 is equipped with a dip tube 16 joined by supply conduit 18 to the pump and electronic control module 20, which is coupled to a pest control composition feed tube 22. The feed tube 22 in turn is joined to the mister head 28, which includes mister nozzle 30. The mister head 28 is mounted on the building 15, by means of a bracket 26 or other mounting element or structure, so that the mister nozzle 30 is oriented properly for misting an area exterior of the building and in proximity thereto, for control of pests, e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, etc., in the immediate environment of the building.

The pump and electronic control module 20 may be suitably powered by connection to a 110 V electrical service of the building 15, by means of a power cord or other connector (not shown in FIG. 1). The pump and electronic control module 20 incorporates a pump that is effective to deliver pest control composition 14 from the container 12 through the dip tube 16, supply conduit 18 and feed tube 22 to the mister head 28 for generation of a mist 32 of the pest control composition that is dispersed to the local environment of the building 15.

The pump and electronic control module 20 can include a digital control unit or other processor or controller elements or assembly, to actuate the pump in the module when the module is powered and operating. The digital control unit in the module can be programmably arranged, to provide misting action according to a predetermined cycle time program. For example, the misting system can be programmably arranged to mist automatically to four times a day at dawn and dusk, for 20-60 seconds each time.

Additionally, or alternatively, the misting system can be arranged with a remote controller or connection to a wired or wireless network, for selective actuation by a building owner or operational attendant, in addition to or in lieu of a predetermined cycle time program of automatic misting operation.

As a further embodiment, the misting system can be operatively coupled to a pest-sensing system (not shown in FIG. 1), so that the misting system is actuated for dispensing of the pest control composition, in response to detection of pests or a predetermined magnitude of pest infestation by the pest-sensing system.

For example, the pest-sensing system can comprise a bag or other collection container with which is associated a pest attractant, wherein the weight of the collection container is sensed to determine weight gain attributable to collected pests, whereby weight increase of a predetermined magnitude actuates the pump electronic control module 22 initiate misting operation by the misting system. The pest-sensing system can for example be adapted for sensing of mosquito infestation, utilizing carbon dioxide as an attractant to mosquitoes, so that they are collected in a bag to which is operatively coupled a weight sensor, so that a predetermined weight gain of the bag is employed to generate a control signal to the pump electronic control module 22.

FIG. 2 is an aerosol package 50 for spraying or fogging a pest control composition of the invention. The aerosol package 50 includes a container 52 holding a pest control composition 56 according to the invention. Container 52 includes an upper head portion 60 which may include a cylindrical boss structure of conventional type, by which an aerosol delivery tube 54 is interconnected with a dispensing tube 62 joined in turn to manually actuatable nozzle 64. The pest control composition 56 in the container 52 is suitably mixed with aerosolizing propellant. The aerosol package includes a 66 that is matably engageable with the head portion 60 of the container 52, so that the manually actuatable nozzle 64 is not accidentally actuated.

FIG. 3 is a schematic perspective view of a portable fogger 80 suitable for use in dispensing pest control compositions of the present invention.

The portable fogger 80 includes a reservoir 82 adapted to contain a predetermined quantity of a pest control composition of the present invention. The reservoir 82 is joined in liquid feed relationship to a head assembly 83, by means of liquid feed conduit 88, extending downwardly at one end into the reservoir interior volume, and serving to deliver liquid pest control composition into the head assembly 83 for aerosolization of the liquid therein to generate a fog or mist of desired character. Such fog our list is dispensed from the head assembly by discharge through the distal louvered dispensing plate element 90 mounted on the head assembly housing.

The head assembly can be constructed to include a pump and aspirator apparatus inside the housing, which serves to draw liquid from the reservoir 82, and subject same to entrainment by an airstream flowed through the housing by operation of a blower or fan that is internally disposed in the housing of the head assembly. The airflow rate and character of fog or mist generation is selectively adjustable by means of manually adjustable knob 92.

The head assembly 83 is connected with the reservoir 82, by means of the strap handle connector 84, to form a manually portable fogger assembly. The portable fogger 80 of FIG. 3 may be powered by attachment of the plug at the end of power cord 86 to a suitable 110 V power circuit or other power supply.

A portable fogging device of the type shown in FIG. 3 can also be drum-mounted on a drum containing a supply of the pest-control composition, so as to fog a localized area.

A portable fogging device of such type has been employed in connection with pest-control compositions formulated with soy methyl ester and undecanone, and demonstrated to repel mosquitoes, ticks and beetles such as Japanese beetles.

Portable fogging devices of the above-described type are commercially available, e.g., the Fogmaster Micro Jet ULV Fogger 7401 adapted to produce particle size in a range of from 7 μm diameter to 30 μm diameter, and to cover 2-4000 ft. 3 per minute, with a 10-turn precision needle valve to control liquid output and droplet size, accommodating liquid flow rate of 0-300 mL per minute, when processing water-based or oil-based solutions. The tank capacity of such product is 4 L and its weight is 6 kg.

