THE MAIN PESTS OF SUNFLOWER, HOW TO PROTECT THE PLANT FROM HARMFUL INSECTS — PEST CONTROL
Sunflower pests: description, photo, methods of struggle
- 1 Sunflower pests: description, photo, methods of struggle
- 2 What is dangerous for sunflower meadow moth
- 3 Fighting Sunflower Shponoskoy
- 4 How to protect the plant from sunflower moth
- 5 Cotton scoop
- 6 Sunflower barbel
- 7 How to deal with aphids on a sunflower
- 8 Measures to struggle with clickers
- 9 What are dangerous sables (darkling) for sunflower
- 10 Cornfish
- 11 Black beet weevil
- 12 Sunflower bugs
- 13 Coronavirus restrictions put extra burden on the blind community: Experts
- 14 Limited transportation access and accessibility options are major hurdles.
- 15 Methods of dealing with potato ladybug or epilya
- 16 Appearance
- 17 Development cycle
- 18 Lifestyle
- 19 Methods and means of struggle in the garden
- 20 17 photos that offer a glimpse of what life is like for workers in notoriously isolated North Korea
- 21 8 Foods you must have daily to prevent vitamin deficiencies
Sunflower is an annual high and quite powerful plant. The root of the flower goes several meters deep into the soil. From the main root sprout about a meter to the sides of the side roots. The stem of a sunflower is strong and thick, with a loose core. On one plant there are from 15 to 35 leaves, rough and pointed. At the top of the stem is a large inflorescence surrounded by green leaves.
Outside inflorescences are sterile flowers. In addition, the sunflower has flowers of both sexes of orange or yellow color. The fruits of sunflower are seeds with a core inside. Depending on the type of plant, the rind of the fruit has its own color: from white to black.
Did you know? Sunflower loves countries with a warm climate, as well as fertile soil and a sunny place. Not surprisingly, his homeland is Mexico. From this country, the plant was imported to Russia and Ukraine.
What is dangerous for sunflower meadow moth
A meadow moth on a sunflower is critically dangerous in a period of increasing its population, which occurs cyclically — once in 10-12 years. The pest reduces the yield by up to 60%, and in some cases can cause a 100% loss of plantings. The highest threshold of harm — ten individuals per 1 square meter.
In order to protect the sunflower from the meadow moth, deep plowing, tillage between rows, loosening with hilling, treatment with preparations during the development of caterpillars, as well as effective chemical preparations — bitoksibibalin and lepidotsid are required.
Fighting Sunflower Shponoskoy
Sunflower shponoska — small insect 4-5 cm in length. The beetle itself is black, covered with gray hairs. On the abdomen it has a long spike, and the antennae look like strings. Short wings do not completely cover the abdomen. The legs are reddish-yellow, and the head is always down.
Female shaponosok lay eggs in the sinuses of the leaves. Then yellow larvae appear from them with a brown head and three pairs of legs covered with long hairs. The larvae infect the plant, penetrating into the very core, and make long strokes there. Usually they eat the first third of the stem, starting from the bottom. In the fall, the larvae turn into pupae and hibernate.
Effective measures to combat shpononkoy: deep plowing, timely cleaning, processing with a vantex, given by a stable or fufanon.
How to protect the plant from sunflower moth
It is almost impossible to fully protect your planting from this dangerous pest. The least susceptible to it are sunflower hybrids of armor varieties. Their seeds are distinguished by a durable inner shell, which the caterpillars cannot gnaw through. This shell is formed a week after the start of flowering. As a result, the pests eat only the leaves, and the grains remain intact.
Important! ForI have to reduce the number of any pests need to do weeding.
Cotton scoop — one of the main pests of sunflower, which is especially common in southern Ukraine. This is a butterfly with a wingspan of 30-40 mm. Its front wings have gray and yellow shades, and the rear wings are light with a burgundy stripe and a dark spot in the middle. The caterpillar of the cotton hill reaches 35-40 mm in length. Her body is covered with small spines. Color — from light green and yellow to brown. The pupa is reddish-brown in color, has 15-20 mm in length. Overwinters in the soil.
To overcome the cotton shovel, it is necessary to destroy the weeds in time, to produce deep autumn plowing, to cultivate the soil between the rows 6-8 cm in depth.
