Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology — Journal

Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology

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Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology publishes original scientific articles pertaining to the mode of action of plant protection agents such as insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, and similar compounds, including nonlethal pest control agents, biosynthesis of pheromones, hormones, and plant resistance.

Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology publishes original scientific articles pertaining to the mode of action of plant protection agents such as insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, and similar compounds, including nonlethal pest control agents, biosynthesis of pheromones, hormones, and plant resistance agents. Manuscripts may include a biochemical, physiological, or molecular study for an understanding of comparative toxicology or selective toxicity of both target and nontarget organisms. Particular interest will be given to studies on the molecular biology of pest control, toxicology, and pesticide resistance.

Research Areas Emphasized Include the Biochemistry and Physiology of:

• Comparative toxicity
• Mode of action
• Pathophysiology
• Plant growth regulators
• Resistance
• Other effects of pesticides on both parasites and hosts

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Inisicide «Commander»: faatonuga mo le faʻaaogaina o fualaau faasaina

Ina ia totoina se seleselega lelei, o nisi taimi e le lava le na o le tausisi i tulafono uma o le totoina ma le tausiga o laau. E masani lava e le mafai ona faia e aunoa ma le fesoasoani o fualaau faasaina mo le faʻaleagaina o meaola faalafua. O lenei tusiga o loʻo faʻamatalaina ai le «Commander» — o se iniseti lelei e faʻaogaina ai le tele o togafitiga faʻatoʻaga.

«Faʻatonu» — o se faʻamatalaga o le faʻaogaina o iniseti

Fomaʻi «Taʻitaʻi» o le iniseti-intestinal insecticide o le gaioiga masani o le chloronicotinyl vasega, ua fuafua e faʻafefe ai faʻamaʻi pipisi ma faʻamaʻi faʻamaʻi togalaau faʻatoʻaga ma togalaau — aphids, thrips, miners, wireworms, beetles, vao, anufe ma isi iniseti.

Ole fualaau mai meaola faalafua «Commander» e faaleagaina ai meaola faalafua pe a totoina laau, palapala palapala, faapea foi togafitiga o fatu po o tubers, ei ai le maualuga o le aoga mai iniseti ma iniseti matutua, o tupe faaalu i le vaega o fualaau aina. O le vailaʻau o se gasegase vai e mafai ona sosolo, faʻapipiʻi i afifi faigofie o le 4, 10, 20 ma le 100 ml, o loʻo faʻaalia e le mafai ona tausisia le aoga talafeagai e faʻatatau i mea faʻamaʻi i tulaga eseese o le vevela.

E taua! O le puipuiga o le fualaau faasaina «Taitai» e tumau mo le 15-30 aso ma e faalagolago i le ituaiga o meaola faalafua ma tulaga o le tau o le siosiomaga.

E faʻapefea ona avea le «Faʻatonu» i luga o laau totõ, o le gaosiga malosi o le vailaʻau

A maeʻa togafitiga, o le vailaʻau e faʻaaogāina i siama, laulaʻau ma aʻa o le laau, pe a oʻo mai le meaʻai i vaega o le vegetative poʻo le ‘ai, o le mea o loʻo gaosia e aʻafia ai le tino o le iniseti ona poloka ai lea o le gaioiga masani o le tino, ma o lenei mea e oʻo atu ai i le le faʻamalosia o le pest ma lona oti mulimuli ane. O le meafaigaluega a le Ofisa e le mafua ai le tetee o le tele o meaola ninii i lona gaosiga, lea e tulaga ese ai le faamamaina o ana togalaau mai Colorado potato beetle ma isi meaola faalafua.

O le gaioiga malosi «Commander» — o se meaola malosi malosi Imidacloprid, o le faʻaogaina o le mea oona o le vailaʻau — 200 g / 1 lita. A maeʻa ona ulu atu i le imidacloprid i le tino o le pest, o faʻaletonu i le faʻasalaga o faailo o le nerve amata, o le iniseti e afaina, pe a maeʻa ona paʻu, ma e mate le pest. I totonu o ni nai itula, o le aofaʻi o meaola faalafua o le a faʻaumatia i le vaega o loʻo togafitia, ma faʻamamaina ai faʻatoʻaga faaleaganuu.

