EFFECTIVE RASPBERRY PEST CONTROL
Prevention, means and methods of pest raspberry
- 1 Prevention, means and methods of pest raspberry
- 2 Galliches
- 3 Strawberry raspberry weevil
- 4 Pliers
- 5 Raspberry beetle
- 6 Raspberry kidney mole
- 7 Raspberry nutcake
- 8 Raspberry fly stem
- 9 Raspberry glass bowl
- 10 Raspberry leaf aphid
- 11 Pest prevention
- 12 Why young raspberries fade: diseases and pests of raspberries. Raspberry shoots fade: how to deal with a problem
- 13 Why fade shoots of young raspberries
- 14 How to deal with a raspberry stem fly
- 15 Gallica on raspberries
- 16 A site about a garden, a summer residence and house plants.
- 17 Planting and growing vegetables and fruits, caring for the garden, building and repairing villas — all with their own hands.
- 18 A method of growing repair raspberries by pruning shoots after the second harvest and our reviews
- 19 GROWING REPAIR Raspberries — REMOVING THE RUNS AFTER SECOND FRUIT
- 20 REPAIR Raspberry — ONE CROP BETTER TWO
- 21 ONLY «PLUSES»
- 22 CARE FOR REPAIR Raspberry
- 23 BEST VARIETIES OF REPAIR Raspberry — REVIEWS
Raspberries — The favorite berry culture of many gardeners. Juicy berries are appreciated not only for excellent taste, but also famous for their beneficial properties. The fruits of the plant have anti-inflammatory, antipyretic effects, increase the tone of the body and give energy, help to fight stress. However, for successful cultivation, you need to know how to effectively resist raspberry pests.
Did you know? In the American city of Enterprise, a monument was erected to one of the pests of raspberry and other plants — the weevil beetle. The fact is that by destroying all the cotton in 1915, he forced farmers to plant new crops. Thus developed a multi-faceted economy.
The raspberry gall midge (raspberry mosquito) is the most dangerous pest of this crop. In the spring, insects lay their eggs in crevices on the bark of the plant. From them larvae of white color develop. Eating, the larvae emit toxic substances that cause the formation of galls — swelling, and the bark cracks strongly.
The growth of raspberries due to damage slows down, shoots dry out and break when strong gusts of wind. Over time, the larvae fall to the ground, wrapped in cocoons and grow into adult insects. For one season can go through three cycles of pest development.
To fight it, it is necessary in the summer, when most of the larvae are, to destroy infected shoots. It is also recommended to spray the soil under the bushes with a 0.15-0.3% solution of chlorophos twice. The first time this is done when the soil is heated to +13 ° C, before the departure of insects, again — 10 days after the first spraying.
Raspberry stem gallitsa
A small fly in May and June lays eggs near the raspberry buds. The hatched larvae begin to feed on the sap of the plant, disrupting its normal development. Galls are formed in places where larvae accumulate. Where these seals appear, the bark cracks and separates from the branch. The larvae pupate directly in the gall and the cycle continues.
The fight with stem gallfly on raspberries occurs with the help of:
- scrupulous selection of planting material, without signs of infection;
- careful destruction of all damaged branches;
- spraying raspberries with chemicals twice a year (in spring, before the laying of insects and eggs in the fall, after harvesting and digging the soil). To do this, use 1% Bordeaux liquid or an emulsion of karbofos (0.1-0.2%).
Strawberry raspberry weevil
With the arrival of the first spring heat, the immature beetles begin to eat the young leaves of the raspberry, and with the advent of buds, the anthers from the flowers. Then the female lays the eggs in the bud, gnaws it, and the further development of the pest takes place in the fallen inflorescence.
Did you know? One female weevil lays up to 50 eggs.
The larva feeds on a bud, pupates and eventually turns into an adult insect. The cycle is repeated. Infection with strawberry-raspberry weevil can be identified by small holes on young leaves of raspberry, the fall of buds and the presence of larvae in them.
Experienced gardeners advise the following methods to protect raspberries from this pest:
- agrotechnical: digging or autumn plowing under the bushes;
- mechanical: destruction of fallen leaves and buds, shaking off beetles from a plant;
- biological: planting strongly smelling plants between raspberry bushes (garlic, onion, tansy, celandine, mustard, chilli pepper, etc.);
- chemical: spraying a plant before and after flowering with Fufafon preparations (15 ml of the substance dissolved in 5 l of water; consumption — 5 l of solution per 10 m²), Kemifos (10 ml of the preparation is added to 10 l of water; consumption — 1.5 l of solution 10 m²), Alatar (5 ml of the drug is dissolved in 4 liters of water; consumption — 4 liters of solution per 100 m²).
