DISEASES AND PESTS OF RED CURRANT
Red currant: diseases, pests and ways to deal with them
- 1 Red currant: diseases, pests and ways to deal with them
- 2 Diseases and pests of red currant
- 3 Pest and disease control of red currant
- 4 On the leaves of currant red spots. What to do?
- 5 Overcoming Cancer-Related Fatigue
- 6 Give Sleep a Chance
- 7 Get Moving
- 8 Fill Up on High-Energy Foods
- 9 Practice Energy Conservation
- 10 Take the Easy Way Out
- 11 Find Ways to Ease Stress
- 12 Be Alert to Depression
- 13 A tick on a currant — what to do? Signs of currant damage by spider mites and kidney mites and methods of control
- 14 Currant kidney mite
- 15 Methods for controlling kidney currant tick
- 16 Growing kidney mite resistant varieties of currant
- 17 Spider mite on currant
- 18 Signs of currant damage with a spider mite
- 19 Spider mite on currant: how to fight?
- 20 Currant kidney mite — the most effective ways to combat
Many gardeners consider red currants the queen of berries, and for good reason. After all, its fruits have healing properties and are considered a source of health.
Due to the high content of pectin, currant berries are still used in folk medicine to cleanse the body of toxins, in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, reduce the development of various kinds of inflammatory processes and neoplasms.
However, like any garden plant, red currant requires a certain care and care. This shrub is a perennial, reaches a height of about 1.5 meters, grows and bears fruit up to 25 years. The flowering period of red currant begins approximately from the second half of May and lasts 6-12 days.
Berry ripening begins in late June or mid-July, and it all depends on weather conditions. It is not very demanding for watering, but is a light-loving shrub, requires regular cutting and thinning. In addition to high yields, red currants are also considered to be frost resistant crops.
Enemy need to know in person. Read the article «Pests and diseases of black currant». Find out here the best varieties of black currant. An article on how to grow broccoli cabbage here //rusfermer.net/ogorod/listovye-ovoshhi/vyrashhivanie-i-uhod/vyrashhivanie-bazilika-iz-semyan-metody-polucheniya-kachestvennogo-urozhaya.html.
Diseases and pests of red currant
For currant bushes red currant most characteristic fungal and viral diseases. Consider the most common ones:
- currant reversal (terry);
- cup rust;
- sphere library
Currant reversion refers to viral diseases and is mainly found in black currant bushes, but recently there have been cases of red currant. The causative agent of this disease (kidney mite) is recorded mainly along with infected planting material.
Anthracnose — a sign of the disease is the presence of dark brown spots of indefinite forms. In the running form, the leaves dry out and the yield of the shrub sharply decreases.
Glass rust — fungal disease. Diseased leaves partially change their natural color to an orange color, and then fall off. Fruits become underdeveloped.
Septoria— also applies to fungal diseases. It manifests itself in the first summer month — currant leaves are covered with round gray spots that have a dark brown edging. After some time, traces of black specks appear on the spots (fungi with spores). If at the time not to take measures to combat this disease, all the leaves of the shrub will wither and fall off.
Sphereoteka— this disease covers the entire bush at once, it is covered with a white bloom, which eventually becomes dark brown. As a rule, the plant dies completely.
Pest and disease control of red currant
The most productive way to combat various diseases of the red currant is the effect on the shrub with fungicides, toxic chemicals and garlic solutions.
In severe cases, the treatment is repeated throughout the summer season. Many gardeners in their practice are faced with the appearance of red spots on currant leaves. Therefore, in the following we will take a closer look at what causes the appearance of these spots, and how they can be cured.
Recommend reading: Red currant. Planting and care. Learn how to grow broccoli cabbage from seedlings //rusfermer.net/ogorod/listovye-ovoshhi/vyrashhivanie-i-uhod/klyuchevye-osobennosti-vyrashhivaniya-kapusty-brokkoli.html.
On the leaves of currant red spots. What to do?
Very often, such symptoms determine anthracnose — a common disease of red currant, which is caused by fungi of the genus Gloeosporium. The consequences of this disease are:
- decrease in shoot growth;
- a sharp decrease in sugar content;
- significant yield reduction.
