Drontal — FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

Drontal

Generic Name: praziquantel/pyrantel pamoate
Dosage Form: FOR ANIMAL USE ONLY

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DESCRIPTION:

Drontal® (praziquantel/pyrantel pamoate) Broad Spectrum Dewormer Tablets for Cats and Kittens are scored for easy breakage. Each tablet contains 18.2 mg praziquantel and 72.6 mg pyrantel base as pyrantel pamoate.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE:

Drontal® (praziquantel/ pyrantel pamoate) tablets will remove Tapeworms ( Dipylidium caninum , Taenia taeniaeformis ), Hookworms ( Ancylostoma tubaeforme ), and Large Roundworms ( Toxocara cati ) in cats and kittens.

The presence of tapeworms is indicated by the observance of tapeworm segments passed in the cat’s feces. Tapeworm segments are white, pinkish-white or yellow-white in color and are similar in size and shape to flattened grains of rice. The segments are most frequently observed lying on a freshly passed stool. Segments may also be found on the hair around the anus of the animal or on the animal’s bedding. Cats become infected with tapeworms after eating fleas or small mammals (rabbits, mice) which may be infected with tapeworm larvae.

Hookworms are small whitish or reddish-brown worms less than one inch in length that live in the intestinal tract and feed on blood. Cats can become infected with hookworms by swallowing infected larvae while grooming or when larvae from the environment burrow through the skin. Cats infected with hookworms may have poor physical condition, dull haircoat, and reduced body weight and diarrhea, sometimes with the presence of dark blood.

Large roundworms are white or yellow-white strands 2-7 inches in length (similar in size and color to smooth strings of spaghetti) that may be observed in the cat’s vomit or feces. Cats become infected with large roundworms by swallowing infective eggs, particularly while grooming, or by ingestion of mice that may be infected with larval stages.

Large roundworms and hookworms pass eggs in the feces of the cat that can only be observed with the aid of a microscope.

The presence of these parasites should be confirmed through identification of parasite eggs in the feces.

Consult your veterinarian for assistance in the diagnosis, treatment and control of parasites.

Large roundworms and hookworms may be observed in the feces of the cat a day or so after the cat has been treated with Drontal® Tablets. The majority of tapeworms, however, are digested and are not found in the feces after treatment.

Drontal Dosage and Administration

To assure proper dosage, weigh the cat prior to treatment. Select the number of whole or partial tablets needed for the cat from the following table.

www.drugs.com

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, gloves, face shields, goggles, facemasks and/or respirators or other equipment designed to protect the wearer from injury or the spread of infection or illness.

PPE is commonly used in health care settings such as hospitals, doctor’s offices and clinical labs. When used properly, PPE acts as a barrier between infectious materials such as viral and bacterial contaminants and your skin, mouth, nose, or eyes (mucous membranes). The barrier has the potential to block transmission of contaminants from blood, body fluids, or respiratory secretions. PPE may also protect patients who are at high risk for contracting infections through a surgical procedure or who have a medical condition, such as, an immunodeficiency, from being exposed to substances or potentially infectious material brought in by visitors and healthcare workers. When used properly and with other infection control practices such as hand-washing, using alcohol-based hand sanitizers, and covering coughs and sneezes, it minimizes the spread of infection from one person to another. Effective use of PPE includes properly removing and disposing of contaminated PPE to prevent exposing both the wearer and other people to infection.

When an infection outbreak affects a broad population in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is responsible for making specific recommendations for infection control measures in different circumstances and settings. For example, the CDC has provided the following recommendations:

The FDA’s role in regulating personal protective equipment

All personal protective equipment (PPE) that is intended for use as a medical device must follow The FDA’s regulations and should meet applicable voluntary consensus standards for protection. This includes surgical masks, N95 respirators, medical gloves, and gowns. The consensus standards and the FDA’s requirements vary depending on the specific type of PPE. When these standards and regulations are followed, they provide reasonable assurance that the device is safe and effective.

Some PPEs are reviewed by the FDA before they can be legally sold in the United States. In this review, known as Premarket Notification or 510(k) clearance, the manufacturers have to show they meet specific criteria for performance, labeling, and intended use to demonstrate substantial equivalence. One way substantial equivalence may be demonstrated, in part, is by conforming to consensus standards for barrier performance and resistance to tears and snags. Voluntary consensus standards may also be used to demonstrate sterility (when applicable), biocompatibility, fluid resistance, and flammability. Manufacturers must validate the methods used to test conformance to standards and support each product with appropriate performance test data.