Important! In order to avoid infection with weevil, it is not recommended to plant raspberries and strawberries close to each other.
This pest can attack raspberries in dry and hot weather. He lives on the underside of the leaves and entangles them with cobwebs. It feeds on plant sap. As a result of infection on the leaves appear white spots, and over time they completely dry out. With a tick on raspberries, you can fight in the following ways:
- applying watering bushes and soil beneath them in hot weather;
- spraying the plant according to the instructions using such preparations as colloidal sulfur, karbofos, cydial, phosphamide, metaphos. If necessary, treatment with chemicals is repeated several times, with an interval of 10 days.
Important! Raspberries should be watered at dawn or in the evening, after sunset, to avoid the rapid evaporation of moisture.
Female pests overwinter under the upper shell of the kidney. During the leafing period, the mites exit the cover and begin to feed on the sap of the plant. The leaves at the same time bend and brighten, the bushes grow poorly.
To prevent infection and control raspberry mites, after flowering and harvesting, it is recommended to spray the plant with karbofos. Insecticides «Aktellik», «Fufafon», «Iskra M» are used.
Insect winters at a depth of 5-10 cm in the soil. In spring she climbs up on the blossoming raspberry flowers, lays eggs from which the larvae develop, and eats buds. The larvae return to the ground to pupate and turn into adult insects next spring. The cycle is repeated.
In the war with the raspberry beetle use such methods of struggle:
- digging up the soil under the plants and between the rows during the formation of insect pupae;
- spraying with decis, konfidor, karbofos.
Raspberry kidney mole
Causes special harm to early raspberry varieties. Caterpillars hibernate in cracks on the bark of shoots or under plants in fallen leaves. In the spring, they gnaw out the buds of the plant and pupate there. Dark brown butterflies appear from the pupae and lay eggs in flowers. Hatched caterpillars eat ripe berries
To get rid of the raspberry bud moth, you must:
- when pruning old branches to ensure that there is no stumps left;
- as soon as the kidneys begin to swell, process the raspberry jam with Iskra, Konfidor, Decis or Karbofos.
Pest larvae, feeding on sap from raspberry stalks, cause cracking and swelling of the bark. Damaged branches bear poorly, break and dry. It differs from stem gall midges only in the size of seals, which can reach up to 10 cm in length. Apply the same control measures as previous pests.
Raspberry fly stem
LThe insect’s egg gnaws spiral-shaped holes inside the stem, causing the raspberry tops to begin to wither and turn black, and then rot. At the beginning of flowering, the larvae leave for wintering in the soil, where they turn into butterflies, which lay eggs. Hatching caterpillars begin to re-spoil the branches from the inside.
In the case of the raspberry stem fly, the following control methods are used:
- digging up the soil in autumn and cleaning fallen leaves;
- processing of culture in early spring (as soon as young shoots appear), with the help of «Karbofos» or «Aktelliki».
Raspberry glass bowl
In the middle of summer, butterflies lay eggs on the soil at the base of the raspberry shoots. The white caterpillars that appear from them begin to bite into the branches, because of which bulges appear. They hibernate and pupate right in the stalks of the plant. The following year, the pupae turn into butterflies and the cycle repeats. The raspberry infested with a glass-box quickly fades and dries.
In order not to allow the pest to multiply, it is necessary to destroy the damaged shoots as soon as possible, and to remove the old branches, leaving no hemp.
Raspberry leaf aphid
The insect lives on the underside of raspberry leaves in small colonies. It feeds on sap from plant stems and can tolerate viral diseases. Due to the defeat of aphids, raspberries grow poorly and eventually dries out. The main way to combat the pest is the treatment of «Aktellik» or «Karbofos» during the blooming of the kidneys.
Before you get a good harvest, it is necessary to spray raspberries in the spring against pests. For this, it is recommended to use modern drugs. (for example, the same «Aktellik» or «Karbofos») . Treatment with chemicals, if necessary, is repeated several times per season. If you combine this process with periodic inspection of the bushes and in time to destroy the affected shoots, you can count on an abundance of berries. It is also useful to dig up the soil after harvesting.
Why young raspberries fade: diseases and pests of raspberries. Raspberry shoots fade: how to deal with a problem
You can get a good crop from raspberries only with proper cultivation and care.
Raspberry is a rather undemanding plant, however, without proper care, it is often attacked by pests and diseases, which significantly reduce the yield and winter hardiness of the bush.
Many gardeners often observe the wilting of young shoots of raspberries, which had developed well yesterday. What is the reason and how to deal with the wilting of shoots on raspberries?
