How to apply «Mospilan» (methods of use and dosage)

Every agronomist knows that planting and sprouting vegetables, fruits, and indeed any crops on the site — this is not a reason to sigh with relief. It is important to preserve the future harvest and not to allow pests and diseases to spoil it.

There are many methods of protecting plants from pests, among which is the creation of unfavorable conditions for their appearance, the improvement of the protective properties of plants, the application of fertilizers, and even the premature harvesting of crops, so that pests do not have time to profit.

In this article we will talk about the chemical protection of plants against diseases and pests, namely, about an insecticide of systemic action called «Mospilan». This drug was invented and patented in 1989 by the Japanese chemical enterprise Nippon Soda.

Description and composition

The active ingredient of the insecticide «Mospilan», according to the instructions, is acetamiprid 200 g / kg, which belongs to the group of neonicotinoids. It is a highly effective substance of systemic action. It affects insects in various stages of growth — larvae, eggs and adults.

Did you know? The use of «Mospilan» in granules makes it possible to protect the plant without spraying. It is sufficient to evenly distribute the granules on the surface of the soil.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of «Mospilan» is very simple: after spraying, it is absorbed in the shortest possible time by parts of the plant and spreads throughout its body. As a result, the insects that ate the plant treated with Mospilan die. Acetamiprid destroys the central nervous system of insect pests. Besides, protective barrier after treatment with the drug is valid up to 21 days. About what plants is suitable «Mospilan» and how to breed it, read on.

Important! Beware of fakes «Mospilana». Packages of 100 g and 1000 g do not exist.

Instructions for use

The drug «Mospilan» (2.5 g), according to the instructions for use, should be diluted in 1 liter of water, then pour another 10 liters of water. A solution of this concentration is used for the treatment of indoor plants.

One bag of «Mospilan» is enough for processing the territory up to 1 hectare. Next, consider dosages for different cultures.


When processing grain crops from thrips, harmful turtles, aphids, the consumption rate is 0.10-0.12 kg / ha. The recommended number of treatments is 1.

Tomatoes and cucumbers

When processing tomatoes and cucumbers, including greenhouses, from the whitefly, melon and other aphids, thrips, the consumption rate is 0.2-0.4 kg / ha. The recommended number of treatments is 1.


To protect against the Colorado potato beetle, as indicated in the instructions for use, “Mospilan” should be diluted in a proportion of 0.05-0.125 kg / ha. The recommended number of treatments is 1.

The most popular drugs for the fight against the Colorado potato beetle are: «Aktara», «Inta-vir», «Iskra Zolotaya», «Calypso», «Karbofos», «Komandor», «Prestige».

For the destruction of beet pests beet (weevil, beet flea, leaf beet aphid), you need to use 0.05-0.075 kg / ha. The recommended number of treatments is 1.


The norm of «Mospilan» for the protection of sunflower from the locust is 0.05-0.075 kg / ha. The recommended number of treatments is 1.

Apple tree

To protect the apple tree from the invasions of the stalk, aphids, moths, apple leafworms, the following dosage of 0.15-0.20 kg / ha should be used. To protect against all types of scale insects, the dose of «Mospilan» should be increased — 0.40-0.50 kg / ha. The recommended number of treatments — 2.

Processing of fruit trees «Mospilan» is carried out according to the instructions for use for the garden — 0.2-0.4 kg / ha.

Did you know? Before planting potatoes, you can further treat the tubers «Mospilanom», this will increase protection against pests living in the ground.

Compatibility with other drugs

Insecticide «Mospilan» blends well with other preparations for treating plants against pests. The exceptions are drugswhich give a strong alkaline reaction when mixed, for example, Bordeaux mixture, and preparations containing sulfur. Before use, carefully read the composition and recommendations for use.

Security measures

Although this insecticide belongs to the 3rd hazard class (moderately hazardous substance), care must be taken when using it.

First of all, it concerns the safety when spraying — Be sure to wear protective equipment (gloves, respirator, protective clothing). Smoking during spraying is prohibited. The recommended insecticide use time is early morning or evening. It is also desirable to take into account the weather on the day of treatment with “Mospilan” — it is desirable that the precipitations should go no earlier than 2 hours after spraying. After completion of the work, the hands, face and other open areas of the body should wash thoroughly with soap. Packing from «Mospilan» must be burned. It is forbidden to throw it into the water.

