Remedy for bedbugs — TOP-10 most effective drugs
attacking bugs? Put them back! Review of the best means
- 1 attacking bugs? Put them back! Review of the best means
- 2 Getting rid of bedbugs folk remedies
- 3 How to choose the best means to kill bedbugs
- 4 Review the effectiveness of chemicals
- 5 How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs Without an Exterminator
- 6 Signs to Look For
- 7 Different People React Differently
- 8 Don’t Throw Everything Away Yet
- 9 Check Everywhere
- 10 Time to Treat
- 11 Put All Fabrics in the Dryer
- 12 Vacuum
- 13 Use Rubbing Alcohol
- 14 Use Steam
- 15 Throw It All Away?
- 16 Use Bed Covers
- 17 Diatomaceous Earth
- 18 Related
- 19 Popular
- 20 Comments
If the house settled bugs, then you need to immediately begin their extermination. Great choice of ways: you can use traditional methods of struggle, effective means of chemical or cause bugs exterminator. Competition in the market of modern insecticides contributed to, that most of the drugs rather efficacy and safety in compliance with the instructions, their application is possible even indoors, in which live children and pets.
A few decades ago people about such opportunities only dreamed, and now the market is full of such funds. The unequivocal answer some of them are no better. Each drug has its own characteristics in application, advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is important to read them, to choose the right insecticide, which will be effective and the most convenient in a particular case.
By bedbugs in the house is not so easy to get rid, but an integrated approach will help to solve the problem
Council! The best remedy for bedbugs — chemical, but the folk remedies of bugs too, should not be ignored. An integrated approach will help to quickly and efficiently deal with bloodsuckers.
Getting rid of bedbugs folk remedies
Folk remedies for bedbugs in the apartment can help, If insects were spotted early and had not greatly multiply, or in combination with insecticides. These methods also have their advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages include the fact, that they are only able to repel insects, and not completely destroy, especially since they can not kill the larvae and the number of pests will always recover. But despite the shortcomings, traditional recipes from the bugs are viable, as they are completely safe and harmless to humans. Consider the most popular:
- Mugwort or tansy
Wormwood and tansy have quite a pungent smell, which can not tolerate insects. Therefore, if we expand the fresh sprigs of herbs under the mattress and in other possible locations of finding bugs, that for some time it will scare them away.
The advantage of using plants is relatively tolerable smell and prevention not only on bugs, but also on other insects. The disadvantages include the fact, that the grass should be changed frequently, as it dries out and loses its effect. These plants are toxic, so they need to lay out of reach of children and pets.
Despite, bugs that perfectly accustomed to many drugs, a pungent smell, they get used to it and could not. This folk remedy is safe to use. Particularly good effect vinegar essence, having a strong odor. To destroy the bugs need to lubricate the furniture, window, doors, fill in the gap, Spray onto the floor.
The advantage of this technique is, that it does not spoil the furniture and things. A drawback is its ineffectiveness against the larvae of, which then hatch and begin to multiply again. Therefore, it is necessary to process the vinegar room several times and for a long time. Another drawback — the smell, who does not like a lot of people.
This facility of bed bugs is more suitable for the prevention of. vinegar efficiency increases, when applied as part of recipes:
- mix naphthalene, alcohol and vinegar essence, and use as an aerosol, spraying pests in places of localization;
- Mix broth with tarragon vinegar and similarly treat the surface of the house.
The effect of this means of bedbugs is, it compels them to come out from his hiding place to the surface, where they will have to destroy the mechanical method. Advantages and disadvantages of valerian are the same, like acetic acid. Only by vinegar parasites escape, but on the contrary come running Valerian.
This method provides only be used in the winter when the frost by -20 degrees. Vyholodit need room to minus temperatures and leave 12-18 hours. Bugs at all stages of development, can not withstand such a temperature and die, but just to be sure the procedure is necessary to spend some time.
The advantage of this method is its high efficiency and the absence of serious action and insecticides. The only drawback is, that the heating system can suffer from severe frost.
- Boiling water
bedbugs, faces and their eggs are killed at a temperature 60 degrees and above. Therefore, they are used for the destruction of the hot water and steam. This method is suitable for use in tight spaces: cracks in the floor or wall, plinth. Also steam can be treated in the home textiles, blankets, mattresses, upholstered furniture. Clothes and underwear is better to wash in hot water.