Faatonuga mo le faaaogaina o fualaau faasaina «Taitai»

E talafeagai le togafitia o togalaau ma lenei togafiti aoga mo le Colorado potato beetle ma isi mea vevela i le taimi o le toʻa po o afiafi. O le vailaau faʻasaina ua faʻasese i totonu o le vai i le taimi lava e leʻi faʻaaogaina, tausia le faʻamasinoga mo aganuu taʻitasi. Faʻaaoga le «Faʻatonu» mai le Colorado potato beetle ma isi meaola faalafua e tusa ai ma faatonuga mo le faʻaaogaina o fualaau faasaina. Sei o tatou mafaufau i auiliiliga auiliili pe faapefea ona fautuaina ia togafitia ituaiga taitasi o laau.

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Gaosiga o le pati

E masani ona faʻaaogaina le «Commander» mo le gaosia o pateta e avea o se auala mo le gaosia o le pateta muamua aʻo lei totoina, faʻapea foi ma auala e faʻaleleia ai vaega eleele o le laau. Faʻasagaga o le pateta «Taʻitaʻi» mai le paluga o le potato Colorado ao leʻi totoina faʻaititia le faʻaleagaina o le pateta e lenei pest.

O le tele o fai togalaau e masani lava ona i ai se fesili e uiga i auala e gaosi ai le pateta «Taitai» ao le i totoina, ae o se faiga faigofie lava. Muamua, faia se vaifofo o le 2 ml o le «Commander» ma le 10 lita o le vai, o le fatu o fatu pateta ua faataatia i luga o se itu i luga o se tulaga e tasi, e sosolo i le vaifofo ma saunia. A uma le faʻamago atoatoa, ona toe faʻaleleia lea o fatu ma toe faʻaleleia i le toe faʻamagoina — i luga o lenei mea muamua o le totoina o pateta, ua saunia le fatu mo le totoina. I le averesi, o le galueaina o le 100 kilokalama o pateta aʻo lei totoina o le a manaomia ai le 1.5 lita o le vaifofo galue o le vailaʻau.

Afai o se pateta ua faaleagaina e aphids, o le Colorado potato beetle, poʻo le uaea tele o pateta, o laʻau ma lau o le laau e tatau ona togafitia i se tali «Commander» i le fua faatatau o le 2 ml i le 10 lita o le vai. I le vaitau o le tuputupu aʻe, o togafitiga o pateta e togafitia ma le tele o le fofo — 1 lita i le 1 lalaga. O le taimi faʻatali i lenei mataupu o le a pe a ma le 30 aso.

E taua! O fualaau faisua ua fautuaina ina ia ‘aina e le muamua i le 20 aso talu ona faʻatautaia e le «Faʻatonu».

Faʻafefea ona togafitia kukama ma tamato

O le vailaʻau e faʻamalo ai kukama ma tamato mai i meaola vevela e pei o vaovao, aphids, lanu papae. Ina ia saunia le vaifofo, o le 5 ml o le vailaau faasaina ua solo i totonu o le 10 lita o vai. O le togafitiga o kukama ma tamato e le «Commander» e faia e ala i le totoina o laau i le taimi o le tuputupu ae, mo le tolu aso o le a oti ai meaola faalafua i nofoaga e togafitia. Manatua o le fofo o le a faia le 1 lita i le 10 sikuea sikuea. m totoga.

Onion processing

O le «Faʻatonu» o le a teu ai le sipisi mai i aphids ma thrips, mo le mea lenei e tatau ona e faʻalūlūina le 1 ml o le vailaau faʻasaina i le 2 lita o le vai ma faʻagasolo le sipuni e faʻaaogaina ai le auala e faʻavaivai ai. Manatua o le fofo o le a faia le 1 lita i le 10 sikuea sikuea. m totoga. O le taimi faʻatali i lenei mataupu o le a pe a ma le 3 vaiaso.

Faasao

O le sauniuniga o le a faʻamamaina ai le totoina o togalaau mai i meaola faalafua e pei o fueseed tsvetnik, fusi faʻasalalau, apipipo kāpeti. Ina ia saunia le vaifofo, o le 5 ml o le vailaau faasaina ua solo i totonu o le 10 lita o vai. Faʻasoa le faʻaipoipo o le «Faʻatonu» i le faʻaleleia lea i le vaitau o le tuputupu ae. O le faʻaaogaina o le fofo o galuega o le 0.25 lita i le 1 hectare o mea totō.