This beetle reaches a length of 20 mm, its body is covered with yellow hairs. Barrel larvae are pale yellow, without legs. Females lay eggs inside the stem of the sunflower. To do this, they gnaw the skin to form a pad with a diameter of 5-8 mm with a deep gap in the middle. One female lays up to 50 eggs.
Sunflower pest control will be effective if you:
- sow the plant early;
- after harvesting, cut the stems as close to the ground as possible;
- remove the tops from the field;
- time to get rid of weeds.
How to deal with aphids on a sunflower
Most aphids love to nibble at the sunflower during a period of prolonged drought and high air temperatures. But most of the insects are eaten by ladybugs. For this reason, aphids can not cause much harm, and processing plants with chemicals is not required.
Did you know? For us, such a small insect as aphid seems to be one family, but in fact scientists have about 4,000 species of aphid.
Measures to struggle with clickers
- Many larvae of the nutcracker die during the mechanical processing of the soil. It is best to carry out such a procedure before the insects penetrate deep into the soil.
- Time to weed, especially wheat grass.
- Acidic soils need to be chilled, it has a detrimental effect on the larvae of the pest.
But such measures can only reduce the number of clickers. The only and most effective method of protection against the crackling is seed treatment.
What are dangerous sables (darkling) for sunflower
The darkling larvae are very similar to clickers, but have a few differences:
- in the larvae of the coppers, the front pair of legs is larger than the rest;
- their head is bulging;
- markedly developed upper lip.
This pest goes out early from wintering, practically with the first warming. Chernotelki gnaw seedlings of sunflower, and then eat them, which reduces the harvest.
The most popular measures to combat slow-moving steppe: tillage, deep plowing, cultivation of fields. We still need to weed in time, especially wheat grass. Observe the seeding rate, fertilize and feed the plants to enhance their initial growth. Before sowing, it is necessary to treat the seeds with insecticides.
Cornfish is an oval beetle with a bluish tinge, 7-9 mm long. It has elytra of the same width. Pests overwinter in the surface layer of soil and under various shelters. Insects live for 2-3 years, and the larvae develop from 12 to 14 months. Pests begin to surface in the middle of spring. Females lay up to 500 eggs in the first layer of soil during the growing season.
Black beet weevil
Beet weevil is a black beetle of rather large size. This pest has no wings, and the head is flat and small with a long proboscis. The abdomen is covered with hairs and black dots.
Sunflower protection from pests:
- apply organic and mineral fertilizers to the soil;
- regularly remove weeds;
- loosen the soil;
- process seedlings with effective preparations;
- after harvesting it is good to loosen the soil.
These pests cause problems by sucking juices from different parts of the plant. The most dangerous is the defeat of the seed. Further their necrosis occurs. Also, pests negatively affect the sown and marketable quality of seeds. The maximum allowable number of pests is 10 insects per plant. To fight a meadow bug, you need time to destroy weeds and plant debris. If there are a lot of pests, spray the sunflower with Kemifos and Karbofos-500.
Limited transportation access and accessibility options are major hurdles.
The novel coronavirus outbreak has forced millions of people around the world to limit what and who they touch and stay in place for the time being — all methods to try to tamp down on the spread of the virus in the absence of a vaccine or treatment.
But for the blind community, in particular, these restrictions create additional obstacles that may contribute to their already vulnerable state, experts said.
Working and studying from home, shopping and even a recreational walk outside isn’t always easy for blind persons because companies and leaders haven’t put immediate thought into accessibility for disabled people, said Chris Danielsen, a spokesman for the National Federation of the Blind, a non-profit advocacy group.
«We are seeing a concern that blind people will be left behind in the general anxiety that everyone else faces,» Danielsen, who is blind, told ABC News. «We have the same anxieties everyone else has about the coronavirus, but they can be amplified in times like this.»
Nearly 7.6 million Americans over 16 years old have a visual impairment, according to the NFB, which used census data from 2016. The majority of them, about 4 million, are under 65, according to the data.
Experts said the biggest challenge for the blind community is transportation. Many cities have cut back on their bus and train lines. Taxis and rideshare options, like Lyft and Uber, are limiting pickups, according to Danielsen.
Stacy Cervenka, who is blind and the director of public policy for the American Foundation for the Blind, a non-profit that pushes for greater accessibility, said this is most problematic for blind persons who live by themselves.
«Without Uber or Lyft, we’re in a bind, especially in suburban and rural communities where everything is far away,» she told ABC News.