Signs of anthracnose: small red spots, which over time can grow in size and merge. Spots, which eventually changed their color to brown, may indicate a deep stage of the disease. The progression of the disease occurs mainly in the summer rainy season, as it is distributed by raindrops and insects. Favorable environment for the development of the disease is considered to be high humidity — 90% and temperature conditions above 22 ºС.
Immunity to anthracnosis in plants, as a rule, does not exist. As treatment methods, it is necessary to use for spraying before bud break (in early spring): copper sulphate or nitrafen. Also used: homycin, colloidal sulfur, 1% Bordeaux liquid, phthalan.
The subsequent spraying is carried out after a two-week break since the moment of harvesting. It is also desirable for the autumn-winter period to burn all the affected parts of the plant, and to dig up the soil twice: in late autumn and spring. Since it is in the land continue to live spores of fungi. With the reappearance of red spots the following year, the treatment of the scrub needs to be repeated.
As a radical measure, spraying of bushes is carried out with boiling water in the early spring before the budding period. This method has been repeatedly tested in practice by many gardeners and confirms its effectiveness in the fight against anthracnose. In addition to anthracnosis, red spots can also be caused by gall aphids. She settles on the leaves of the shrub and gradually sucks all its juices.
One of the popular methods, effective in combating this phenomenon is the use of a solution of laundry soap. At the same time, be sure to keep in mind that the aphid is mainly located on the back, bottom side of the sheet, so handle these places with the greatest care. Patients shoots and leaves must be cut and burn.
But some gardeners successfully use garlic infusions, which treat the affected areas of red currant. In any case, with careful care, red currant «repay» you with its high yield and large juicy berries.
Learn the rules of planting cauliflower in open ground.
Overcoming Cancer-Related Fatigue
When you have cancer, you’re tired. Fatigue may be a symptom of the cancer or a side effect of treatment, such as chemotherapy or radiation. The stress of living with cancer can also leave you exhausted. «Fortunately, there’s a lot that cancer patients can do to overcome fatigue,» says Carmelita P. Escalante, MD, professor of internal medicine at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
The first step is taking fatigue seriously. Coping with fatigue can improve your quality of life and help you recover from cancer treatment faster. Plus, fatigue can be a symptom of other illnesses, including diabetes, thyroid problems, heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. So talk to your doctor so she can evaluate your fatigue.
Give Sleep a Chance
Pain, stress, and side effects of cancer treatments can make it hard to get a restful sleep. A sleepless night can leave you tired all day. Good sleep habits can help you fall asleep and stay asleep more easily.
- Go to bed at about the same time every night.
- Avoid stimulating activities (like watching TV or doing work) right before bed.
- Avoid alcohol and caffeine in the evenings.
- Get out of bed if you can’t sleep after 15 or 20 minutes. That way you won’t associate the bed with sleeplessness. Do something relaxing, such as listening to calming music or reading. When you feel tired, go back to bed again.
It may sound counterintuitive, but physical activity is one of the most effective ways to fight fatigue, says Escalante. «Just walking for 20 minutes a day can help you feel better and more energetic.» If walking is difficult for you, try using a stationary bike or sign up for a water aerobics class. Before you start any physical activity program, talk to your doctor to make sure you don’t have any health restrictions.
Fill Up on High-Energy Foods
Your appetite probably isn’t what it was before you had cancer. Even when you don’t feel like eating, you still need to get all the nutrients your body requires. If you fall short on nutrition, you’ll be more fatigued. As a compromise between nutrition and your appetite, eat small meals frequently during the day. Choose nutritious foods like nuts, eggs, beans, lentils, fruits, and vegetables. Also, make it a goal to eat at least two servings of fish a week — evidence shows omega-3 fats may ease fatigue by reducing inflammation.
Practice Energy Conservation
Energy levels typically rise and fall throughout the day. «To chart your individual ups and downs, keep a diary for a week. Note when you feel energetic and when you feel tired,» says Escalante. «Then organize your day to do your more demanding tasks when you have the most energy.» To avoid overloading yourself on any one day, keep a calendar and spread out your activities evenly through the week. You can also ask family and friends for help.
Take the Easy Way Out
Make your daily activities as easy as possible. Sit while you cook. Keep your keys in a handy place so you don’t have to hunt for them. Use a shower chair. Dry yourself by putting on a terry cloth robe instead of using a towel.