Faʻataʻitaʻiga o apples «Commander»

O le togafitia o laau aʻau «Commander» o le a laveaiina ai fualaau aina mai fualaau faisua ma otaota. Ina ia faia lenei mea, ia sosolo le selau o laau o le apu i le vaitau o le tuputupu aʻe ma se vaifofo o le 2 ml o le Taʻitaʻi ma le 5 lita o le vai. O le taimi faatalitali e tusa ma le 30 aso.

Vineva

O le suaina lelei o vine i le vaitau o le tuputupu ae faatasi ma le sauniuniga o le a faaleagaina ai laulaau phylloxera ma laʻau vine, aua e tatau ona faaitiitia le 2 ml i le 5 l o le suavai ma togafitia lenei vaifofo i le 100 selau o tovine. O le taimi faʻatali i lenei mataupu o le a pe a ma le 30 aso.

Faagasologa «Commander» o le saito i le taumalulu

O le fualaau faasaina o le a tafiesea ai togalaau o le tau o le taumalulu mai ia meaola faalafua e pei o laumei matautia, fatuga, thrips, piyavitsa, falala ma fala. Ina ia saunia le vaifofo, o le 5 ml o le vailaau faasaina ua solo i totonu o le 10 lita o vai. Taulimaina ma le «Commander» le saito e totoina ana togalaau i le vaitau o le tuputupu ae. O le faʻaaogaina o le fofo o galuega e tusa ma le 0.25 lita i le 1 hectare o mea totō.

E te iloa? E mafai e le «Commander» ona fofo ese mai laʻau tipi paʻepaʻe pe a faʻapipiʻiina. Ina ia aloese mai lenei mea, ia faaopoopo ni nai mataua o le paʻu.

Fesoʻotaʻiga «Faʻatonu» ma isi vailaʻau

Komandor e mafai ona tuʻufaʻatasia ma faʻatoʻaga e faʻatonutonu ai le tuputupu aʻe o laau e pei o le Zircon, Epin, poʻo le Ribav Extra, ma le iniseti ma le fungicide, e faʻafefiloi. I le taimi lava e tasi, o le a le faʻaitiitia le aoga o mea aoga o fualaau oona taitasi ma o le a aoga le latou aafiaga. E faʻasaina le tuʻufaʻatasia o le «Faʻatonu» ma fualaau faasaina e alkaline. Ina ia aloese mai le faaleagaina o au laau toto, e tatau ona e suʻesuʻe ma le totoa le oloa lea e te fuafua e faʻapipiʻi le «Commander» mo le gaosia o pateta poʻo isi togalaau poʻo fualaau faʻatoʻaga.

O aoga o le faʻaaogaina o fualaau faasaina i le dacha

O mea taua o le «Faʻatonu» e mafai ona faʻamaonia ia tulaga:

  • aafiaga faʻaletino i luga o fuainumera o manufeʻai;
  • o se fua fou fou o le fualaau faasaina e le mafua ai le tetee i iniseti;
  • tau maualalo o le taumafaina o fualaau faasaina ile totoina laau toto;
  • leai se mea o iai;
  • o le fusi o le gaioioiga e tele, e mafai ona faʻaumatia ituaiga o meaola faalafua i le taimi lava e tasi;
  • e mafai ona faʻaaoga e aunoa ma se faʻamatalaga i le vevela;
  • faatagaina e faaaoga i le vaitau atoa o le tuputupu ae;
  • ona o le faasaoina i se taimi uumi i totonu o sela o le laau o le gaioiga galue malosi, o le tuputupu ae o laau ola ma lau o le a puipuia e ala i sauniuniga mai meaola faalafua.

E te iloa? O le faʻaleleia o le tonigaina o le sili atu i le lua vaetolu o vaega uma o le terrestrial o le laau o le a maua ai puipuiga puipui mai le faaleagaina o manu, a leai o le a le mafai ona paʻu pe tusa o le 60% o tipu ma lau o le laau.