The advantages of this method include the fact, that it can be used at any time of the year, and it is absolutely harmless to humans and animals. The downside is that, it is necessary to calculate and process all insect nests, as well as the inability to use on wood furniture.
Bedbugs and their larvae can be killed at a temperature from 60 degrees
- Raising the room temperature
Parasites can not stand, when the ambient temperature is higher 50 degrees. Therefore, in a private home furniture can be taken out in the sun, such as room temperature overtake, using special fans, hair dryers and fireplaces.
The disadvantage is the high cost of equipment, so this service is better in order to destroy the insects service.
- A solution of turpentine and kerosene
To make this a means to combat bedbugs mixed 10 ml turpentine, 15 ml of kerosene and 150 ml of water. Ready solution to be processed localization bugs, it should be done several times at intervals of several days.
Recommendation! When you use it is necessary to wear gloves, because it can cause chemical burns to the skin.
The disadvantages of this method include the following on the furniture, which then can not be removed and odor.
If the reproduction of pests has reached global proportions and folk remedies have not cope, the need to use chemicals.
How to choose the best means to kill bedbugs
It is important to buy the drug only in specialized supermarkets, are less likely to run into useless, and in some cases even dangerous counterfeit
- before the purchase is necessary to carefully study the composition and make sure, that it is an effective insecticide: hloropirifos, fenthion, permitrin, malathion;
- to the drug should definitely go detailed instructions for its use, it is necessary to read, to see whether the drug is right for you;
- before going to the store should view the testimonials of people about the various preparations, learn a few sites, it happens, that gets custom views;
- you should try to find not only an effective means of, and even the most secure and easy to use.
If after placing the handling bugs reappeared after a short time, it says, that the drug was not any quality, or bugs to it already adapted. In this case, it is necessary to choose other means to kill bedbugs.
Important! If the right to destroy all bloodsuckers will not work, then after a short time, their population recovers. Insects adapt quickly to toxic substances, therefore means to take off the fight should be changed to total annihilation.
Review the effectiveness of chemicals
To better understand the range of funds from the bugs in the home, consider several options:
It refers to the modern means of microencapsulated bedbugs, not containing scent. This drug remains on the treated surface in the form of microcapsules, containing active substance. For humans and animals means harmless. Price preparation of 650 rubles.
Mode of application: breed 10 ml means in 1 liters of water, mix and process all the surfaces in the room, using a spray bottle. After that, you must leave the apartment for three hours, then ventilate the area and wash all the soda solution.
The advantages of this tool include its safety and ease of use, and the lack of smell and marks on furniture, and the shortcomings — relatively high cost.
- Remedy for bedbugsGet
Feedback from consumers — is the most effective means of bedbugs. The drug is available in Russia as a suspension in an aqueous-based. A significant advantage is the lack of odor and safety, humans and animals during the treatment can not be evicted.
Mode of application: Gets a vial should be diluted in 2 liters of water and sprayed with an atomizer into parasites localization. Upholstered furniture and textiles to handle this tool is not recommended. Klop in contact with the drug itself becomes infected, It runs into the slot and spreads poison their fellow. after 4 hours need to ventilate the area and make a wet cleaning. Het formula microgranular preparation allows to preserve its effects after treatment to 180 days. Price preparation of 750 rubles. One bottle is enough for the size of the room 40 quarter. m.
The disadvantage of this means of bedbugs in the apartment is its high cost, as well as a high probability of running into fake, which appeared on the roar of the high demand.
- Remedy bugs Executioner
This drug is also domestic production, but it developed in Germany. It is well-established and quickly became in demand in the market for insecticides. In small quantities, this means no harm to humans and warm-blooded animals. Also indisputable advantage of the Executioner are its high efficiency — by using most of the pests are killed on the first try, and high-speed action.
Mode of application: means the vial is diluted in 500 mL of water and this solution is treated with the spray room. Upholstered furniture and clothing also can be safely sprayed, stains and leaves no drug disappears quickly.
The disadvantages of the drug include: addictive to it insects and small bottles — enough only for one 5 quarter. m, so they have to buy a lot. The cost of an average 100 rubles. Buy a remedy for bed bugs may Executioner, in an ordinary store, and via the Internet.