For additional information on the FDA’s role in regulating specific PPE, please go to:

www.fda.gov

How Client-Centered Therapy Works

Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Client-centered therapy, also known as person-centered therapy, is a non-directive form of talk therapy that was developed by humanist psychologist Carl Rogers during the 1940s and 1950s. Learn more about how this process was developed as well as how client-centered therapy is utilized.

History of Client-Centered Therapy

Carl Rogers is widely regarded as one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th-century. He was a humanist thinker and believed that people are fundamentally good. Rogers also suggested that people have an actualizing tendency, or a desire to fulfill their potential and become the best people that they can be.  

Rogers initially started out calling his technique non-directive therapy. While his goal was to be as non-directive as possible, he eventually realized that therapists guide clients even in subtle ways. He also found that clients often do look to their therapists for some type of guidance or direction. Eventually, the technique came to be known as client-centered therapy or person-centered therapy. Today, Rogers’ approach to therapy is often referred to by either of these two names, but it is also frequently known simply as Rogerian therapy.

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Rogers was deliberate in his use of the term client rather than patient. He believed that the term patient implied that the individual was sick and seeking a cure from a therapist. By using the term client instead, Rogers emphasized the importance of the individual in seeking assistance, controlling their destiny, and overcoming their difficulties. This self-direction plays a vital part in client-centered therapy.

Much like psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, Rogers believed that the therapeutic relationship could lead to insights and lasting changes in clients. While Freud focused on offering interpretations of what he believed were the unconscious conflicts that led to a client’s troubles, Rogers believed that the therapist should remain non-directive.

That is to say, the therapist should not direct the client, should not pass judgments on the client’s feelings, and should not offer suggestions or solutions. Instead, the client should be an equal partner in the therapeutic process.

How Does Client-Centered Therapy Work?

Mental health professionals who utilize this approach strive to create a therapeutic environment that is conformable, non-judgmental, and empathetic. Two of the key elements of client-centered therapy are that it:

  • It’s non-directive. Therapists allow clients to lead the discussion and do not try to steer the client in a particular direction.
  • It emphasizes unconditional positive regard. Therapists show complete acceptance and support for their clients without casting judgment.  

3 Key Qualities of a Client-Centered Therapist

According to Carl Rogers, a client-centered therapist needs three key qualities:

Genuineness

The therapist needs to share his or her feelings honestly. By modeling this behavior, the therapist can help teach the client to also develop this important skill.

Unconditional Positive Regard

The therapist must accept the client for who they are and display support and care no matter what the client is facing or experiencing. Rogers believed that people often develop problems because they are accustomed to only receiving conditional support; acceptance that is only offered if the person conforms to certain expectations. By creating a climate of unconditional positive regard, the client feels able to express his or her true emotions without fear of rejection.

Rogers explained: «Unconditional positive regard means that when the therapist is experiencing a positive, acceptant attitude toward whatever the client is at that moment, therapeutic movement or change is more likely. It involves the therapist’s willingness for the client to be whatever feeling is going on at that moment — confusion, resentment, fear, anger, courage, love, or pride…The therapist prizes the client in a total rather than a conditional way.»  

Empathetic Understanding

The therapist needs to be reflective, acting as a mirror of the client’s feelings and thoughts. The goal of this is to allow the client to gain a clearer understanding of their own inner thoughts, perceptions, and emotions.

By exhibiting these three characteristics, therapists can help clients grow psychologically, become more self-aware, and change their behavior via self-direction. In this type of environment, a client feels safe and free from judgment. Rogers believed that this type of atmosphere allows clients to develop a healthier view of the world and a less distorted view of themselves.  

The Importance of Self-Concept

Self-concept also plays an important role in person-centered therapy.

Rogers defined self-concept as an organized set of beliefs and ideas about the self. The self-concept play an important role in determining not only how people see themselves, but also how they view and interact with the world around them.