Tulaga saogalemu ma tulaga e teu ai

«Faʻatonu» mo togafitiga o vaega terrestrial o laau totō, faapea foi ma le pateta, e aofia i le vasega lona tolu o tulaga lamatia ma o se mea e sili ona lamatia. A e leʻi galue i le vailaʻau, e tatau ona e faia se puʻupuʻu, fagu, totigilima ma lavalava puipui. E le tatau ona e ‘ai pe inu i le faagasologa o galuega, e pei foi o le ulaula ina ia alofia ai fualaau oona i le isophagus ma le inu o le tino. A maeʻa le galuega ma le «Commander», e tatau ona suia ou lavalava, fufulu ou lima ma foliga i le tele o le vai tafe i le fasimoli ma fufulu le gutu. Afai o se fofo o le vailaau e maua i luga o le paʻu, e tatau ona fufulu vave ile vai mafanafana ma fasimoli.

O le sauniuniga e afaina ai pi, e le fautuaina e faʻaaoga le «Commander» latalata i apiaries ma le taimi o lo latou aoina mai o le nectar, faʻapea foi le togafitia o fua o le fugalaau ina ia aloese ai mai le lapataiga o le oona e nei tagata faigaluega lelei o le meli.

«Fautua» e fautuaina ina ia teuina i se nofoaga malulu puipuia mai le la, ese mai fualaau faasaina ma meaai, mai le aapa atu o meaola ma tamaiti. O le olaga ola o le fualaau faasaina — 36 masina. O le «Commander» ua faʻaaogaina i le vai e tatau ona faʻaaogaina mo togafitiga o laau; o le fofo sauniuni e le talafeagai mo le teuina umi, talu ona faʻaititia lona aoga.

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The Best Companion Plants for Pole Beans and Bush Beans

Companion planting is the practice of placing different species of plants close together in the garden because they offer certain benefits to one another. For example, one species may deter an insect that feeds on the other species, while that plant may improve the other plant’s uptake of soil nutrients. Learn about some of the best species to grow near pole beans and bush beans, as well as what to avoid planting by beans.

Understanding Companion Planting

Companion planting maximizes the efficiency of a garden space, attracts beneficial insects, and diverts insect pests from food crops. Sometimes the companion plant pairings benefit one plant more than another, but there is rarely a downside to following companion plant suggestions. Nature designed some plants to protect and help others. And when you take advantage of these beneficial relationships, you are better able to grow crops organically.

Take the classic Native American «three sisters» planting combination as an example: Plant corn with pole beans, and add squash to the mix. The beans attract beneficial insects that prey on corn pests, such as leaf beetles, fall armyworms, and leafhoppers. In return, the bean vines are supported as they climb up the corn stalks. The squash benefits from the nitrogen fixed in the soil by the bean plant, while the large leaves of the squash block sunlight from nourishing weeds near the corn stalk. All plants win.

What to Plant Around Beans

As many gardeners learn, beans are a recommended companion for several different vegetables and other plants. That’s because beans and other legumes boost nitrogen levels in the soil and provide nutrients to surrounding plants. In return, certain plants benefit the growth of beans.

  • Catnip: This plant helps to repel flea beetles, a common pest found on many vegetable crops, including beans.
  • Corn: Bush beans can tolerate the light shade that is cast by corn plants. And because the roots of the bean plants occupy a different level in the soil than the roots of the corn, the two plants do not compete for water and nutrients. Furthermore, for pole beans, the corn stalks can serve as the «poles» to allow the beans to grow upright. This saves space in the garden, leaving room for the gardener to add additional plants.
  • Cucumber, eggplant, and radish: These plants encourage strong bean growth, and the beans boost the nitrogen in the soil that they need to grow.
  • Marigold:Marigolds deter Mexican bean beetles and other insect pests from several garden plants, including beans. Plus, African and French marigolds both produce a substance that suppresses nematodes, the microscopic worms that attack the roots of plants. In fact, marigolds are a recommended companion for many different edible plants.
  • Nasturtium, summer savory, and rosemary: Nasturtium and rosemary both deter bean beetle pests. In addition, summer savory repels bean beetles and improves the flavor and overall growth of bean plants. Grow it near the base of the plant but not so close that the bean plant shades it.
  • Potato: Potato plants help to repel Mexican bean beetles from bean plants. In return, bean plants are able to repel the Colorado potato beetle.