The advantages and features of the invention are further illustrated with reference to the following examples, which are not to be construed as in any way limiting the scope of the invention but rather as illustrative of embodiments of the invention in specific applications thereof.

Example I

In this example, various compositions were formulated for comparative testing.

The test compositions included: a 1.6% soybean methyl ester emulsion formulated with a commercial sunscreen (Composition A); a 2.4% soybean methyl ester emulsion formulated with a commercial tropical oil (Composition B); a 2.4% soybean methyl ester emulsion formulated with a commercial sunscreen formulation providing an SPF factor of 20 (Composition C); a 4% soybean methyl ester emulsion formulated with 8% undecanone, in a water-based composition (Composition D); and an 8% soybean methyl ester emulsion formulated with 30% undecanone (Composition E). All concentrations are by weight, based on the total weight of the composition. The various compositions A-E were tested for mosquito repellency see as well as tick repellency.

The results are set out in Table 1 below.

TABLE 1
Composition A Composition B Composition C Composition D Composition E
1.6% Soybean 2.4% Soybean 2.4% Soybean 4% Soybean 8% Soybean Methyl Ester
Methyl Ester Methyl Ester Methyl Ester Methyl Ester emulsion with 30%
emulsion emulsion emulsion with SPF emulsion with 8% Undecanone
20 Undecanone
Mosquito: 4 hr Mosquito: >4.5 hr Mosquito: >4.5 hr Mosquito: equivalent to
30% DEET
Ticks: Not tested Ticks: 2 hours Ticks: >2 hours

The data in Table 1 show that the compositions containing 2.4% and higher concentrations of soy methyl ester demonstrated superior mosquito repellency, and that compositions containing at least 4% soy methyl ester in combination with 2-undecanone demonstrated superior tick repellency, with Composition E yielding performance generally equivalent to that of a permethrin formulation and to a 30% DEET formulation.

Example 2

In this comparative test, a composition containing 8% soy methyl ester emulsion with 30% undecanone, the same composition as tested in Example 1 (Composition E), was evaluated for tick repellency, against an untreated control. A 0.5% permethrin composition also was assessed for tick repellency, against an untreated control.

All tests were carried out on paper media, to which native ticks (American dog ticks) were introduced.

The test arena was a 10 cm diameter plastic petri plate (78.5 cm 2 bottom surface area). The inside bottom surface was covered with two half circles of white copy paper, separated by a 3 mm void at the centerline. An amount of 537 μL of Composition E sample was applied to the left half of the arena. Ticks, which were unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena less than five minutes after treatment with Composition E. The assay was conducted in a dimly lit room, at room temperature. One tick on the treated side was judged to be intoxicated at the two-hour reading.

The results of the test are shown in Table 2 below.

TABLE 2
Time Treated (L) Untreated (R)
Immediate 2 3
30 min 1 4
45 2 3
60 3 2
1 h:30 min 1 4
2 h:00 min 1 4

As shown by the foregoing data, the number of ticks on the treated half circle generally remained smaller than the number of ticks on the untreated half circle, throughout the period of the test. Further, the data show that Composition E maintained its tick repellent character over the two-hour period of the test.

Example 3

A corresponding test to that of Example 2 was carried out for a 0.5% permethrin composition. It appeared that the ticks were dead at the 60 minute and 2 hour readings. The test data are shown in Table 3 below.

TABLE 3
Time Treated (L) Untreated (R)
Immediate 3 2
30 min 4 1
45 4 1
60 4 1
1 h:30 min 3 2
2 h:00 min 3 2

Comparison of the data in Table 2 and Table 3 showed that Composition E was more effective than the 0.5% permethrin composition throughout the time-frame of the respective tests.

Example 4

In this test, the tick repellency of a composition containing 2.4% soybean methyl ester emulsion, Composition B of Example 1, and the composition containing 4% soybean methyl ester emulsion with 8% undecanone, Composition D of Example 1, were assessed.

In the test of Composition B, as evaluated against an untreated control, the test arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the back of the left hand of the human male subject. As a control, the left and right halves of the arena were untreated.

To evaluate Composition B, 100 μL of such repellent were applied to the right half of the arena. Ticks, unfed males of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena three minutes after treatment with Composition B.

The times listed in Table 4 below represent minutes after the application of ticks.

The test apparatus was a petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening.

The assay was conducted in light, at room temperature, with the control being conducted first.

The data generated in this evaluation are set out in Table 4 below.

TABLE 4
Control Composition B
Time L R Untreated (L) Treated (R)
1 min 3 2 5 0 ticks
2 3 2 3 2
3 4 1 5
4 5 5
5 5 2 3
6 4 1 4 1
7 3 2 3 2
8 1 4 3 2
9 3 2 4 1
10 2 3 4 1
11 2 3 2 3
12 2 3 3 2
13 2 3 2 3
14 1 4 2 3
15 1 4 2 3

The data in Table 4 show that Composition B was effective as a tick repellent for a period of approximately 10 minutes.