Find Ways to Ease Stress
When you’re dealing with the stresses of cancer, you must have ways to relax. Gentle physical activity is a good stress reliever. You can also relax by meditating, listening to music, getting together with good friends, or taking a warm bath.
Be Alert to Depression
If you feel overwhelmed by sadness or anxiety, talk to your doctor. Depression occurs in about 1 out of 4 people with cancer. Another hallmark of depression is fatigue. Your doctor may suggest antidepressant medicines and psychotherapy to ease your depression.
Carmelita P. Escalante, MD, professor of internal medicine at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
MD Anderson Cancer Center: «Fatigue,» «Patient Education — Fatigue.»
Alfano, C. Journal of Clinical Oncology, April 2012; vol 30: pp В 1280-1287.
National Cancer Institute: «Depression, Overview.»
A tick on a currant — what to do? Signs of currant damage by spider mites and kidney mites and methods of control
Currants are one of the most common berry crops among gardeners.
It contains a large amount of vitamins in its berries and leaves. In addition, the agricultural technology of currants is quite simple.
However, in spite of its unpretentiousness, plantings of this culture can be severely affected by the invasion of pests such as currant buds and spider mites.
Despite their microscopic size, these insects cause significant damage to currants due to their numbers (they give several generations per season).
If the fight against these pests is not started in time, then the crop will be lost, and the plants will die.
Ticks spread by contact (birds, on human clothing and tools when processing bushes) and wind.
Currant kidney mite
This type of tick affects the currant buds. Its dimensions are so small that without a magnifying glass it is almost impossible to detect (females reach a length of 0.2-0.3 mm, males are smaller). However, its appearance on the currant can be judged by the traces of its activities. Kidney ticks live in the kidneys. They carry viral diseases (for example, leaf curl virus), which greatly weaken currants. In addition, bushes affected by these parasites are exposed to active infection by barbel, goldfish, and stem glassware. In spring, when + 10-12 ° C of heat is established, females lay up to 18 thousand eggs. If the damaged kidney is broken, it will be filled with a continuous mass of vitreous eggs. Larvae hatch after 6-10 days.
Kidney tick, affected kidney in section
Signs of currant damage by a kidney tick:
• in autumn and winter, infected kidneys are enlarged, have a round shape;
• in spring ticks begin to feed and multiply intensively. Affected buds either do not shoot at all, leaves and for the most part die. By the period of «green haze» on the bushes (the beginning of leaf dissolution), 2 generations of ticks are already developing in the buds (up to 1000 individuals can live in one bud). As a result of intensive reproduction, it becomes crowded, and insects get out in search of young shoots and buds in the axils of the leaves. So pests spread through the bush and crawl to neighboring plants. Full-grown shoots and leaves from damaged buds do not grow. Little flower brushes are formed; flowering is weak.
• summer infected bushes have a disheveled shape, shoots are partially curved and underdeveloped. The leaves are deformed, their tops brighten and acquire a leathery appearance. Berries crumble before reaching full maturity. Since August, the kidneys, in which new generations of ticks settle, begin to grow and become rounded.
Kidney-damaged mites (shown by red arrows in the photo) are rounded and almost 2 times larger than healthy kidneys
Methods for controlling kidney currant tick
There are several ways to deal with this pest. Their use depends on the stage at which the tick was discovered. Many gardeners use pouring boiling water over currant bushes. At the same time, the tick larvae die, and the plant increases immunity to powdery mildew.
This procedure should be carried out according to the following rules:
• 100% of boiling water is not used — while the water is carried into the garden, poured into a watering can, it manages to cool slightly and does not damage the kidneys themselves, but the pests die (they are sensitive to high temperatures);
• bush branches are previously tied together;
• when the kidneys began to open, they can no longer be doused. If the deadline is missed, then the procedure can be carried out in the fall, when the leaves fall and affected rounded buds are visible.
Mechanical removal of the kidneys
This method will require patience and care from the gardener. Sorting of the kidneys is carried out in winter or spring, until they open. The disadvantage of this method is that it is time-consuming, with the wrong difference (before opening all the kidneys have a swollen appearance), it is more likely to remove healthy kidneys instead of infected ones. In addition, the gardener will need to carefully examine all branches of the bush: if you miss at least one infected bud, then the spread of ticks will continue. After collecting the kidneys they are burned.