Important! In case of contact with eyes, rinse. their plenty of water. If ingested, drink activated carbon and drink a few glasses of water. In the event of unpleasant symptoms, an urgent need to consult a doctor.

Benefits of using

So, to summarize and find out what exactly distinguishes «Mospilan» from other pesticides and insecticides:

  1. Versatility of use. This drug works equally well with pests of melons, grains and vegetables, fruit trees, flowers and ornamental plants.
  2. Low toxicity to pollinating insects (bees, bumblebees).
  3. Does not possess phytotoxicity.
  4. Does not cause persistence in pests and retains long-term biological effectiveness (up to 21 days).

Storage conditions

«Mospilan» should be stored in a dry and hard-to-reach place for children and animals. It is forbidden to store its next door to food. The solution in diluted form can not be stored.

The ambient temperature should be between -15 and +30 ° C. With proper storage conditions, the effectiveness of the drug is not reduced.

On the benefits of «Mospilan» you can write or talk a lot. But the best proof of the effectiveness of its work will be the safety of your harvest.

Put an end to the invasion! Karbofos from cockroaches, instructions for use

Usually, cockroaches are turned up in poor sanitary conditions and conditions of high humidity. Old houses that are in need of repair are often exposed to their invasion.

If the pipes in the basements constantly flow, and at least in several apartments there is a mess and there is something to profit from, the cockroaches will settle here for a long time.

Night insects will regularly leave the secluded places at night and eat up the leftovers. Even a small amount is enough for a long and unpleasant neighborhood with parasites.

In the fight against the annoying «neighbors» will help Malathion from cockroaches. Consider this tool in more detail.


Advantages and disadvantages

To get rid of insects, you need to clean up the apartment, disassemble every corner of the apartment or house and buy a means to fight cockroaches. Malathion is one of them. The tool is used not only to fight cockroaches. With it, remove ants, bed bugs.

Karbofos well known gardeners and gardeners. It helps fight pests. It can be bought in two forms: brownish oily liquid or powder. The active ingredients in the chemical composition paralyze insects and lead to death.

One of the advantages of Karbofos from cockroaches is that it is able to destroy not only adult individuals, but also parasites at the initial stage of development. The chemical is resistant to temperature extremes and direct sunlight.

The drug acts quickly and efficiently. But from the minuses — a sharp and extremely unpleasant smell, which will have to get rid of for a very long time.

Security funds

The first prototype of Malathion was opened in the XIX century. But it turned out to be poisonous, representing a danger to humans. Synthesize compounds continued in the laboratories of the Soviet Union, England, Germany and the United States. The American Cyanamid Company was the first company that managed to produce a popular drug today.

The relatively low toxicity allows it to be used at home. When properly handled, the product does not harm people and pets. Before using the drug should prepare an apartment.

  1. Thorough cleaning.
  2. Unnecessary piles of newspapers that litter an apartment, throw it away.
  3. Personal belongings packaged in bags..
  4. Hiding food and food. It is better to take them out of the house for a while..
  5. Pets taken out of the house.
  6. If the apartment has an aquarium, it is tightly closed and the air filtration devices are disconnected..

IMPORTANT: Cockroaches are recognized omnivorous. They even eat paper. Therefore, they are so often found between books, in piles of newspapers and magazines.

Karbofos against cockroaches: instructions for use

The safety of the drug is relative. Handle with care.. After all, this is an insecticide. While working with the drug be sure to use personal protective equipment.

Clothing should be as closed as possible to prevent contact with the skin. It is advisable to use clothes that do not mind throwing away after processing.

It is also recommended to use safety glasses.. This will help prevent poisoning or allergies. To combat the cockroaches use spray. With his help treat secluded places in the room. After treatment, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water. After 4 hours the apartment is ventilated.until the smell disappears.

During cleaning it is better to disregard the space under the furniture or where the pets will not reach. The fact is that Malathion loses its properties under the influence of soap solutions.

average price

Means in the form of powder in the package costs 60 grams from 65 rubles. Buying a liquid chemical in large quantities does not make sense. The plastic canister of 5 liters costs from 4,5 thousand rubles. In such an amount, the facility is usually acquired by disinsection enterprises. To order the right amount of the drug, you can contact the insect control service.