Example 5

A corresponding test to that carried out to generate the data of Table 4 in Example 4 was conducted to assess the efficacy of DEET versus untreated human skin, against the American dog tick. The DEET composition contained 10% DEET in absolute ethanol. The test conditions were the same as those employed for evaluation of Composition B in Example 4. The arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the undersurface of the left forearm of the human male subjects. The results are shown in Table 5 below, wherein the time is set out in minutes after the application of ticks.

TABLE 5
Control 10% DEET
Time L R Untreated (L) Treated (R)
0 min 3 2 2 3 ticks
1 4 1 2 3
2 4 1 3 2
3 4 1 4 1
4 4 1 3 2
5 4 1 4 1
6 3 2 3 2
7 3 2
8 1 4 4 1
9 3 2 5
10 2 3 5
11 3 2 3 2
12 3 2 2 3
13 2 3 4 1
14 2 3 4 1
15 2 3 4 1

These data illustrate the efficacy of the 10% DEET composition.

Example 6

In this example, Composition D was evaluated versus untreated human skin, against the American dog tick. The test arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the left inner thigh of the human male subject, just proximal to the kneecap. 100 μL of Composition D were applied to the top half of the arena. Ticks, males of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena two minutes after treatment with Composition D. As a control, the top and bottom halves of the arena were not treated. The test apparatus was a petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening. The assay was conducted in light at room temperature. The control assay was conducted first. The data are set out in Table 6 below, with times in minutes after application of ticks.

TABLE 6
Control Composition D
Time T B Treated (T) Untreated (B)
0 min 5 0 ticks
1 4 1 2 3
2 4 1 1 4
3 4 1 5
4 2 3 5
5 3 2 5
6 3 2 5
7 3 2 5
8 4 1 5
9 4 1 5
10 4 1 5
11 4 1 5
12 4 1 5
13 3 2 5
14 3 2 5
15 3 2 5
30 5
40 5
50 5
60 5
75 5
90 1 4
92 5
93 5
94 1 5
95 5
96 1 4
97 5
98 5
99 5
100 5
105 5
110 5
115 5
120 5
135 5
150 5

The data shown in Table 6 evidence superior efficacy of Composition D in repelling ticks.

Example 7

In this example, Composition D was evaluated versus untreated human skin, against the American dog tick. The test arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the left inner thigh of the human male subject, just proximal to the kneecap. 100 μl of Composition D were applied to the left half of the arena. Ticks, unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena 30 seconds after treatment with Composition D. As a control, the right and left halves of the arena were not treated. The test apparatus was a petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening. The assay was conducted in light at room temperature. The control assay was conducted first. The data are set out in Table 7 below, with times in minutes after application of ticks.

TABLE 7
Control Composition D
Time L R Treated (L) Untreated (R)
Group of 5 ticks
1 min 2 3 1 4
2 5 3 2
3 3 2 2 3
4 5 3 2
5 5 2 3
6 4 1 3 2
7 4 1 1 4
8 3 2 5
9 3 2 5
10 4 1 5
11 3 2
12 2 3
13 5
14 2 3
15 2 3
16 5
17 5
18 5
19 2 3
20 1 4
21 5
22 5
23 5
24 1 4
25 1 4
26 2 3
27 5
28 5
29 5
30 5

The data in Table 7 evidence the efficacy of a Composition D for repellency of the American dog tick.

Example 8

In this example, Composition D was evaluated versus untreated human skin, against the American dog tick. The test arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the right inner thigh of the human male subject, just proximal to the kneecap. 100 μL of Composition D were applied to the left half of the arena. Ticks, unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena 30 seconds after treatment with Composition D. As a control, the right and left halves of the arena were not treated. The test apparatus was a petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening. The assay was conducted in light at room temperature. The control assay was conducted first. The data are set out in Table 8 below, with times in minutes after application of ticks.

TABLE 8
Control Composition D
Time L R Treated (L) Untreated (R)
Group of 5 ticks
0 min 5
1 5 1 4
2 5 3 2
3 1 4 1 4
4 2 3 5
5 1 4 5
6 1 4 1 4
7 1 4
8 2 3 2 3
9 4 1 1 4
10 4 1
11 4 1 1 4
12 3 2
13 3 2
14 3 2
15 5
16 4 1
17 4 1
18 4 1
19 5
20 5

Example 9

In this example, Composition D was evaluated versus untreated human skin, against the American dog tick. The test arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the left inner thigh of the human male subject, just proximal to the kneecap. 100 μL of Composition D were applied to the left half of the arena. Ticks, unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena in less than two minutes after treatment with Composition D. As a control, the right and left halves of the arena were not treated. The test apparatus was a petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening. The assay was conducted in darkness at room temperature. The control assay was conducted first. The data are set out in Table 9 below, with times in minutes after application of ticks.