Remedy bugs Executioner does not cause harm to humans and warm-blooded animals, but well it eliminates parasites
Another effective means, manufactured in the form of an aerosol. It is ready for use, It has a pleasant smell of lemon and extra nozzles for processing hard to reach areas. One of the benefits of the drug — low toxicity for warm-blooded creatures. Combat in addition to the destruction of the bugs also disinfects the surface to be treated against fungi and bacteria, insects that spread. The product does not stain furniture and leaves no greasy stains, it is easy to use, It acts on the pests immediately after spraying.
Mode of application: the vial should be vigorously shake the aerosol and process the surface at a distance 20-30 cm. Aerosol spray in the room should be thoroughly, paying special attention to cracks, Sleeping places and other places of possible bugs habitat. Then you have to leave the room for half an hour, then it is well ventilated and make a thorough spring cleaning.
lack of funds: it has no effect on the eggs klopinye, so through 8-10 days it is necessary to repeat the treatment, after several uses bugs may become accustomed to. The average price of the drug 250 rubles. On the one-bedroom apartment to a minimum of 2-3 cans.
Liquid detergent Dutch production, manufactured in cans, ampoules and vials. It is used by many services disinfestation. When processing necessarily have to vacate the premises by other people. The drug has a prolonged effect, after allowing one application to destroy not only the adult parasites, but also their eggs and larvae. On the effectiveness of this tool is not inferior to the popular karbofosom, but it has a lower toxicity. The cost of Fufanon quite acceptable — ampoule 5 ml is an average 50 rubles.
Mode of application: for the treatment of heavily contaminated premises one ampoule 5 ml dissolved in 5 liters of water, this amount is enough for 50 quarter. m, For jobs preparing a more concentrated solution 5 ml of 1 liters of water, and need less concentrated solution is prevention — 2,5 ml of 5 liters of water. A highly concentrated solution was applied with a brush on the surface, weaker atomized spray.
The disadvantages include the means, it disappears for a long time, so go back to the room only on the second day after treatment, insect mortality occurs only on the fourth day, furniture for a long time still toxic, so it is better to erode the street, with a strong infection lacks one treatment.
This is the most effective means of bedbugs, already after the first treatment possible to get maximum results. He remains active 60 days, effect on pests at any stage of development, it is easy to use, choosing the most convenient form, at the reasonable price of the drug — worth powder 30-40 rubles, emulsion — from 2700 for the five-liter canister.
Mode of application: it is most advantageous to buy powder, before use should be diluted in water according to the instructions. Means of sprayed all over the place, beginning with the places of localization of pests, You can not miss any crevices and hard to reach places. After treatment in the home is not recommended to return 3-5 day, all this time, it should be aired.
Malathion significant drawback is its high toxicity, strong smell, from which then very difficult to get rid.
It refers to a new generation of insecticides, It is produced in the form of slurry and gel. The drug is effective 3-5 months after application, bugs are killed instantly. Forsyth does not emit harmful vapors, It has low toxicity, so it can be used indoors, where the children live and allergies.
Mode of application: 50 ml of suspension is diluted in 1 liters of water, the resulting solution can not be stored for longer 9 hours, treatment rooms do using a spray gun. Disinsection should be done with the windows closed, which do not need to open another 5-8 hours. Then, the room should be well erode and remove. The gel does not require dilution and applied in places insect habitat.
The disadvantages include Forsyth: Strong smell, agent has no effect on insect eggs, therefore it requires repeated treatment in a few days, it is difficult to buy.
By means of Forsyth bugs die in minutes
This drug is produced as an emulsion with the sharp unpleasant odor. He is not expensive in price and economical in consumption — 50 enough ml, to treat the private house or a two-room apartment. It means sold in almost every store household chemicals, It is highly effective. Its effect will last 3-4 weeks.
Mode of application: the emulsion in an amount of 2,5 gram dissolved in 1 a liter of warm water and The scattered throughout the room. It is important not to forget about the precautions. Cleaning the premises after treatment is conducted not earlier, than a day. Before this means it is necessary to erode 2-3 o’clock.
Disadvantages Cucaracha is, it has no effect on the eggs of pests, toxic and has an unpleasant smell.