Malathion is a powerful remedy. It is successfully used in the fight against bedbugs. And as you know, blood-sucking parasites are very resistant to various chemicals and it can be difficult to get them out. If Karbofos removes them, then cope with cockroaches too. But if you do not want a harsh aroma to come out of the house after the cockroaches, it is better to prefer more benign insecticides.

The use of karbofos is justified in industrial premises. But for the treatment of residential premises, it is not the most convenient option.

Useful materials

Read other articles about cockroaches:

  • To successfully combat these parasites, you need to know where they come from in the apartment, what they eat? What is their life cycle and how do they multiply?
  • The most common types of us: red and black. How do they differ and what to do if you saw a white cockroach in your apartment?
  • Interesting facts: what nicknames have come up with these insects; did you know that there are flying individuals; some myths about where the baleen went and what does it mean?
  • Can cockroaches cause physical harm to a person, for example, to bite or crawl into the ear and nose?
  • A detailed article on how to get rid of them, the most effective ways to combat and prevent.
  • Now on the market there are many tools against these parasites. Therefore, we wrote an article about how to choose a drug that suits you, described the best products for today and ranked the manufacturers of insect drugs.
  • And of course, we could not ignore all sorts of popular methods, in particular the most popular one is boric acid.
  • Well, if you yourself can not cope with uninvited guests, we recommend that you contact the professionals. They own modern technologies of struggle and save you from adversity once and for all.
  • Find out if electronic scarers help?
  • Means well proven against these parasites: powders and dusts, crayons and pencils, traps, gels, aerosols.

Karbofos: purpose and features of application in gardening

Karbofos refers to a wide spectrum of insecticidal and acaricidal drugs. The composition of the product belongs to the class of organophosphorus compounds and is actively used in the garden.

Karbofos: on the advantages and disadvantages of the drug

The active toxic component of the agent is represented by malathion, the amount of which is ½ part of the total volume. Due to the high concentration of toxin, the chemical acts quickly and with maximum effectiveness on pests in gardening, horticulture and floriculture, as well as is part of:

Advantages and disadvantages of use:

  • the impact is noted exclusively in the process of direct contact of the sprayed liquid on the insect pest;
  • protective insecticidal effect is observed only on fully treated parts of plants;
  • short duration of action and quick destructibility under the influence of sunlight, wind and water;
  • there is a continuous toxic effect on several types of plant parasites, which often become addictive with regular use.

Dilute the working standard solution in strict accordance with the recommendations specified in the instructions, due to the rather high toxicity of the active component.

Karbofos: pest control

The composition and scope of the tool in horticulture

In agricultural conditions, «Karbofos» is actively used for the rapid and complete destruction of sucking and gnawing insect pests, and is also very effective against plant mites and scale insects. When used in open ground conditions, the drug has a short exposure time, and is also characterized by insufficient resistance to strong winds and water.

The active toxic component of malathion does not have a smell and taste. Field average duration of protective action does not exceed ten days, and in greenhouse soil the duration of active action is a maximum of one week. In the conditions of home gardening, horticulture and floriculture, it is forbidden to mix Karbofos with other types of preparations of chemical origin. Also, you can not spray the product at the stage of flowering or mass formation of ovaries.

Karbofos: instructions for use in the garden

In orchards and garden beds, the product is used to control gnawing and sucking insects represented by tinkerbirds, aphids, caterpillars of the apple codling moth, herbivorous ticks and scale insects, and leaf-eating butterflies. To destroy the larval stage of sawflies and caterpillars on the crowns of an apple tree or pear, it is necessary to adhere to a drug concentration of 0.9%, and the working solution is obtained by dissolving 90 g of Karbofos in a bucket of warm water. When breeding should rememberl, that malathion has thermal and photochemical stability, and is also quite difficult to dissolve in an aqueous medium.

See also:  How to Get Rid of Earwigs in Your Home and Garden

Processing berry bushes represented by gooseberries, raspberries and blackberries, as well as black, white or red currants, requires the use of a different concentration of the active substance. In this case, it is recommended to dissolve 75 g of the drug in a bucket of water at room temperature. Any stone fruit and garden crops should be treated with a standard 0.6% solution. The drug is not capable of exerting a toxic effect on the eggs of plant parasites, therefore, the aerial parts of plants affected by spider mites are sprayed three times, with an interval of one week.