Why fade shoots of young raspberries
Often, the wilting of young branches indicates that the bush is affected by pests. As a rule, the tops of young shoots stop developing and wither when they are infected with fungal diseases and harmful insects:
Often, only a pruned shoot will help save the bush. There should not be a single hole and larva on the plant. Strong and healthy bushes will be able to quickly recover and grow young shoots, on which the crop will ripen.
The use of chemicals is justified when pests hit more than 50% of the plantings.
How to deal with a raspberry stem fly
Recognize a pest on raspberries by the condition of the bush. The tops of the stems wither, the leaves turn black and die.
To combat this pest, you need to understand how it develops. A fly overwinters in the soil, and in mid-May it comes to the surface and begins to lay larvae in the axils of the apical leaves of raspberries. The larvae of the stem fly gnaw out a course in a young shoot, which causes its withering and further death.
At the first signs of wilting of young shoots, it is necessary to cut off the affected areas to healthy tissue. All trimmed parts of the branches are burned, the soil under the bush is loosened and treated with a solution of nitrophene. For prophylaxis in the fight against raspberry fly, when buds appear, they spray the karbofos shrub.
You can avoid raspberry infection with a stem fly by properly caring for the plantings.
• For winter all leaves and debris must be removed from under the bushes. The soil must be loosened and cultivated. It is important to remember that pests and dangerous bacteria hibernate under the remains of leaves, which begin to multiply actively in spring. By arranging plantings for winter, the gardener reduces the risk of diseases and increases the immunity of plants.
• Spring cleaning the site is no less important than winter. After the winter, all accumulated debris needs to be removed, loosened the ground again and feed the plantings. Proper nutrition of the bush is the key to a good harvest. Healthy plants resist any disease.
Gallica on raspberries
Inexperienced gardeners complain that young raspberries fade together with flowers and berries. In mid-summer, a gall midge leads to such a problem. You can detect the pest with a thorough inspection of the bush in early spring and autumn. When there are no leaves on raspberries, then on the branches thickenings are clearly visible — galls, in which larvae are located. The pest settles on the lower part of the plant, closer to the root.
Affected shoots weaken the bush, reduce its winter hardiness. In one season, several generations of gall midges can develop, which form more and more swellings on raspberries. The process continues until the first frost. Pests overwinter in soil at a depth of 30 cm.
How to deal with the gall midge
Pest control is carried out by spring pruning raspberries, sanitary cleaning: cut out all damaged shoots, thin out the bush. Gauls love to settle on those shrubs that are affected by fungal diseases. Therefore, the main struggle must be waged with a fungus on raspberries. In order to prevent fungal diseases, plantings are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid until the buds open.
The spread of the fungus is prevented by the summer pruning of the deflated branches of raspberries. First, the shoots that are repelled are cut in early varieties, then in medium varieties, and in autumn in late raspberry species.
After such pruning, spraying with preparations containing copper is carried out. Repairing varieties are sprayed to the first flower brush. It is necessary to carry out processing in the evening when there are no bees.
In the fight against gall midges, you need to conduct daily inspection of plantings and cut shoots with galls at the initial stage. In the spring, shoots above the swelling do not develop and wither. In this case, the top of the branch is cut 1-2 cm below the lesion.
To successfully combat the gall midge, alternative drugs are used that repel the pest. For this purpose, infusions of mullein, walnut leaves, wormwood and nettle are used. Between raspberry bushes, you can plant garlic and perennial onions. The smell of these plants does not like gall midge. Spraying with infusions of herbs is necessary in the evening, because gall midges fly at night.
A dangerous and widespread disease — purple spotting — leads to the death of 50% of the landings. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus that penetrates the plant and weakens it. As a result, shrubs are attacked by gall midges.
Purple spotting appears in mid-summer. Raspberry stalks are affected by blurry spots that spread throughout the plant: raspberry shoots wither, petioles and leaves die, fruits dry out. The shrub dies before the fruit ripens.
If measures to combat the disease are not taken in time, by the fall a lot of fungal spores will form, which are transferred to healthy plants. The spores of the fungus overwinter on damaged stems. In the conditions of a warm winter, new shoots continue to develop and hit.
How to deal with the disease
To successfully combat the disease, preventive measures must be taken. This is how the spread of the disease can be prevented.
• Affected shoots are cut under the root, not sparing the bush.
• In summer, thinning of plantings is carried out, thickening provokes the spread of fungus.
• Carry out proper shrub planting. A place for planting seedlings should not be located in a lowland and near water bodies.
• Observe the watering regime, avoiding overmoistening of the soil.
• Timely remove weeds and loosen the soil around the bush.
• Use resistant raspberry varieties and healthy seedlings for planting.