Sometimes self-concept lines up well with reality, which Rogers referred to as congruence. In other cases, self-perceptions are sometimes unrealistic or not in tune with what exists in the real world. Rogers believed that all people distort reality to some degree, but when self-concept is in conflict with reality, incongruence can result. For example, a young boy might perceive himself as a strong athlete, despite the fact that his actual performance on the field reveals that he is not particularly skilled and could use extra practice.

Through the process of person-centered therapy, Rogers believed that people could learn to adjust their self-concept in order to achieve congruence and a more realistic view of themselves and the world. For example, imagine a young woman who views herself as uninteresting and a poor conversationalist despite the fact that other people find her fascinating and quite engaging. Because her self-perceptions are not congruent with reality, she may experience poor self-esteem as a result. The client-centered approach focuses on providing unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuine support in order to help the client reach a more congruent view of herself.

Role in Popular Culture

Actor Bob Newhart portrayed a therapist who utilized client-centered therapy on «The Bob Newhart Show» which aired from 1972 to 1978.

How Effective Is It?

Several large-scale studies have shown that the three qualities that Rogers emphasized, genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathetic understanding, are all beneficial. However, some studies have suggested that these factors alone are not necessarily enough to promote lasting change in clients.  

One evaluation that looked at the effectiveness of person-centered therapy suggested that this approach was effective for individuals experiencing common mental health problems such as depression and anxiety, and may even be helpful to those experiencing more moderate to severe symptoms.  

www.verywellmind.com

Giving and Receiving Feedback

In life as much as in work, it’s important to know how to provide feedback to others, effectively and constructively without causing offence.

There are many opportunities in life for providing others with feedback, from commenting on the way that your colleague has carried out a task, to discussing your children’s behaviour with them.

This page focuses on the process of communicating with someone about something that they have done or said, with a view to changing or encouraging that behaviour. This is often called ‘giving feedback’, and when you do, you want your feedback to be effective.

‘Feedback’ is a frequently used term in communication theory. It is worth noting that this page is not about what might loosely be called ‘encouragement feedback’—the ‘yes I’m listening’-type nods and ‘uh-huhs’ which you use to tell someone that you are listening.

What is Effective Feedback?

For our purposes, we will define effective feedback as that which is clearly heard, understood and accepted. Those are the areas that are within your power. You have no control over whether the recipient chooses to act upon your feedback, so let’s put that to one side. В

So how can you make sure that your feedback is effective?

Develop your feedback skills by using these few rules, and you’ll soon find that you’re much more effective.

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1. Feedback should be about behaviour not personality

The first, and probably the most important rule of feedback is to remember that you are making no comment on what type of person they are, or what they believe or value. You are only commenting on how they behaved. Do not be tempted to discuss aspects of personality, intelligence or anything else. Only behaviour.

2. Feedback should describe the effect of the person’s behaviour on you

After all, you do not know the effect on anyone or anything else. You only know how it made you feel or what you thought. Presenting feedback as your opinion makes it much easier for the recipient to hear and accept it, even if you are giving negative feedback. After all, they have no control over how you felt, any more than you have any control over their intention. This approach is a blame-free one, which is therefore much more acceptable.

Choose your feedback language carefully.

Useful phrases for giving feedback include:

“I noticed that when you said [x], it made me feel [y].”

“I really liked the way that you did [x] and particularly [y] about it.”

“It made me feel really [x] to hear you say [y] in that way.”

3. Feedback should be as specific as possible

Especially when things are not going well, we all know that it’s tempting to start from the point of view of ‘everything you do is rubbish’, but don’t. Think about specific occasions, and specific behaviour, and point to exactly what the person did, and exactly how it made you feel. The more specific the better, as it is much easier to hear about a specific occasion than about ‘all the time’!

4. Feedback should be timely

It’s no good telling someone about something that offended or pleased you six months later. Feedback needs to be timely, which means while everyone can still remember what happened. If you have feedback to give, then just get on and give it. That doesn’t mean without thought. You still need to think about what you’re going to say and how.

5. Pick your moment

There are times when people are feeling open to feedback and times when they aren’t. Have a look at our page on emotional awareness and work on your social awareness, to help you develop your awareness of the emotions and feelings of others. This will help you to pick a suitable moment. For example, an angry person won’t want to accept feedback, even given skilfully. Wait until they’ve calmed down a bit.

Feedback doesn’t just happen in formal feedback meetings.