- Reid and Raptor
These funds have a similar effect and are aimed at the destruction of different kinds of insects. Therefore it is not always effective against bedbugs. Usually, their lack of action at an early stage of infection or as a preventive. For the rest, these drugs are safe and easy to use. They are available in all hardware stores and cost between 200 to 300 rubles. Dosing the same, As with other aerosols.
The tool is manufactured in the form of pencils or crayons, odorless and non-toxic. It is easy to use and available at a price — one should chalk 20-30 rubles.
Mode of application: draw a chalk line across the routes of movement of insects, pulverized powder spill in the habitat of parasites, or dissolved in water and sprayed on the premises.
Means disadvantage is its low efficiency at high infection, short term actions, the use of undesirable, If small children live in the house. Means more suitable as a prevention.
What a way to combat bedbugs choose, everyone decides for himself. Humans have developed stereotypes, that the most effective drug should have a sharp smell and high toxicity, But it’s not always the case. Thanks to modern technology was able to produce effective insecticides odorless. The question of awareness of buyers and cost.
In the fight against bedbugs is important to start on time. When you work, even with low-toxic agent is important to take precautions and use personal protective equipment. At the initial stage can help universal means, and to work with highly toxic drugs is better to invite experts.
How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs Without an Exterminator
The mere thought of bed bugs is enough to make your skin crawl. If you’re allergic to them or can feel them bite, it can mean endless weeks of not being able to sleep through the night.
Even if you’re not allergic, the thought of tiny bugs living in the cracks a mattress is unsettling. No matter how disturbing that thought is, most people still wind up living with them because they can’t seem to get rid of them. Exterminators are expensive, and one treatment is never enough to get rid of them.
Instead, homeowners have to pay hundreds of dollars every single month for six months, or more, to get rid of the problem. Even then, it may not do the job. If a person can afford that, great. The rest of us, on the other hand, wind up living with bed bugs for awhile as we try to figure things out.
If you just found out that you have bed bugs, don’t bother spending hours surfing the web looking for a solution. Unfortunately, I’ve got plenty of experience in the area, and know a few other people that have had to deal with them. Below, you’ll find everything that I’ve learned along the way, and it should be more than enough to help you finally get rid of those bed bugs.
Signs to Look For
During the beginning of an infestation, a person will not see a bed bug randomly crawling up their wall. Most people begin to suspect these annoying critters when they notice a bite (or three) on their arm or leg after they wake up.
Those bites are the first sign that there is a problem. There are a few other signs that people can look for to figure out if these are behind the mysterious bites.
- Look along the seams of a mattress. Look in every single crack of the mattress. If there are bed bugs, there will be other signs. The most obvious sign is a bug itself, but it’s not that easy at first.
- Small black dots that look like dirt in the cracks of the mattress is another sure sign. That is their poop. If you think the mattress is just dirty from wearing shoes on the bed, etc. vacuum it up and check back in a couple of days. If there are more black dots and bites, it’s bed bugs.
Different People React Differently
One of the main reasons that infestations get so bad is because one person in the house will have bites and no one else will. That doesn’t mean they aren’t getting bitten, though.
When bed bugs bite, they numb the skin first. This works on some people, but not on others. I wake up to the bites. It feels like someone just pinched the **** out of me. My significant other, however, never does. The kids never did. Just me.
I’m also allergic to the bites. If I got bitten, it would swell up like a giant mosquito bite and would last for at least half a day. My daughter would have the same reaction. Other family members may have a red dot somewhere when they woke up, but that was about it.
The main way that we could tell that we had bed bugs (or still had them) was when one of them would wake me up at 2:00 in the morning for their midnight snack.
Don’t Throw Everything Away Yet
Now that we’ve figured out that bed bugs are the problem, try to calm down. If you’re anything like me, you are probably horrified at the thought of them feasting on you in the middle of the night, and you’re thinking about throwing everything away. Don’t. All that is going to do is make them run into the cracks in the walls because they want to hide somewhere.
Instead, take a deep breath. Before you react, you have to assess the situation to see how bad it is.
If you think there is an infestation, the first step is to figure out how bad the problem is. This part is tedious, and it’s going to take some time, but you need to do it. Exterminators might do it for you, but you’ll do a more thorough job.
First, take the sheets off the bed and check the mattress with a flashlight. You might need a magnifying glass to see the baby ones, but most people can see the adults with the naked eye.