With the help of a solution based on Karbofos, it is possible to effectively combat plant parasites on decorative foliage and flowering crops. A good result is the processing of rose bushes, plantings of lavender, decorative essential oil crops, as well as vines of girl’s grapes. Raspberries and berry plantings of garden strawberries from weevil damage are protected by double spraying until the phase of active mass flowering and immediately after the harvest.

The last treatment of fruit plantings with a working solution based on the toxic component of malathion is carried out about a month and a half before the start of mass harvesting. A liquid insecticide is sprayed in the morning or after sunset. You need to choose a calm day. It is best to carry out processing at air temperatures of 15 ° C or slightly lower.

In the process of spraying, the sheet surface should be abundantly wetted from all sides, in order to obtain maximum insecticidal effectiveness and a guaranteed preventive or therapeutic result.

Security measures during processing

For people and warm-blooded animals the drug has an average degree of toxicity and belongs to the third hazard class. Nevertheless, when processing horticultural crops or ornamental plants, it is imperative to follow the entire range of security measures.

When diluting toxic substances and their use in open or protected ground, clothing, rubber gloves and a household respirator are required. After the work done, you need to take a shower, rinse your mouth thoroughly and change clothes. It is forbidden to spray the working solution close to the houses of the bees.

Acute poisoning develops rather slowly. The initial signs of intoxication are the state of oppression and marked inhibition, which after about an hour are replaced by a stage of motor excitement, accompanied by profuse salivation or severe vomiting. A poisoned animal may experience symptoms represented by tremors and clonic convulsions with rapid surface breathing. Despite the fact that malathion is quite well destroyed in the process of heat treatment of food products, it is important to strictly observe the dates of the last processing of plants before harvesting.

Preparations for gardening in the spring

Today, «Karbofos» is almost everywhere quickly replaced by the most modern, and almost harmless to humans pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and diazinone. Nevertheless, drugs based on malathion are still classified as very effective drugs for pest control that have too little sensitivity to other types of insecticides.

Features of the use of the drug «Fufanon», how to handle plants

When external factors contribute to the intensive development of harmful insects, and mechanical methods against them no longer work, there comes an hour of chemical treatments. Moreover, each owner of the backyard area is looking for a high-speed effective remedy. In the state register of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted in Ukraine, more than 10 thousand drugs are charged, but in this article we will pay attention only to one of them. Let’s try to figure out what Fufanon is, how it acts, what pests it affects and how dangerous it is for the environment.

Important! When buying pesticides, pay attention to the packaging, holograms, literacy instructions on the use of the drug and the price. Counterfeits are often cheaper, with gross grammatical errors, without the specified information about the manufacturer, place of packaging, date of manufacture and useful life. Therefore, to make such acquisitions safer in specialized stores that care about their image.

«Fufanon»: drug description and release form

The drug was developed by the Danish company «Keminova AGRO A / S», belongs to the phosphorus-organic insecticides of broad spectrum. In Ukraine, it is registered as a means for processing: winter wheat, sugar beet, peas, sunflowers, hops, cabbage, apple trees, plums, vineyards, watermelons, melons, poppy seeds, champignons, flour in bags and not loaded storage facilities. On the garden plots, the pesticide is widely used to control bedbugs, ants, cockroaches and fleas.

Fufanon specializes in the destruction of sucking, gnawing and complex pests, and is also used as a remedy for ticks. In the field the protective function of the drug lasts up to 2 weeks after spraying, and indoors up to 21 days.

«Fufanon» is produced in the form of 57% or 47% of the emulsion concentrate, usually in 5 ml ampoules or 10 ml in bottles, as well as in plastic cans with a capacity of 5 liters.

With proper use of the drug «Fufanon» with strict observance given in the instructions for use of the recommendations, it will not have a toxic effect on the treated plants.

Active ingredient and mechanism of action

The described chemical is an oily emulsion, which is poorly soluble, has no color, is prone to boiling at +157 ° C, and it begins to melt at + 28 ° C. The insecticide analyzed is not an innovation. The fact is that the composition of «Fufanon» contains the previously known active substance malathion in the ratio of 570 g / l, which is less toxic and in terms of its action close to karbofos. The active ingredient is a phosphorus compound. It affects parasites through direct contact, ingestion into the intestine, as well as poisoning by toxic fumes.