Every interaction is an opportunity for feedback, in both directions. Some of the most important feedback may happen casually in a quick interchange, for example, this one, overheard while two colleagues were making coffee:

Mary (laughing): “You remind me of my mum.”

Jane (her boss): “Really, why?”

Mary: “She gets really snappy with me when she’s stressed too.”

Jane: “Oh, I’m so sorry, have I been snapping at you? I am a bit stressed, but I’ll try not to do it in future. Thank you for telling me, and I’m sorry you needed to.”

Mary had, quite casually, raised a serious behavioural issue with Jane. Jane realised that she was fortunate that Mary had recognised the behavioural pattern from a familial situation, and drawn her own conclusions.

However, Jane also recognised that not everyone she would ever work with would do the same. Having been made aware of her behaviour, she chose to change it. Mary had also, casually or not, given feedback in line with all the rules: it was about Jane’s recent behaviour, and so was specific and timely, and showed how Mary perceived it. It was also at a good moment, when Jane was relaxed and open to discussion.

Receiving Feedback

It’s also important to think about what skills you need to receive feedback, especially when it is something you don’t want to hear, and not least because not everyone is skilled at giving feedback.

Be Open To The Feedback

In order to hear feedback, you need to listen to it. Don’t think about what you’re going to say in reply, just listen. And notice the non-verbal communication as well, and listen to what your colleague is not saying, as well as what they are.

See our further pages: Questioning,Reflecting and Clarification to ensure that you have fully understood all the nuances of what the other person is saying and avoid misunderstandings. Use different types of questions to clarify the situation, and reflect back your understanding, including emotions.

For example, you might say:

“So when you said …, would it be fair to say that you meant … and felt …?”
“Have I understood correctly that when I did …, you felt …?”

Make sure that your reflection and questions focus on behaviour, and not personality. Even if the feedback has been given at another level, you can always return the conversation to the behavioural, and help the person giving feedback to focus on that level.

Emotional intelligence is essential. You need to be aware of your emotions (self-awareness) and also be able to manage them (self-control), so that even if the feedback causes an emotional response, you can control it.

Further Reading from Skills You Need

Learn more about the key communication skills you need to be an effective communicator.

Our eBooks are ideal for anyone who wants to learn about or develop their communication skills, and are full of easy-to-follow practical information and exercises.

And Finally…

Always thank the person who has given you the feedback. They have already seen that you have listened and understood, now accept it.

Acceptance in this way does not mean that you need to act on it. However, you do then need to consider the feedback, and decide how, if at all, you wish to act upon it. That is entirely up to you, but remember that the person giving the feedback felt strongly enough to bother mentioning it to you.

Do them the courtesy of at least giving the matter some consideration. If nothing else, with negative feedback, you want to know how not to generate that response again.

www.skillsyouneed.com

Pre-Employment Testing: A Helpful Way For Companies To Screen Applicants

Pre-employment tests can help screen candidates (Photo credit: Microsoft Free Clip Art)

I am often asked by women in my seminars what my thoughts are about using pre-employment testing. While I have found pre-employment tests to be beneficial in helping to screen and select the best candidates for jobs, there are legal issues that can arise if the tests are not valid, reliable, or are improperly implemented.

What are pre-employment tests?

Pre-employment tests are used to screen job applicants and can include testing of cognitive abilities, knowledge, work skills, physical and motor abilities, personality, emotional intelligence, language proficiency, and even integrity. Drug testing can also be utilized as part of the pre-employment process. Companies use testing to find the candidates most likely to succeed in the open positions and to screen out those who are unqualified.

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Why are they used?

By helping companies identify the candidates most likely to perform well on the job, pre-employment testing can lead to additional company benefits, such as saving time and cost in the selection process, decreasing turnover, and even improving morale. According to a survey by the American Management Association, “Almost 90 percent of firms that test job applicants say they will not hire job seekers when pre-employment testing finds them to be deficient in basic skills” (Greenberg, 1996, p. 24).

What are the key issues in using pre-employment tests?

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While there can be dramatic benefits gained from using testing in the employee selection process, there are potential issues companies need to understand prior to implementing any tests. The first issue is validity; whether or not the test measures the specific criterion it is supposed to measure and can predict future job performance or success. An employer should be able to demonstrate that those who do well on the test do well in performing the job and those who score poorly on the test perform poorly on the job. For example, if an employer can demonstrate that a typing test and skills tests using Microsoft Office software products constitute a fair sample of the content of an administrative assistant job, then the tests will probably be considered content valid.