Spring pruning will help protect raspberries from being affected by purple spotting. When the bush is formed, the repelled branches are cut out, as well as young weak shoots that will not bring a crop.
Important! All cut shoots must be burned. Mushroom spores can germinate over several years.
If these measures are not enough, then to fight the disease, chemicals are used:
• Azophos 50%. For 10 liters of water use 80 grams of the drug.
• Bordeaux mixture 1%. For 10 liters of water take 100 grams of lime and copper sulphate.
• Nitrofen solution. In 10 liters of water, 300 grams of the drug is diluted.
• 1% ready-made DNOC solution.
Processing with drugs is carried out before flowering, as well as immediately after harvest.
A fungal disease of raspberries that spreads to the bark, shoots and rhizomes of a plant. Recognizing the affected bush is simple: young flow and shoots turn yellow, the tops fade. Raspberry stalks slow their growth and die off.
The disease is not treatable. Damaged plants should be removed along with the rhizome and burned. A healthy planting material, loosening the soil will help prevent the disease.
A site about a garden, a summer residence and house plants.
Planting and growing vegetables and fruits, caring for the garden, building and repairing villas — all with their own hands.
A method of growing repair raspberries by pruning shoots after the second harvest and our reviews
GROWING REPAIR Raspberries — REMOVING THE RUNS AFTER SECOND FRUIT
Repairing raspberries, in my opinion, are the most stable crop in terms of productivity. Even the weather «surprises» do not have much effect on her. Neither the late spring frosts, nor the hurricane wind that flashed in July, a little battered and broken part of the shoots, did not affect its harvest. A few weeks after the hurricane, she recovered, new shoots grew, on which the berries began to be tied. And the frost did not frighten her, since raspberry flowering begins at a later date.
REPAIR Raspberry — ONE CROP BETTER TWO
Some varieties of raspberries have a remarkable tendency to re-bear fruit, which is called remontance. The first crop is formed on last year’s shoots, and the second — on the shoots of the current year. Summer varieties in the first year build up shoots, which by the autumn become lignified, overwintered and bear fruit the next year. Oddly enough, there are many problems with wintering and the safety of these shoots.
Over the years, we have been cultivating repairing raspberries, using the possibility of re-fruiting, and harvesting two crops. But we were not happy that the first crop was full-fledged, on the same time as the summer varieties, and the second ripened late, in the fall, and often fell under September frosts.
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The case helped. A meeting with an experienced gardener changed my mind about the traditional methods of growing remont raspberries. His advice completely cut the shoots in the fall after fruiting I took with bewilderment — because the hand will not rise .
But in such plants rhizomes remain wintering, for which frost is not a problem. And in the spring new shoots grow from them, which reach the height of a person by mid-July, and flower stalks are formed on them. Fruiting continues from mid-July to frost. For more than 20 years, we have been practicing this particular method of growing remont raspberries and we advise everyone!
This method of growing remont raspberries has a lot of advantages.. The first and most important thing is that we grow environmentally friendly berries, because we do not use any chemistry. The main raspberry pest is raspberry stem gall midge. It damages the stems of plants, as a result bloating forms on them, the so-called galls, due to which the shoots break during the period of active ripening of the berries. Cutting and burning shoots for the winter, we destroy up to 99% of pests and pathogens that have accumulated over the season. An insignificant part of the surviving individuals does not have time to cause significant damage to plants and affect the size of the crop.
Although we collect not two, but one crop, the losses are minimal. Since with the traditional method of cultivation, the first crop delays the second fruiting, which begins only in late August — early September. When we grow crops on the shoots of the current year, it ripens a month earlier, moreover, it is much more significant than usual. And the September frosts are not terrible, because the main crop has already been harvested. For example, this year the frost in our region was 21 of September. For three days in the morning it was frozen to -4 ° C, and almost all the berry froze. Last year, the first frost was 6 of October, when raspberries almost finished bearing fruit.
CARE FOR REPAIR Raspberry
In order to grow a decent raspberry crop, several conditions must be met. First of all, raspberries need good watering, because it is a moisture-loving culture. Many gardeners and gardeners use drip irrigation. In my opinion, this is not enough, especially in July-August, when the heat begins. Raspberries are not enough to get moisture through the roots. If the air is dry, its leaves begin to curl, as if hiding from the scorching sun. This is a signal to start watering. Having missed just one or two days, you can lose the crop, because the berries will not pick up juice. You can protect raspberries from sunburn and dryness by stretching a shading net over the bushes. By the way, such a grid protects plants from hail. But in the summer you can expect everything.