Other plants that are good companions to pole beans and bush beans include:

  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage
  • Carrots
  • Cauliflower
  • Celery
  • Kale
  • Peas
  • Squash
  • Strawberries
  • Swiss chard
  • Tomatoes

What to Avoid Planting Around Beans

Certain plants can actually inhibit the growth of beans when they are planted nearby.

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How to Plant Seed Potatoes

Potatoes are one of the easiest vegetables to grow. All you need is a mature potato from the variety that you want. It grows vegetatively, meaning you transplant a whole or part of the actual potato. This is a seed potato. This term can be a bit confusing since they are not seeds at all. If you have ever wondered why you do not see potato seeds packets for sale, it’s not that potatoes don’t set seeds; rather, they do not grow from them. Potatoes do not grow true to seed or do not yield the same type of plant when grown from the seeds of the original plant.

When to Plant Seed Potatoes

Potatoes do best in full sun. They can be planted in the early spring as long as the threat of freezing ground temperatures has passed. Seed potatoes planted in soil that is too cold or soggy may rot. Generally, potatoes will not grow until the soil temperature has reached 45 degrees Fahrenheit. You can plant a second crop as late as June 15 and harvest the potatoes as late as possible.

Working With Potatoes

Potatoes are aggressively rooting plants and will produce the best crop when planted in a light, loose, well-drained soil. Potatoes prefer a slightly acid soil with a pH of 5.0 to 7.0. However, potatoes are prolific growers and often adaptable to poor soil and climate conditions.

When selecting seed potatoes, do not try growing potatoes from potatoes you buy at the grocery store. Grocery produce is often treated with a growth inhibitor, which keeps potatoes fresher longer but also prevents sprouting or stunts growth.

Organically grown potatoes may be free of growth inhibitors, but they are prone to any diseases carried over from their growth period (like ring rot or fusarium wilt). You need disease-free, certified seed potatoes. Discard any seed potatoes that have a soft spot, cracks, bruises, or signs of rotting. Even certified seed potatoes can get disease once planted, but they have the benefit of disease resistance.

Before you plant your seed potatoes, you may also decide to chit or pre-sprout your potatoes. If you decide to encourage stem growth on your potatoes, this process will add 2 to 4 weeks to the process.

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Enjoy Balcony Miracle Tomatoes all year round! How to grow at home from the seeds and all the details of growing tomatoes

The wonders of the Russian selection do not get tired to surprise with new varieties and species. And now growing tomatoes in a window or balcony is as easy as growing greens. And all thanks to an amazing sort of tomato that feels great even in a flower pot.

In this article you will receive complete information about tomatoes «Balcony miracle», how to grow them at home and what kind of care you need to provide for a good harvest.

Yield and fruiting

In appearance, a small and compact bush is able to produce up to 2 kg of small and very sweet fruits. Small, bright red and very sweet tomatoes have a universal purpose. With the same success they can be consumed fresh and for pickling purposes. But, if you like big tomatoes, then we advise you to start planting tomatoes «Sugar Pudovik», more about which we will tell here.

One tomato can weigh about 60 g. But the main feature of this species is that you can harvest from the bush all year round. Its trunk is distinguished by a strong and even bole and has a height of up to 50 cm. Also, good resistance against late blight can also be attributed to undoubted advantages.

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However, if you decide to start growing another variety, then you should definitely click here and become acquainted with the stepson of tomatoes in the greenhouse, because the quality and quantity of the future crop depends on it.

Terms of ripening

The variety belongs to the ultra-fast ripening, which allows you to enjoy bright red fruits already 90-100 days after sowing the Balcony Miracle tomatoes. «When to plant?» — the next question that worries gardeners, a definite answer to it does not exist, because seeds can be sown throughout the year. It is convenient to plant the plant in small pots or containers and keep even on a small window sill.

Landing

As you can see there are undeniable advantages enjoyed by the Balcony Miracle tomatoes. Growing a house of this sort of tomato is quite possible, both on the balcony and on the windowsill. Below we describe in more detail how this procedure goes.