After checking the bed, move through the rest of the house and check every crack and crevice. Here are some examples of where to look to get you in the right frame of mind:
- Check the tops of the curtains
- Take the clothes out of dresser drawers and check around the edges
- Take the drawers out and check the inside of the dresser
- Look inside shoes
- Observe the underside of the kitchen table and chairs
- Examine the folds of fabric in the couch
These tiny things can hide anywhere, but they prefer to nestle down in fabric or wood if they can. Check every crack and crevice in the house to figure out how bad it is.
Keep in mind that they will stay as close to the source of food (you) as they can, so if a person only sleeps in the bed, they are more likely to be in the bedroom than they are in the kitchen.
If the infestation is severe, they can be everywhere though, like inside the walls.
Time to Treat
Now that you know what you’re up against, it’s time to wage war. There are a lot of different ways to get rid of bed bugs. The best way is to learn about the different methods available and combine them all.
Put All Fabrics in the Dryer
Take all the clothing, bed sheets, curtains, etc. out of infested rooms and throw them in the dryer. One full cycle in the dryer will kill them. Make sure not to overfill the dryer, though. If there are too many clothes in the dryer, the heat will not get to everything, and it won’t kill them all, so do smaller loads.
Your vacuum is going to be your best friend during this process. It’s a quick and effective way to suck up bugs, including the almost invisible babies.
- Take the sheets and blankets off the bed, and then vacuum every single inch. The sides, the underside, literally everywhere.
- After that, dry the sheets and put them back on the bed. Repeat this process every couple of days.
- Vacuum everything in the house in the same manner, like the couches, chairs, other beds, etc. Even if something is not infested, this will make sure that a stray bed bug hasn’t found its way over there.
- After you’re done, empty the vacuum into a plastic trash bag, tie it tightly so they can’t crawl out, and toss it in the trash.
Use Rubbing Alcohol
This is a great spot treatment. Rubbing alcohol will instantly kill a bed bug on contact.
- Pick up a big jug of rubbing alcohol that is at least 95%.
- Put on a mask (the smell can be pretty strong) and use it to get into the hard to reach areas.
- For example, they can hide deep inside the couch where the vacuum can’t reach. Dumping rubbing alcohol onto those areas will kill the bed bugs on contact.
- Do this daily for two weeks and you’ll see a tremendous difference.
Steam is great to get rid of bed bugs because it kills both the bugs and the eggs. Things like rubbing alcohol don’t kill the eggs. The vacuum won’t get the eggs, either. Bed bugs secure their eggs to surfaces with a glue that means no amount of suction is going to pull them off.
Picking up a good steamer is a great way to kill the eggs. A steam mop with a built-in steam is ideal, especially for wood floors. Bed bugs can hide in between those cracks, too. The detachable steamer can be used on dressers, couches, and so on.
This is the steam mop that I’ve got, and, trust me, it gets hot enough to kill everything. Even after the bed bugs are gone, you’ll still love using it on hardwood and tile floors.
Throw It All Away?
Most people contemplate throwing everything in the trash when they find out they have bed bugs. This can be a good thing or a bad thing.
If the infestation is so bad that the bed bugs are in the walls, throwing all the furniture in the trash means that you will be sitting on the floor and still have bed bugs. In short, it’s not going to matter.
On the other hand, this can also be a great idea. If the bed bugs are only in one area, like on the couch, throwing out the couch can prevent further infestation.
I knew someone that brought bed bugs home with them from the hospital. They slept on the couch, so the bugs were on the couch. This same person vacuumed religiously for weeks to no avail. The bed bugs didn’t spread to the rest of the house, but they could not get rid of them in the couch either.
Finally, they took the couch out in the backyard and set it on fire. That may sound extreme, but it worked. That was the only place they found bed bugs, and, once they got rid of the couch, they never saw them again. Problem solved.
Use Bed Covers
Some people have an aversion to bed covers because they can’t get over the idea that the bed bugs are still in the mattress, but these covers are a great preventative measure, too. Once you get done vacuuming the bed, put on a plastic cover to make sure that the mattress doesn’t get re-infested.
They also make covers for furniture, etc. that can work just as well. It may not be the most comfortable option, but it’s definitely better than sitting on the floor.