If at young bushes, at least 30-40% of the branches are damaged by a kidney mite, then in the spring they need to be cut for a stump and burn. Treat wounds with Nitrafen. Do not throw trimmed branches to the ground, as pests can get into healthy plants. In July, overgrown new shoots thin out, leaving the most powerful. In a year they will begin to bear fruit. Heavily damaged 6-year-old bushes and older cannot be saved, they are uprooted and burned in the same place.
The kidney mite does not tolerate sulfur, therefore, to combat it, use a solution of colloidal sulfur (10g / bucket of water), karbofos (75g / 10l of water) or calcareous broth (ISO). These drugs are sprayed with currant bushes during flowering and after its completion. When reprocessing, the concentration of the substance is reduced by 2 times. In some varieties of currant, sulfur-containing preparations can cause burns and premature leaf fall.
Use of Acaricides
Ticks are not insects, but arachnids, so the use of insecticides will not have the desired effect on them. For this, acaricides and insectoacaricides are used, for example, Apollo, Vertimek, Oberon, Nissoran, Envidor, Sunmayt. In addition to ticks, these drugs will also destroy other pests.
Cuttings of currants before rooting can be soaked in tea broth. To prepare it, 50 g of tea is brewed in 25 l of boiling water. You can use it in a day, otherwise a burn of twigs is possible. In the resulting solution, the cuttings can withstand 3 hours.
To fight against ticks, currant bushes are treated with a garlic solution during budding and immediately after flowering. For its preparation, 200 g of chopped garlic cloves are poured with 10 liters of water, mixed, filtered and used immediately.
Growing kidney mite resistant varieties of currant
Some varieties of currants are relatively resistant to damage by this pest. These include: Otradnaya, Early Potapenko, Vigorous, Early sweet, Memory of Gubenko, etc.
You need to purchase planting material from trusted suppliers. If there is no complete confidence in the «purity» of seedlings or cuttings, then they can be disinfected in this solution: take agrovertin (10 g) and colloidal sulfur (40 g) per 10 l of water. If you need to save your favorite variety on your site, then cuttings from this bush are cut before the snow begins to melt — during this period, female ticks have not yet begun to lay their eggs. Cuttings are etched for 15 minutes in a 1-5 solution of malathion or agrovertin.
Spider mite on currant
This type of tick is the most common pest that parasitizes on almost many plants. Spider mites are arachnids, have 4 pairs of legs, small size (0.3-0.6 mm). Larvae and adults feed on the cellular sap of leaves and young shoots. As a result of their activity, some of the cells die, photosynthesis decreases, the plant weakens and is less able to withstand infections.
Spider mites live on the underside of leaves in colonies, numbering several hundred individuals. Their color is different (red, brown, yellowish-green, orange) and depends on various factors. Wintering takes place under leaf litter or in the upper layers of the soil. In spring, when the kidneys dissolve, ticks move to plants. The first generation of insects can parasitize on weeds, and from them already migrate to cultivated plants. Affected bushes tolerate winter worse and lose productivity. The life cycle of the tick is 12-23 days depending on humidity and temperature conditions (optimal for their rapid development + 27-30 ° C with low (less than 60%) air humidity). Females during the period of their life lay several hundreds of eggs that mature in 3 days. Spider mites are also carriers of various infections, both viral and fungal etiology.
Signs of currant damage with a spider mite
One of the very first signs of the appearance of a spider mite is the appearance of yellow dots (the place of bites) on the leaves. Gradually, the leaf acquires a marble color, and then turns yellow. As a result, the sap flow in the leaf blade is disrupted, the leaves become dehydrated and dry.
In advanced cases of damaging currants with a spider mite — the presence of a thin web on the plant in which insects arrange their nests.
Web on a highly affected spider mite plant
Spider mite on currant: how to fight?
They begin to fight spider mites before females lay their eggs in spring.