TABLE 9
Control Composition D
Time L R Treated (L) Untreated (R)
Group of 5 ticks
0 min 4 1
5 5
10 2 3
15 4 1 1*** 4
20 3 2
25 2 3
30 3 2 1 4
45 2 3 5
60 1 4 1 4
***This tick appeared intoxicated by the repellent. At 30 minutes, the tick was still his back. At 30 minutes, the human subject used a blunt probe to place the tick right side up. At 45 minutes, the tick had moved to the untreated skin. This intoxication effect resulting in immobilization may have occurred in earlier experiments of Examples 4-8.

Example 10

In this example, Composition D was evaluated versus untreated human skin, against the American dog tick. The test arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the right inner thigh of the human male subject, just proximal to the kneecap. 100 μL of Composition D were applied to the left half of the arena. Ticks, unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena in less than two minutes after treatment with Composition D. As a control, the right and left halves of the arena were not treated. The test apparatus was a petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening. The assay was conducted in darkness at room temperature. The control assay was conducted first. The data are set out in Table 10 below, with times in minutes after application of ticks.

TABLE 10
Control Composition D
Time Rep L R Treated (L) Untreated (R)
0 min 1 4 1
2 5
10 1 4 1 2 3
2 2 3 2 3
20 1 2 3 1 4
2 3 2 1 4
30 1 3 2 1 4
2 5 3 2
40 1 3 2 1 4
2 3 2 1 4
50 1 2 3 3 2
2 3 2 1 4
60 1 3 2 3 2
2 3 2 2 3

Example 11

In this example, the test arena was a 10 cm diameter plastic petri plate (78.5 cm 2 bottom surface area). The inside bottom of the plate was covered with two half circles of white copy paper, separated by a 3 mm void at the centerline. Composition D was applied to the left half of the arena in the amount of 537 μL. Ticks, unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena less than two minutes after application of composition D. The assay was conducted in darkness at room temperature. The data are set forth in Table 11 below, with times given in minutes after application of ticks. It was not determined whether ticks were still alive at the 9 hours 43 minutes reading.

TABLE 11
Composition D
Time Treated (L) Untreated (R)
30 min 1 4
45 5
60 5
1 h:30 min 5
9 h:43 min 5

Example 12

In this example, the test arena was 4 cm in diameter (12.56 cm 2 ) on the left inner thigh of the human male subject, just proximal to the kneecap. As a control, the left and right halves of the arena were untreated. A 7% DEET composition was applied to the left half of the arena in the amount of 100 μL. Ticks, unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena 1 minute 45 seconds after application of the 7% DEET composition. The assay was conducted in darkness at room temperature. The test apparatus was a petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening. The base for the 7% DEET composition was mostly alcohol; it was not apparent, whether the one minute 45 second waiting period was sufficient for all of the alcohol to evaporate from the skin. The data are set forth in Table 12 below, with times given in minutes after application of ticks.

TABLE 12
Control 7% DEET Composition
Time L R Treated (L) Untreated (R)
0 min 2 3 5
5 2 3 5
10 3 2 5
15 2 3 4 1
20 1 4 4 1
25 1 4 4 1
30 5 4 1***
35 3 2
40 2 3
45 3 2
50 3 2
55 3 2
60 3 2
***Only one tick moved since the beginning of the experiment, such movement occurring between 10 and 15 minutes. The experiment was stopped at 30 minutes, and that this time, all ticks appeared to be alive, i.e., they moved when touched with a blunt probe.

Example 13

In this example, the test arena was a 10 cm diameter plastic petri plate (78.5 cm 2 bottom surface area). The inside bottom was covered with two half circles of white copy paper separated by a 3 mm void at the centerline. As a control, the left and right halves of the arena were untreated. A 7% DEET composition was applied to the left half of the arena in the amount of 537 μL. Ticks, unfed males/females of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, were added to the arena after the 7% DEET composition was no longer visible. The assay was conducted in darkness at room temperature. The data are set forth in Table 13 below, with times given in minutes after application of ticks.

TABLE 13
7% DEET Composition
Time Treated (L) Untreated (R)
1 min 2 3
10 1 4
20 1 4
30 1 4
40 2 3
50 2 3
60 1 4
1 h:10 min 1 4
1:20 1 4
2:00 2 3
3:30 2 3
4:30 2 3***
***All ticks moved when touched with a blunt probe at four hours, 30 minutes.

Example 14

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate mosquito repellency of compositions of the present invention under natural field conditions.

All tests were conducted with wild populations on a nature trail at Howell Woods Environmental Education Center, Bentonville, N.C. Two specific study locations were selected: a three meter wide trail through a heavily wooded area, (forest) and on a 1.2 m wide plank bridge, approximately 0.6 m above the surface of a heavily wooded pond.