This stuff can kill anything with an exoskeleton, from bed bugs to roaches. I’ve used it, and it works amazingly well. There is a catch, though:
Bed bugs have eyes, so if they see a giant pile of white powder, they will simply walk around it. The key is to sprinkle a fine dust around areas where they are found. Then the bed bugs crawl through it to their imminent death. Keep in mind it can take a few days for this stuff to work, and they have to crawl through it for it to work.
Trying to get rid of bed bugs can seem like an uphill battle. At some point, you might consider just setting the entire house on fire. That’s okay. You’re going to get frustrated, but don’t lose hope. If you keep at it, you’re going to see a difference, and eventually they will be gone.
Use a spreadsheet to keep track of where and when you see them to keep yourself motivated. Then, check out prevention tips to make sure that they you don’t have to go through all of this again.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. Content is for informational or entertainment purposes only and does not substitute for personal counsel or professional advice in business, financial, legal, or technical matters.
6 Ways to Kill Bed Bugs That Really Work
by Amber Lynn 1
How Diatomaceous Earth Kills Bed Bugs
by Melody Collins 19
6 Effective Treatments to Get Bed Bugs out of Your Car
by Daniel Mackie 10
Do You Have a Bed Bug Infestation?: Tiny Black Bugs in Bed
by Cool Rare Animals 1
How to Identify and Get Rid of Bed Bugs
by Sarah Spradlin 2
How to Identify Bedbugs and Distinguish Them From Other Pests
by Melody Collins 24
How to Make a Homemade Bed Bug Killer Spray With Vinegar
by Melody Collins 29
12 Home Remedies for Bed Bugs That Actually Work
by Sam Mendoran 2
How long does steam have to be placed in an infested area to kill bed bug eggs? Does one blast kill the eggs or must I leave the steam on for a longer time? I did not know that eggs could NOT be picked up by a vacuum cleaner — thanks for the tip. I know I have bed bugs because I caught a few on my pillow at night. (But can find no bite marks.) However, in search of a nest, I have looked high and low, torn my bed apart, searched every fold and crevice on the mattress and everything around my bed including the frame, under the bed, beside the bed and cannot find any evidence of a nest or infestation. Nonetheless, I am treating for bed bugs in every way imaginable. I cannot afford an exterminator so was pleased to learn that if I keep at it, I should be able to eradicate the pests.
Thank you.. will try your solutions ..
I really can’t sleep.. thinking they will walk on me..
Once i catched one while sleeping.. realised i felt it walking on my chest.. got it subconsciously and had lots of blood on my chest and blouse.. I was really horrified to see it between my fingers and all that blood.. get me lack of sufficient sleep
Thank you so much. I have not seen any bugs i have pulled apart the mattress and box spring but my daughter woke up this morning with 3 bites on her feet and her toes. I dont have anything. I bought a spray and plan on buying rubbing alchol. After work everything is going in the dryer and i bought all new pillows and pillow and mattress covers. Thank you for writing this it was very informational.
I’m so sorry you had to go through that. I think it takes so much work that most sprays simply aren’t enough to make sure they stay gone. I have another article about how to prevent bed bugs if you’re getting them from a neighbor too.
If they are just still there, this tip is risky and it is a fire hazard, but it worked for a friend of mine. They removed all the electronics from the house, turned the furnace all the way up, got a few torpedo heaters and turned them on and left. It was enough to heat the entire house up to 120 degrees. When they came back at the end of the day, it had gotten so hot that the blinds on the windows were melted (and I’m assuming anything else plastic in the house), but they never saw another bed bug.
Thank you for this I am going to try it we had paid $1100 for a professional exterminator approx. 1 year ago and they are back and of course the exterminator said I have to pay again and there is no guarantee and explained with great detail appreciate it
I have been reading about bed bug re emergence for about ten years, I have been using DE around the house for years as a preventative measure, if I do happen to bring some home they dont stand a chance. I also place the sticky traps arond the bed and hang sections of clear contact paper around, I find the occasional gnat, mite or springtail but so far no bedbugs.
2 years ago from The Caribbean
Thanks for your very detailed instructions. These are worth trying if they can replace the expensive exterminators.
Copyright © 2020 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
HubPages Inc, a part of Maven Inc.
Connect with us
Copyright © 2020 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
HubPages Inc, a part of Maven Inc.