Soil and seed treatment

They are grown just like any other, with the help of seedlings. Before this, the seeds must be processed for further disinfection with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. This is done in order to prevent disease.

The soil should be prepared slightly acidic and enriched. For this purpose, you can buy ready-made soil for growing seedlings. Two days before planting, the soil is spilled with warm water. At the same time, it is not necessary to soak the seeds at all and you can start planting them directly from the bag.

It should be noted that it is not necessary to remove from the accounts the possibility of seating “Balcony miracle” on a large scale, and for this we advise you to read this article, which describes in detail the process of preparing the soil for tomatoes in the greenhouse.

Sowing

Cooked soil poured into small cups, which put two seeds. After the container is covered with a film to create a greenhouse effect. For seedlings to appear on time, the room must be at least 22 degrees. After the first sprouts appear on the ground surface, the film can be removed.

When growing tomatoes «Balcony Miracle» falls on winter time, you should take care of additional lighting. If the pot with seedlings is on the windowsill, then from above you can install a fluorescent lamp and turn it on in the morning before dawn and in the evening after dark. This simple method will extend the number of hours of light, which is necessary for the qualitative growth of tomatoes. And here you can learn everything about growing tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter, because this method will help increase the scale of your crop.

When the shoots reach the mark of 10-15 cm, which takes only 20 to 25 days, they need a pick. This will help to fully develop the root system. To do this, seedlings are seated in already permanent containers with holes for drainage. Ceramic or plastic pots, or containers of compact size are well suited for this purpose.

If there is an extra seedling, then it is not forbidden to plant in open ground. And a month later, you can already harvest the first harvest.

Sort «Balcony miracle» is extremely unpretentious, but still has a number of conditions for obtaining high-quality and tasty fruits.

Temperature conditions

The best temperature for growing Balcony Miracle Tomatoes is summer. I.e, the room must be at least 16 degrees. This is the minimum threshold for fruiting not to stop. But the optimal conditions are from 22 to 26 degrees.

Watering

This culture likes abundant watering. If tomatoes grow at home in the autumn-winter period, watering is required no more than once a week. In the warmer seasons, you need to monitor the humidity of the earth and water as needed.

Water the plant should be directly into the soil, avoiding contact with the leaves, as the latter often contributes to the development of late blight. Do not forget that watering tomatoes in the greenhouse is very different from the domestic procedure, and if you still decide to start growing Balcony Miracle tomatoes on an industrial scale, then in order to avoid the loss of the crop, you should get acquainted with this process in advance.

Top dressing

The introduction of nutrients has a positive effect on growth and fruiting, and on the taste of the fruit. For this variety, you can buy ready-made fertilizers, such as «Appin» and «Tsitovit», and you can prepare the solution yourself.

In one liter of water must be diluted 5 g of superphosphate, and 1 g of urea and potassium sulfate. Top dressing is produced mainly in the period of appearance of flowers, ovaries and throughout the entire period of fruiting.

Chicken droppings as well as mullein can be an excellent alternative. Mullein can be purchased at any gardening shop in dry and liquid form and diluted in water according to the instructions. A liter of factory mortar may well replace 5 buckets of fresh manure. Chicken manure is superior in nutritional value, organic and mineral components of manure.

To prepare a solution for 1 liter of water, you need to take 10 grams of fresh bird droppings, mix well and leave for a day. After that the bushes are watered with ready fertilizer.

Well stimulate the growth of indoor tomatoes ordinary yeast. To do this, 10 grams of dry yeast diluted in 5 liters of water. The resulting solution can be used after one day.

Diseases

Indoor tomatoes, as a rule, do not get sick, as they grow in almost sterile conditions. But still plants can infect diseases if:

  1. The soil in which the tomatoes are planted is taken from garden soil, which can be a source of infection.
  2. In winter, tomatoes may be severely lacking light and nutrients.

When room tomatoes still do not grow in a special soil, then by all means, before planting seeds in it, it should be processed. If the cause of the disease is a lack of light, then this is easily replenished with a fluorescent lamp.

Having available fresh vegetables in winter is not so difficult. Especially, if these are tomatoes grown on their own. We hope that we were able to help you learn more about the Balcony Miracle tomatoes, how to grow them at home.

ie.farmforage.com

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