Cervenka said the lack of transportation would hinder any blind person who seeks to get tested for the coronavirus, as many states have opted for drive-thru testing.
Cervenka added that while it is easier for companies and schools to switch over to video learning and working, and there are apps like Zoom that have good accessibility options for visually impaired users, not every remote working option is feasible.
Some schools may not have the ability to provide homework sheets and other reading materials for their blind students, she said. Cervenka added that classes tailored for the blind community, such as learning to walk with a cane and independent living training, have been suspended in schools across the nation.
«This is not something that students can learn remotely,» she said.
The health recommendations to practice social distancing and touching haven’t had too much of an effect on the community so far, according to Cervenka. Canes, guide dogs and other vision aids are already effective with keeping space between people and avoiding any obstacles.
When it comes to touching, Cervenka said latex surgical gloves protect surfaces that need touching, such as braille signs on doors and elevators, without sacrificing tactility.
«There are ways that one can take precaution,» she said.
Danielsen said shopping in a store is more complicated for blind customers. Normally, store workers would be available to assist finding and taking an item off a shelf, but those employees may be too overwhelmed with the extra crowds to help.
«There may be a struggle to get any assistance there,» he said.
Clark Rachfal, director of advocacy and governmental affairs for the American Council for the Blind, said one of the biggest risks for the blind community during the outbreak is COVID-19 itself. The biggest causes of blindness are complications from ailments such as diabetes and cancer, and those people are at high risk for contracting the disease, according to Rachfal, who is visually impaired.
«Blindness also affects more elderly people as well, and they too are more susceptible,» he told ABC News.
Rachfal said he is concerned that some medical offices and health care systems aren’t equipped well to handle blind patients who may have flu-like symptoms. Some offices may not have patient portals with accessibility options, he said.
Rachfal added that the outbreak would have detrimental mental health consequences for blind persons who are elderly and live alone. Some of them don’t have access to new technologies, like delivery apps, and have limited in-person contact with their friends and family, according to Rachfal.
He said the best thing that people can do to help those vulnerable blind persons is to reach out and ask if they need any assistance.
«People can help with a phone call or even help deliver goods to their homes,» he said. «You can leave it at their doorstep. You don’t need to be in close contact with them.»
Methods of dealing with potato ladybug or epilya
Every summer, all summer residents and those who have their own vegetable garden, face the same problem: pest invasiondestroying and damaging cultivated plants.
One such pest of vegetable crops is the potato bug bug, or otherwise, epilahny.
Let’s try to figure out what a potato bug is, where it can be found and how to deal with it?
To fight with the beetle was effectiveIt is important to know about some stages of its development, periods of greatest activity and plants that are most vulnerable to its attack.
It is a 5-7 mm long bug, resembling in appearance ordinary ladybug, with one difference — there are as many as 28 points on the wings.
The color itself is also not so bright — brown-red or red. An interesting feature is lightweight. whitish bloomwhich is in fact the smallest hairs.
Photos of epilahna and its larvae:
Potato cows are developing at a fast pace: one female can postpone from 250 to 520 eggs. Laying 10-20 pieces can be found on the underside of the leaves of potatoes or in fallen leaves.
The size of the eggs do not exceed 1 mm and have a pale yellow color.
After 3-7 days, the larvae come to light, for 20 days they pupate and remain in this state for 9 days. It is worth noting that despite the rapid development, 28-point ladybug multiplies once a year — from May to June.
Background: epilakhn larvae have a very unusual look, resembling caterpillar yellowish-green color, the whole body of which is covered with black setae (in the photo on the right). They are very soft and completely non-poisonous, they are needed more for movement.
Beetles are constantly changing their habitat, moving to different plants, and with the onset of cold weather, hiding in shelters. They can winter under dry leaves, plant debris and weeds, and sometimes burrow into the soil.
Eats a 28-point potato bug not only with potato shoots, but also with leaves of other solanaceous, for example, tomatoes. It is also known that beetles like to eat cucumbers, watermelon, pumpkin, soybeans, sunflower and corn.
The greatest harm to the crop a potato ladybug inflicts during the development of the larvae and before the departure of young beetles for wintering.
Tuberization occurs at this stage, which entails not only damage already ripe tubers, but also the destruction of more emerging, which significantly reduces the yield.
Increased activity is associated with the desire of beetles to gain strength and stock up on nutrients before winter. Beetles and larvae eat only the soft part of the leaf, leaving the veins.