Two repellent compositions were tested: a 2.4% soybean emulsion formulated with a sunscreen formulation having an SPF 20 factor (Composition F); and a 4% soybean methyl ester emulsion formulated with 8% undecanone (Composition G).

The experimental protocol was based on the EPA Product Performance Test Guidelines OPPTS 810.3700 Insect Repellents for Human Skin and Outdoor Premises and PMRA requirements (Canada). For this experiment, the test area was the surface of the arm just distal to the elbow to the most distal end of the hand. The following test applications were used: (a) control (no treatment); (b) 2.0 mL of Composition F; and (c) 1.5 mL of Composition G. Composition F was a viscous cream. The application of the repellent to all subjects was conducted within a 10 minute time period. Landing counts in the field were conducted at 2, 3, 4 and 4.5 hours after application of the repellent, with the 4.5 hour assay conducted at dusk. The repellent volume to be applied was measured with a P5000 Gilson Pippetmann, and applied directly to the subject’s skin. The applied repellent was spread with a free hand to cover the entire area to be treated. Subjects were requested to remain in the reception area until about one hour prior to the first field test (the two-hour post-treatment test). Each replicate was one person (control, one male and one female; Composition F (2 mL), two males and one female; Composition G (1.5 mL), two males and one female), and the same person was tested at each time (total number of human subjects=eight). At approximately 1 hour before the field test, all subjects traveled by car for about 40 minutes to the parking lot of the visitor center at Howell Woods.

All subjects were dressed in their personal clothing of choice, with only the treated or control area of their forearm, their hands, and their head exposed. Each subject were at least two shirts. The head of each subject was covered with hat and mosquito net, and the hand on the subject’s untreated arm was covered with a latex disposable glove. The only exposed skin for mosquito landings was the control or treated surface of the forearm and hand of one arm. The pants for both legs was either taped tight against the ankles or inserted into the subjects’ socks. Each subject was provided with a pencil and data form to record landing counts, and all test subjects then walked together about 0.25 mile to the test location.

Two distinctly different test locations, forest and bridge, were used, as previously described. Each test location covered a linear area of the 37 m. Two to three test measurements were made at a different site in the same test location (forest or bridge). At each time (2-4.5 hours post-treatment of the repellent). Changes in the site within a location were achieved by asking subjects to randomly exchange positions with other subjects. After each test time (2, 3 and 4 hours), the subjects all returned together to the parking lot of the Howell Woods Visitor’s Center. Between the four and 4.5 hours reading, the subjects remained in the forest location. Subjects were asked to count the number of mosquito landings over a given observation, which was initiated and ended by voice communication from one of the control subjects. Landings were defined as a mosquito on the subject’s forearm or hand for at least two seconds and/or after observing probing. The subjects were asked to physically remove the mosquito from their arm with their free hand using at least a brushing motion to prevent mosquito bites. The estimated skin surface area for the control and treatments was 900 cm 2 each. All landing count measurements were taken simultaneously across reps at each location, and at different sites within a location.

Results are set out below in Table 14.

TABLE 14
Mosquito landing counts on the surface of arm from just distal to the elbow to
the most distal end of hand. a
Parameter Control Composition F Composition G
Time Location Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3 Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3
2 hrs Forest 4.60/min 2.40
2 hrs Bridge 8.40 19.20 0.33 b
2 hrs Bridge 9.67 16.67
3 hrs Forest 7.33 9.00 0.33 b 0.33
3 hrs Bridge 12.67 22.00 1.00
3 hrs Bridge 11.33 16.00 0.67 0.33
4 hrs Forest 13.00 15.00 1.00 1.33 0.33 0.33
4 hrs Bridge 5.33 11.00 2.33 1.33
4 hrs Bridge 17.33 15.00 0.67 0.67 1.00
4.5 hrs Bridge 14.33 21.00 0.33 0.33
4.5 hrs Forest 18.67 7.67 1.33 0.33 0.33 0.33
a Time = elapsed time after application of repellent.
b Mosquito landing on fingernail.

The percent repellency based on the Table 14 results is set out in Table 15 below.

TABLE 15
Percent repellency on the surface of arm from just distal to the elbow
to the most distal end of hand. a
Control
Parameter mean Composition F Composition G
Time Location landings/min Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3 Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3
2 hrs Forest 3.50 100 100 100 100 100 100
2 hrs Bridge 13.80 100 100 100 100 100 97.61 b
2 hrs Bridge 13.17 100 100 100 100 100 100
3 hrs Forest 16.33 97.98 b 100 97.98 100 100 100
3 hrs Bridge 17.34 100 100 94.23 100 100 100
3 hrs Bridge 13.66 100 100 95.10 97.58 100 100
4 hrs Forest 14.00 100 92.86 90.50 97.64 100 97.64
4 hrs Bridge 8.16 100 100 71.45 100 100 83.70
4 hrs Bridge 16.16 100 100 95.85 95.85 100 93.81
4.5 hrs Bridge 17.66 100 100 98.13 100 100 98.13
4.5 hrs Forest 13.17 100 89.90 97.49 97.49 100 97.49
a Time = elapsed time after application of repellent.
b Mosquito landing on fingernail.