As a result, the enzyme acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, the transmission of nerve impulses fails, paralysis and insect death. Fumigation properties enhance the contact and intestinal reactions: within an hour, the pests cannot eat, and complete paralysis breaks them during the day. However, wet weather and mature age of beetles slow down the biochemical processes of the drug’s effect, therefore, in order to prolong its effect, make sure that the sprayer is adjusted to evenly spray very small particles.

Did you know? Fighting parasites can be the most affordable — biological way. For example, tomatoes in the neighborhood with cabbage, agrus, currant, coriander, apple or pear will not only scare the pinworms, aphids and fire eggs, but also prevent the development of certain diseases. Apple trees will protect raspberries from gray rot.

Instructions for use «Fufanona» how to make a solution for the treatment of plants

The expected result depends on the quality of processing of plants, on the appeared parasites. Insecticide «Fufanon» measured spray on the source of infection until it gets wet, not leading up to the flow of toxic chemicals from the foliage. Of course, for this you need to stock up with a sufficient amount of working solution. Before preparing it, carefully read the manufacturer’s recommendations.

The solution is prepared at the rate of 1 liter of water per 1 ml of poison, respectively, the contents of a 5-ml ampoule are dissolved in 5 l of water. In greenhouses on cucumbers, only 1 treatment with the drug from complex pests “Fufanon” is allowed, on tomatoes — 3. To organize the procedure, taking into account the time of fruit ripening. After it is recommended not to eat vegetables for a week. On the open ground, regardless of the type of cultivated crop, 2 spraying is possible. Moreover, the latter is carried out 3 weeks before harvest. This insecticide is sensitive to precipitation and weather conditions, so the plants should be sprayed 2 hours before the rain. It is better to do this in the morning or evening, in dry, calm weather.

When large-scale processing of field crops, you need 200 — 400 liters of working fluid per hectare. For processing «Fufanon» citrus, apple, pear, quince, plums, cherries and sweet cherry specified in the instructions for use in the garden, the working solution consumption is 2-5 liters per 1 tree. Similarly, in the fight against mealybug or spider mite on grapes.

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For the processing of vegetable crops (cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers), for the complete destruction of pests will need from 1 to 3 liters of liquid. On watermelons, melons and strawberries consumed about 5 liters per 10 m². In the berry, for pollination of currants and gooseberries will need about 1.5 liters of solution, and for raspberries and blackberries — about 2 liters. For roses, flower and decorative crops, the recommended rate of «Fufanon», according to the instructions for use for houseplants, is one and a half liters per 10 m².

Important! If you ignore the requirements and carry out disinfection measures on a foggy or rainy day, the entire chemical will wash off into the soil, not having time to act on the parasites. The roots will pull the poison, a significant part of it will settle in the fruit. This is especially true of potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, beets and carrots.

«Fufanon» as a remedy for bed bugs according to the instructions, it is recommended to use in diluted form in a ratio of 1.5 — 3.5 ml per 1 liter of water (if the drug is in ampoules, the calculation of the proportions is the same as for plants — 1: 1). To get rid of cockroaches and ants — the ratio of 9-11 ml per 1l. The emulsion can be sprayed out of the spray or with a soft brush. The consumption rate per 1 m² is about 100 ml.

When processing, special attention should be paid to hard-to-reach places, crevices, plinths. To achieve the desired result, the room is carefully treated around the perimeter, including behind furniture, carpets, paintings, and even in places of peeled-off wallpaper. If you miss at least one slot where an annoying pest could hide, all efforts are in vain.

In the conditions of a harsh winter, when there is more than -20 ° C outside the window, clothes and other household items can be brought out into the street. With a strong population of parasites, it is possible to repeat the procedure at intervals of 3-4 days, when the incubation of eggs laid by the bugs ends.

You can find similar products on sale. «Fufanon nova», «Fufanon super.» These are the same products with the same active ingredient, but different manufacturers.

Important! In order not to provoke the addiction of parasites to Fufanon, agrochemists advise alternating insecticides from other classifications during disinfection.