The second issue is reliability, the consistency with which a test measures an item. “For a test to be reliable, an individual’s score should be about the same every time the individual takes it (allowing for the effects of practice)” (Stanley, 2004, p. 12). If someone takes the test on one day and scores high, then takes the test a week later and receives a low score, the test is probably not very reliable. A test should consistently measure traits; otherwise it will be of little value in predicting a candidate’s future job performance. Similarly with validation, test reliability should be proven prior to the test being implemented.

The third issue focuses on the Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) aspects of pre-employment testing. Because employment tests are periodically challenged in court, employers must make sure tests do not violate federal, state, or local EEO laws, including Title VII.

Tips for using pre-employment tests:

Here are five tips to help ensure pre-employment testing delivers the desired business outcomes and is legally defensible:

  • Choose the right tests and certify validity and reliability
  • Ensure tests meet all EEO laws
  • Conduct thorough research if purchasing tests from outside companies
  • Avoid test questions of an overly personal nature or that are considered offensive
  • Do not rely solely on test results to choose candidates

Employers can increase the likelihood of hiring high-quality candidates by using pre-employment tests to help screen and select the best candidates for jobs. Administered correctly, pre-employment testing can help companies save time and cost in the selection process, decrease turnover, increase productivity, and improve morale. Even though screening tests are occasionally challenged in court, companies can reduce their legal risk by ensuring test validity and reliability, by making sure tests do not cause disparate impact on minorities or protected groups, and by consistently applying tests to all candidates.

Does your company use pre-employment tests? Tell us how well you believe the tests are working in the “Comments” section, below.

Speak up! Join me on Twitter and Facebook

Photo credit: Microsoft Free Clip Art

Greenberg, E. (1996, October). One-third of applicants lack job skills. HR Focus, 73(10), 24.

Stanley, T. (2004). The wisdom of employment testing. SuperVision, 65(2), 11-13.

www.forbes.com

Phenaxin from bedbugs: the effectiveness of the drug according to customer reviews and instructions for using the insecticide, how to breed and apply it

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People

Avoid bug bites

Bugs, including mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and some flies, can spread diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and Lyme, all of which have risk of severe and lasting consequences. Several diseases spread by bug bites cannot be prevented or treated with vaccines or medicine, such as Zika, dengue, and Lyme. Reduce your risk of getting these diseases by taking steps to prevent bug bites.

Check Your Destination for Health Risks

Find out what shots, medicines, or advice can help you to prevent bug-bite diseases where you are going.

Prevent Bug Bites During Your Trip

Use Insect Repellent

  • Use EPA-registered insect repellents with one of the following active ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE), para-menthane-diol (PMD), or 2-undecanone. Find an EPA-registered insect repellent that’s right for you.
  • The effectiveness of insect repellents not registered with the EPA, including some natural repellents, is not known.

How to Apply Insect Repellent: Always follow the product label instructions.

  • Reapply as directed.
  • If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen first, and insect repellent second.
  • Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing.

Application Instructions for Children

  • Dress your child in clothing that covers arms and legs.
  • Cover strollers and baby carriers with mosquito netting.
  • When using insect repellent on your child:
    • Always follow label instructions.
    • Do not use products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD) on children under 3 years old.
    • Do not apply insect repellent to a child’s hands, eyes, mouth, cuts, or irritated skin.
      • Adults: spray insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to a child’s face.

Permethrin: Treat clothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents) with 0.5% permethrin (an insecticide). You can buy pre-treated clothes or treat your own clothes. If treating items yourself, follow instructions carefully. Do NOT use permethrin directly on skin.

Cover Exposed Skin: Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Some bugs, such as tsetse flies, can bite through thin fabric.

Avoid Bugs Where You Are Staying: Choose hotel rooms or other accommodations that are air-conditioned or have window and door screens with no holes, so bugs can’t get inside. If bugs can get into where you are sleeping, sleep under a permethrin-treated bed net that can be tucked under the mattress.

Other Bugs to Consider at Your Destination

wwwnc.cdc.gov

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