In generating the data of Table 14 and Table 15, the assay time for the Rep 1 control was typically three minutes, but some of the earlier measurements were made at five minutes. Due to the high landing counts for the Rep 2 control at two hours, this subject was provided an option to stop their counts at one minute. The assay time for the treated subjects was the same as for the Rep 1 control. Table 14 shows the landing counts per minute, for the controls and treatments. Accept for the two-hour Forest assay for Reps 1 and 2 and one of the bridge measurements for Rep 1 at four hours, the landing counts exceeded seven per minute, which was greater than the minimum activity level acceptable for conducting data analyses.

Table 15 shows the mean control landings per minute for each test. And percent repellency for each Rep at each location and site within a location for each of the compositions F and G. Percent repellency for each Rep was calculated based on its control as follows: [(mean landing counts per minute for control)−(landing counts per minute for Rep)/mean landing counts per minute for control]×100%. The repellency data shown in Table 15 evidence high effectiveness of both Compositions F and G. The study was concluded at 4.5 hours because of lack of natural light, as needed to observe mosquito landings.

Mosquitoes were collected from the subjects at the end of the assays. The mosquitoes collected were identified as follows: 12 Ochlerotatus anlanticus/tormentus, 4 Psorophora ferox and 1 Psorophora columbiae.

Example 15

Testing was performed to demonstrate the different efficacy of a known insect repellent active. The test results are set out in Tables 16 and 17 below.

TABLE 16
Substance 1
Hours post- Mean number of
application (duration mosquitoes per 3.5 Percent
Treatment time) min reduction
Control 6.51 ± 5.48
Herbal Spray 1 0.05 ± 0.21 99.3
2 0.55 ± 0.92 91.6
3 0.70 ± 1.18 89.2
4 2.46 ± 3.04 62.3
Mean Number (±one standard duration) and percent reduction of mosquitoes biting subjects
TABLE 17
Substance 2: Field Study
Mean Control
Landings per (% repellency)
Time Location min Rep 1 Rep 2 Rep 3
2 h forest 3.5 100 100 100
bridge 13.8 100 100 100
bridge 13.17 100 100 100
3 h forest 16.33 97.98 b 100 97.98
bridge 17.34 100 100 94.23
bridge 13.66 100 100 95.1
4 h forest 14 100 92.86 90.5
bridge 8.16 100 100 71.45
bridge 16.16 100 100 95.85
4.5 h bridge 17.66 100 100 98.13
forest 13.17 100 89.9 97.49
A proprietary botanical repellent containing soybean (methyl ester) as the active
Method: Field test using multiple subjects according to EPA guideline “Product Performance Test Guidelines, OPPTS 810.3700 Insect Repellents for Human Skin and Outdoor Premises” Draft, December 1999
Percent Repellency

Test results for Substance 1 demonstrate two hours efficacy, where efficacy is defined as 95% reduction of mosquito bites. Substance 1 is a commercially available insect repellent, using soybean oil as the active, commercially available from HOMS, LLC in Clayton, N.C. Substance 2 is the same as Substance 1, but with the actives processed by the present method. Substance 2 shows an improvement in efficacy to more than four hours.

Example 16

A study was carried out in southern Ontario, Canada, to compare a 30% DEET pest repellent formulation with a 30% undecanone formulation containing soy methyl ester (Composition HS). The purpose of this study was to assess, under field conditions, the efficacy of Composition HS in protecting human subjects for 8 hours post-application against various mosquito species in southern Ontario. Protection was compared to that provided by Deep Woods OFF! Containing 30% DEET (Composition DT).

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted in an area bordering a mixed deciduous/coniferous woodlot (including maples, poplars, birch, tamarack, white cedar, and white pine as predominant species) with secondary growth under the canopy in a rural area four km south of the southern city limit of Guelph, Ontario. Subjects stood in a goldenrod meadow bordering the woodlot. Adjacent to the study area was a cattail marsh (>four hectares) which was a source of Aedes, Anopheles and Ochlerotatus mosquito species and the mosquito Coquillettidia perturbans. Previous unpublished studies have shown the site to provide sufficient numbers of adult mosquitoes for repellent evaluations.

The study took place on the evenings of Aug. 17, 18, and 22, 2005.

Six subjects and a supervisor were used in this evaluation. To adjust for size differences among subjects, the surface area of the forearms (wrist to elbow) of each subject was measured and surface area was calculated. The product was applied evenly to the forearms of each subject using latex gloves at a rate of 1.0 ml per 600 cm 2 of forearm.