The benefits of using «Fufanon» for plants

Insecticide «Fufanon», as indicated in the instructions, has a wide spectrum of action, and therefore effective in combating all herbivorous pests. After analyzing the recommendations of the company-developer and consumer reviews, we came to the conclusion that the drug really deserves attention, especially considering all its advantages:

  • the desired result can be obtained after 24 hours;
  • proper effect guaranteed by the manufacturer;
  • after treatment there is no unpleasant smell;
  • relative ease in preparing the solution and processing of plant crops;
  • low consumption of funds;
  • versatility (the ability to process fruit, berries, vegetables, flowering, indoor and ornamental plants);
  • fumigation;
  • affordable price.

Safety measures when using the drug

«Fufanon» is a low-toxic insecticide for humans and highly dangerous for bees. However, consider toxicity and do not neglect your health. ATAll work with the pesticide should be carried out in special clothes, respirator, goggles, rubber gloves and boots. Do not plan the processing of plants in hot weather, follow the instructions clearly. It is strictly forbidden to eat, smoke, drink alcohol at the same time. It is also recommended to limit the contact of hands and face as much as possible. Do not forget to check the serviceability of the sprayer and configure it for the correct distribution of the poison. When treating the premises with Fufanon-Nova, pay attention to the instructions for use, as well as the dosage of the solution for bedbugs. It is possible to work with an insecticide no more than 3 hours.

Did you know? Most modern pesticides are much safer compared with drugs. For example, table salt has LD50 (the dose of the drug that causes the death of 50% of laboratory animals) is 3750 mg / kg, caffeine is 200 mg / kg, aspirin is 1750 mg / kg, and herbicides are 5000 mg / kg.

During processing in the house there should not be children, pets, including fish. Remove even indoor flowers. Open the windows. You can use the apartment again after one day, after you wash everything thoroughly with a soda solution (300 g of soda per 10 liters of water). Insecticide has the ability to maintain protective functions in the room up to 4 weeks, but under the influence of heat and light loses them.

Protective clothing can only be removed after disinfection is completed. Do not forget to wash your hands with soap, wash and rinse your mouth. If the poison gets on the skin, it is removed without rubbing with cotton wool, then washed off with running water or a weak solution of soda. In cases of contact with the eyes, rinse with plenty of water for 15 minutes. If ingested and irritated mucous membranes seek medical attention. It is important to keep the insecticide packaging label. Be attentive to your well-being. The first signs of poisoning are manifested by nausea, general weakness, convulsions and impaired coordination of movement. If you have similar symptoms, immediately call a doctor and leave the room to fresh air.

Before the arrival of the doctor, take a solution of crushed activated carbon with the calculation of 3-5 tablespoons per glass of water. If symptoms persist, induce vomiting.

It is unacceptable to contaminate the sources, reservoirs, wells with the remnants of the solution. Also near them you should not pour out the water after cleaning contaminated in the process of working containers and equipment. Knapsack sprayer washed daily, re-treating the culture with plain water. Emptyed containers after agrochemistry need to be burned, without inhaling smoke and released particles. During the period of spraying the garden and after that, within a radius of 4-5 kilometers, the flight of bees is restricted to 120 hours. Special vigilance should be exercised if children and pets walk in the yard.

Did you know? Insecticides are not invented by people, but by nature. In the process of fighting for a place in the sun, many plants began to produce substances that poison their neighbors and insects that chose their stems and roots. Scientists estimate that plants produce 99.99% of all toxic chemicals on the planet. At the same time, the substances synthesized by them are also capable of causing various diseases, including oncological ones.

Compatibility with other drugs

The manufacturer strictly forbids combining «Fufanon» with anything. However, experts from the agricultural industry talk about combining the pesticide with other insecticides of the same type in terms of use. It is not recommended to combine the product with oils, Bordeaux mixture, compounds which contain copper and calcium, as well as preparations with alkaline reaction, mineral fertilizers based on sulphides. Follow the instructions for safety!

How to store «Fufanon»

With a temperature range of -30 ° C to + 30 °, the insecticide can be stored for 3 years in unopened form. Find a place for him away from children, animals, medicine, food and light. The sun’s rays provoke chemical reactions, as a result of which the main properties of the drug are lost. It is unacceptable to preserve the remnants of the working solution, so clearly prepare the necessary dosage and fully use it.

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