In nature, the earth is never bare. She always overgrows with grass. And in the natural thickets of raspberries, the soil between the bushes is always covered with fallen leaves, last year’s shoots, which form a thick soft litter.
On the site, as mulch, you can use mowed grass, fallen leaves, needles, humus, corn leaves, any organic residues. It is laborious and even harmful to keep black steam in raspberry plantings — the root system of raspberries is superficial and needs additional protection. A mulch allows you to keep the soil, as well as precious moisture, in a loose state, to protect the roots from overheating and freezing, the earth does not condense and the roots breathe. Therefore, mulching perfectly affects the growth of raspberries.
For many years we have been buying baled straw from farmers to mulch the entire garden, not just raspberries. One caveat: if we use wheat straw, then leave it to lie down for at least a month in the open air so that the remaining grains, watered by rains, sprout. Otherwise, if we sprinkle the straw immediately, then we will sow wheat, which in a couple of weeks will cover the ground with a dense, hard-worn carpet. Therefore, we prefer to use oat straw. The oats are frost-resistant, its powerful shoots grown in the fall lie under the snow and mulch the aisles reliably. A good effect is given by a two-layer shelter — a layer of humus, which provides nutrition to plants, and a layer of straw, foliage, etc.
By making adjustments to the biological cycle of raspberry development, we do not allow raspberry gall midges to multiply. Therefore, we dispense with chemical plant protection products. But for prophylaxis, at least once in the spring we process the bushes with the actofit biological product. It decomposes in 48 hours, does not accumulate in plants and kills (I have verified) even Colorado beetles, not to mention single raspberry gall midges.
Raspberries are very responsive to fertilizer application. If you make humus under raspberries every year, it always gives a wonderful harvest. But in practice, we import humus into raspberries only once every three to four years. The next year after making humus, raspberries can not be fertilized, and in subsequent years 2-3 times a season we fertilize plants with universal granular nitroammophos fertilizer. It contains nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium necessary for any plant. Dosage — matchbox on a bucket of water. Pour 0.5-1,0 liter of solution under the bush. Before fertilizing, we must spill the soil with water so as not to burn the plants. Raspberries also love foliar top dressing. You can make tank mixtures by mixing an insecticide with a fungicide and a growth stimulator. Then, after a day or two, the bushes are transformed, the leaves become clean and healthy, and the bush looks powerful.
Another important trick is rationing the shoots. In household plots, raspberries are planted according to the 0,5 × 1,3 m pattern. On one bush we leave 2-4 shoots. During the first 2-3 years, while the plant is young and gives enough growth, it is important to carefully thin out the plantings. This cannot be ignored! Overgrowth between rows can not be cut, but simply trampled. In the bushes, the number of shoots can reach 8-10. It is important not to succumb to the temptation to leave as many shoots in the bush as possible. Here the golden rule works: less is better, but better. The fewer shoots we leave, the more powerful and larger the shoots themselves and the berries will be.
BEST VARIETIES OF REPAIR Raspberry — REVIEWS
And finally, the right selection of varieties. Once in the 90 of the last century, when we were still beginner gardeners, they wrote in the mail 30 varieties of raspberries with big names: Inaccessible. Hercules, Pride of Russia, Lilac fog, Golden domes. However, none of them stood the test of time. Of the repaired only the American variety Heritage (1968 g.) Survived all weather cataclysms and won our love. Excellent taste, fragrant, juicy, large berries.
Their size sometimes reaches the size of a five-copeck coin! Moreover, the berries do not crumble; picking them is easy and pleasant. Only 15-20 minutes, and the bucket is full. Shoots grow 1,8-2,0 m high, but bend under the weight of the berries, so that the berries “fall” right in the palm of your hand.
Well established relatively new variety Zyugan. It has been on the market since 1999. Its large burgundy and lilac berries have a strong aroma and unforgettable taste!
I can not stop wondering the vitality of the variety Polana. It grows like a raspberry tree — vertically up. The fruiting zone is almost 60% shoot. The berries are located one at a time, each on a separate branch, not crowded, unlike the old very prickly varieties of Indian summer, in which you pluck one berry and fall from a dozen, the berries fall apart. Very thin and sharp spines on the stem also complicate harvesting. In addition, Indian summer is easy to recognize by the huge amount of overgrowth clogging the site. Branches are prone to lodging. If you have such a variety — do not hesitate to get rid of it without regrets.
For many years we have been growing from yellow fruit varieties Morning dew and yellow giant. Their huge suntan-colored amber berries seem to be nourished by the sun itself!
Raspberry is a very plastic culture, instantly reacts to good care and top dressing. Give her a little attention, and your garden from mid-summer to the very frost will be filled with the most delicate raspberry aroma!