In general, applied damage is slightly less than from the Colorado potato beetle.
In addition to eating leaf mass, epilachny carry viruses that are harmless to them, but dangerous for plants.
Methods and means of struggle in the garden
How to deal with 28 point ladybug in the garden? Consider the most effective methods of dealing with it:
- Most simple measure — place solanaceous crops as far as possible and more isolated from each other, so as not to attract too many beetles and not to create favorable conditions for reproduction (females lay eggs simultaneously in several places, and since they choose solanaceous ones for this, such a measure will reduce the area distribution).
- Place cultures of solanaceae best on well cleaned areaswhere there are no dry leaves and other suitable covers.
- Weeds should be completely excluded. If it was not possible to eradicate them before the breeding season (May-June), then the epilakhns can lay eggs on weeds.
- Can hold high hilling plants. Beetles and larvae that fall from the plant will be under a layer of soil and die.
- Well, and, of course, insecticides.
Chemical treatment, in the case of increased risk of harm, can bring its results, but do not forget harmwhich they cause to human health.
Thus, if you have your own vegetable garden or a few hundred square meters in a country house where you like to grow potatoes, cucumbers, tomatoes or sunflowers, be ready to the summer invasion of small voracious bugs that can, if not destroy, then damage the plants you grow.
17 photos that offer a glimpse of what life is like for workers in notoriously isolated North Korea
- North Korea is home to more than 25 million people, who from a young age are taught to worship their leaders, including the current leader, Kim Jong Un, as powerful gods.
- The country is both culturally and economically isolated, and many people in North Korea are suffering from malnutrition, and live in extreme poverty, according to the Associated Press. Most have little idea of what’s going on in the outside world due to government restrictions on electricity, travel, and more.
- But still, many North Koreans go to work every day on farms, in factories, and in the country’s capital of Pyongyang.
- Visit Insider’s homepage for more stories.
Little is known about the daily life of people living in North Korea, one of the world’s most isolated nations.
The country is home to more than 25 million people, who from a young age are taught to worship their leaders, including the current Great Leader, Kim Jong Un, as powerful gods. Un has near-total control of the country, and heads up a repressive regime that makes no bones about doing away with political dissidents
And while Kim boasts his great military and nuclear might to the rest of the world, many of his citizens quietly struggle, suffering from malnutrition and poor living conditions.
Still, North Korean citizens do participate in the workforce, though sometimes they do so against their will. Most North Koreans don’t have a say in their professions, and are assigned a job. Some, according to the Foundation for Economic Education, around 100,000 North Koreans work in forced hard labor camps on infrastructure projects.
Below, take a look into the mostly hidden world of the work-life of North Korea.
8 Foods you must have daily to prevent vitamin deficiencies
Last updated on — Mar 19, 2020, 18:51 IST Share fbsharetwsharepinshare Comments ( 0 )
01 /9 Striking the right balance
Your 20‘s is the time when you’re in a constant flux of striking a balance between work and personal life. It is at this time when you feel tempted to resort to “comfort food” such as noodles or pizza. Amidst this struggle of maintaining a balance, most often, it is one’s health which takes a hit.
And as result of diet imbalances, the body gets deprived of essential nutrients and you start develop habits that can have a considerable impact on your health when youare older. It is also the time when you are still shaping your health. That being said, it is important to eat foods that are nutrient-rich, so you don’t just stay healthy now, but also reap the benefits later. If you’re looking to give your diet a boost to protect your health now and later on, try incorporating these foods in your diet while you’re in your 20s!
02 /9 Almonds
Almonds are a source of 15 nutrients such as vitamin E, magnesium, protein, riboflavin, zinc, etc. At an age where you are constantly juggling between various things, almonds can make as a healthy snacking option. Snacking on almonds instead of consuming unwholesome snacks can make a healthy difference to your lives.
Whether at home, work or while travelling, a handful of almonds are a convenient snack that can be eaten anywhere, at any time of the day and through the year. Additionally, almonds can help in weight management as a handful of almonds may have satiating properties that promote feelings of fullness, which may keep hunger at bay or can be relsihed between meals.
03 /9 Lentils
Lentils have been an inseparable part of our culinary heritage and it was simply because of their nutrient rich composition that they were widely used for preparing several delicacies. These little edible legumes loaded with the goodness of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, fat, vitamin B6 make for a delightful and healthy indulgence.