During each day of the evaluation, four subjects applied one of the products 7.5 hours before the start of the 30 minute evaluation (two subjects per product). Each night two subjects were non-treated and served as controls. Biting counts were performed over a 30 minute period and therefore the duration of protection that was evaluated was 8 hours. During the three-evening study both products were worn by each subject at least once. The total number of replications equalled six.

Subjects dressed in identical green overalls, head nets and white cotton gloves. The six subjects were randomly assigned to one of six positions on a grid located within the study site. All grid positions were at least 10 m from each other. Biting counts were initiated just prior to dusk (≈20:10 h) to correspond with peak mosquito biting activity and consisted of 6, 4.5-minute biting counts. During each biting count, subjects aspirated all mosquitoes landing and probing on two exposed forearms. Mosquitoes were aspirated into 150 ml clear plastic vials. Following the biting count, the subjects recorded the number of mosquitoes captured. Subjects then rotated to the next position on the grid within 36 seconds when the next 4.5-minute biting count began. In this manner, each subject was at each grid position once each night and the duration of exposure was 30 minutes.

Ambient air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and barometric pressure within the study site were measured at the start and end of the biting counts each evening. Biting counts were not conducted on evenings when air temperature was below 10° C. or when strong winds (>25 kph) or rain occurred because these conditions limit mosquito host-seeking activity.

Percent repellency provided by the product was calculated using the formula: ((mean number of mosquitoes biting non-treated subjects−number biting treated subjects)/mean number biting non-treated subjects)×100%. Mean percent repellency was calculated for the complete 30 minute exposure period.

The mean number of mosquitoes biting non-treated subjects and treated subjects was compared using analysis of variance. Protection provided by both products was analyzed using a Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The analyses were completed using Statistical Analysis Systems version 6.12 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C.).

The results are summarized in Table 18. Composition HS provided 70.1% mean reduction of mosquitoes landing and biting over the 30 minute evaluation period. Composition DT provided 83.9% mean reduction of mosquitoes landing and biting over the 30 minute evaluation period. The mean number of mosquitoes landing and biting treated subjects was statistically lower (P 0.05).

The mean air temperature during the three evening study was 17.3° C. (range=12.8, 19.6), the mean relative humidity was 89.8% (range=82.5, 94.5), the mean wind speed was 2.4 kph (range=0.0, 7.1), and the mean barometric pressure was 985.0 mb (range=980.8, 990.5).

TABLE 18
Mean number 1,2 (±one standard deviation) and percent reduction
of mosquitoes biting human subjects 3 during 30 minute mosquito biting
counts in field tests conducted near Guelph, Ontario, 2005.
Duration (hours) Number of mosquitoes Percent
Treatment post-application Per 4.5 minutes reduction 4
Control 3.64 ± 2.97 a
Composition HS 8 1.17 ± 1.26 b 70.1
Composition DT 8 0.67 ± 0.96 b 83.9
1 Values followed by different letters in the same column are significantly different (P 2 Number of repetitions equaled five for Composition HS and six for Composition DT. One of the Composition HS replicates was dropped because one subject engaged in an activity after product application which resulted in loss of treatment due to excessive perspiration.
3 Mean biting pressure over three nights equaled 24.3 mosquitoes per 30 minutes.
4 Calculated from nightly repellency results, not from means in column 3.

Composition HS lotion mosquito repellent provided >70% protection from blood-seeking mosquitoes for 8 hours post-application in a field test using human subjects. The level of protection provided was statistically significant. Although Composition DT provided greater protection, the difference between products was not statistically significant.

Example 17

Deer Tick Test on Human Skin

The objective of this test was to evaluate the tick repellency of an 8% undecanone in soy methyl ester composition (Composition D) against the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis.

All tests were conducted in the laboratory at ambient room temperature, humidity and light conditions (a combination of sun and incandescent light). The ticks in the test arena prior to the application to the human subject and during the choice assay on human skin were covered with a dark cloth. The ticks were exposed to light only during the 5 seconds needed to determine the tick distribution.

All tests on human skin were conducted with the same male subject using the left leg just above the knee. Tests were conducted with unfed female adults of the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis.

Tests on Human Skin

The apparatus used for these tests was a plastic Petri plate top (4 cm in diameter, 6.28 square cm in area) with the opening covered with common aluminum window screening. The aluminum screening was fixed over the opening of the plastic Petri plate top using a soldering iron applied to the screening, which welded the screening to the plastic. Two layers of cheese cloth cut to exactly fit into the plastic Petri plate top were positioned between the Petri dish top and the screen (confined inside of the apparatus). The cloth under this configuration arrests the normal escape behavior of ticks. Ticks in the apparatus are found between the screen and cloth and between the cloth and plastic Petri dish but never between the two layers of cloth. A small un-welded area of the screen was retained until ticks were added to the apparatus. After ticks were added to the device, the un-welded area was sealed with care given not to expose the live ticks to the high heat needed for soldering. After the final sealing of the screen to the plastic plate, in all cases the ticks were observed actively walking inside of the apparatus. The test arena containing ticks was set-up approximately 5 min prior to the beginning of the test. No test device was ever used more than once except for control and treatment tests that were conducted consecutively. No device used for a treatment was re-used for another treatment. No ticks used were ever re-used except when a control and treatment test was conducted on the same day.

The exact location (circle) marking the outside circumference where the device was to be applied to human skin was marked with an ink pin. A straight line was marked on the skin across the circle so that the area of the circle was divided into equal halves. For control experiments, neither half circle received an application. The screen-side of the device was applied to the skin surface at time 0 min. The screen side was in the down position and rested horizontal on the skin surface.

For treatments, the half circle nearest to the left side of the subject was covered with the repellent to be tested. The repellent to be tested (20 microliters) was applied to the half circle with a P200 (Gilson) pipetman. Small droplets were applied throughout the area to be treated and then spread with the pipetman tip to evenly cover the surface area to be treated.

At a minimum of 2 h after treatment, the screen-side of the device containing ticks was applied to the skin surface. The exact times of observations before treatment and 2 h after the application of the repellent is provided in the tables that follow along with the number of ticks tested per experiment. At each observation period, the number of ticks on the left (treated) and right (untreated) side was recorded and the location of the ticks within the arena mapped (see Tables that follow). The tests were conducted in the dark (under 3-4 layers of a dark cloth). This cloth was moved for about 5 sec to observe the position of the ticks.

The rationale of the test is that the ticks have a choice between two different halves of the test arena. In the absence of the repellent, the distribution of ticks on the two halves should be random. If the material to be tested is a repellent, more ticks would be found on the untreated surface than the treated surface. The assay arena on the subject’s leg was held horizontal and the tests were conducted in the dark to eliminate any possible external cues, which might affect the position of the tick in the arena. When the ticks were first positioned on the treated/untreated skin, to the extent possible the orientation of the apparatus was chosen that placed as many as possible of the ticks on the treated surface.

The test format used was a two-choice test. All tests were conducted with the deer tick. It was noted that the two-choice test and the position of ticks on the treated versus the untreated surface could be affected by toxic effects of the repellent on tick motor and sensory activities at any time during the course of the assay; however, no toxic effects were noted and all ticks were alive and mobile at the conclusion of each test. The ticks in this test were separated from the skin surface by at least the thickness of the aluminum screen and sometimes by the screen and cheese cloth. The movement of the ticks on the screen could be felt by the subject. The ticks did not blood feed on the human through the screen.

When 20 μL of Composition D was applied to human skin, the product was highly repellent to the deer tick unfed female adults for at least 2-2.5 h after the application of the repellent.

Summarizing the test procedure, the test area was 4 cm in diameter (6.28 square cm) on the left leg just above knee of human (male) subject. Control test was conducted 30 min prior to the application of repellent. The treatment involved application of 20 microliters of Composition D to the left half of the test area. Ticks (unfed female adults of the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis) were added to test apparatus just prior to the control test and same ticks/apparatus used for repellent tests. The apparatus was a plastic Petri plate top with the opening covered with aluminum screening and inside between plate and screen containing two layers of cheese cloth. The assay was conducted at room temperature with apparatus on the test subject skin and then covered with dark cloth. Ticks with apparatus were applied to skin 2 h:0 min after application of the repellent.

FIGS. 4 (untreated control) and 5 (Composition D in the form of a 20 μL spray) show the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with deer ticks (Test date: Oct. 12, 2005; 9:18 AM).

FIGS. 6 (untreated control) and 7 (Composition D in the form of a 20 μL spray) show the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with deer ticks (Test date: Oct. 13, 2005; 8:49 AM).

FIGS. 8 (untreated control) and 9 (Composition D in the form of a 20 μL spray) show the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with deer ticks (Test date: Oct. 13, 2005; 2:25 PM).

Example 18

American Dog Tick Test

The test procedure of Example 17 was repeated using unfed mixed sexes of the American dog tick, Dermacenter variabilis, and a 30% undecanone and soy methyl ester formulation of Composition E.

FIG. 10 shows the results of a two-choice test on human skin, conducted with American dog ticks to assess the repellency of Composition E in the form of a 20 μL spray (Test date: May 2, 2005).

While the invention has been described herein in reference to specific aspects, features and illustrative embodiments of the invention, it will be appreciated that the utility of the invention is not thus limited, but rather extends to and encompasses numerous other variations, modifications and alternative embodiments, as will suggest themselves to those of ordinary skill in the field of the present invention, based on the disclosure herein. Correspondingly, the invention as hereinafter claimed is intended to be broadly construed and interpreted, as including all such variations, modifications and alternative embodiments, within its spirit and scope.

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