Chemical treatment with acaricides
For this, currant bushes are sprayed with solutions of acaricides until buds open. For example, biologically active drugs such as Fitoverm, Kleschevit, Agrovertin, Akarin, Iskra, Bitoksibacillin provide protection against ticks and other pests for 20 days. The death of ticks occurs on the 2nd day. These drugs are not dangerous for birds, fish, predator insects, but dangerous for bees. Therefore, it is better to use them before the flowering of plants begins. Spraying is carried out with a fresh solution in dry, calm weather, evenly moistening the leaves on both sides. Processing is carried out several times with an interval of 4-5 days. It is worth remembering that ticks quickly develop resistance to poisons, so when processing plants, it is necessary to alternate chemicals. So, Sunmight acts on all stages of ticks (from eggs to an adult), but quickly becomes addictive and the emergence of populations resistant to it. Use it once a year. Apollo, Fufanon, Nissoran have a sterilizing effect.
Spider mites cannot tolerate high humidity. Using this weak spot of the pest, you can halve its population. It is especially important to irrigate or spray currant bushes in hot, dry weather, while trying to get water to the underside of the leaves.
In autumn, on the site, it is necessary to collect fallen leaves and burn them, because they are the wintering place for spider mites.
Throughout the growing season, it is important to destroy weeds on the site, which are a nursery of pests.
Many gardeners and summer residents do not accept chemicals and prefer to fight spider mites with folk methods.
With a small number of ticks, currant bushes are sprayed with garlic infusion. For this, 150 g of dry leaves and husks are poured into 10 liters of warm water and insisted for a day. After that, the obtained infusion conducts the processing of the plant. Instead of dry leaves, you can use 200 g of garlic or onions instead of dry leaves. The infusion time is 2 hours.
Mustard infusion gives a good effect: take 200 g of powder in a bucket of water, insist 10-12 hours, filter and spray the currant.
If a dandelion grows on a site, then it is also used to combat spider mites. 200 g of crushed roots and 50 g of leaves are poured with 10 liters of warm (40 ° C) water, insisted for 2-3 hours and filtered. Currants are sprayed for the first time during the period of “green haze” (leaf dissolution), the second after flowering.
In early spring, you can collect the roots and leaves of black bleached and make a decoction of them: 2 kg of fresh raw materials are poured with a small amount of water and boiled for 2-3 hours. After the broth is added 10 liters of water. The plant is poisonous, so all manipulations with it are carried out with gloves.
Horseradish infusion is quite effective: leaves (1 kg) are crushed in a meat grinder, insist 60 minutes in 3 liters of water. If you use the roots, then they will need 2 times less.
Subject to agricultural technology, currants will be less often exposed to various diseases and be affected by ticks.
Currant kidney mite — the most effective ways to combat
Large, juicy currant berries love not onlygardeners. A lot of unfriendly-minded insects strive to leave the owners of the beds without harvest. Moreover, not only the living creatures specializing in it attack the fruit bushes, but also polyphagous arthropods. The first include such currant pests as aphids, bedbugs, kidney mites, gall midges, currant currant glass, etc. To the second are listed leaf rollers, coccid, weevils, moths.
One of the most dangerous for fruit bushesis a pear bug. Adult individuals can successfully overwinter in the bark of trees. At all stages of development, these insects inflict damage on plants, sucking out the juice from their leaves. From the impact of pests, the leaves lose color and may begin to fall off. As a consequence of the activity of bedbugs, no fruit buds are formed on the bushes. Dangerous pests of currant lay on the leaves, on their lower side, eggs. The larva reaches its maturity within thirty days, while its molt passes five times.
Fruit shrubs can suffer from kidneycurrant tick. To save the plant, it is recommended to sever the damaged kidneys and burn them. They can develop pest larvae. Can visit your garden and large currant aphids. The insects lay their eggs on the shoots. The larvae appear in the spring and begin to suck the juices from the shoots and leaves. Determine that the plant is damaged aphids, you can by appearing on the foliage bloating greenish or yellow.
To fight the pest of currants wasthe most effective, we must pay attention to the state of the plant. If the fruit bushes were attacked by insects, you should resort to the help of special preparations. Before carrying out a chemical attack, it is necessary to study the instructions to the product. It indicates the method of application and dosage. You can use a 0.6% emulsion of the 10% emulsifying concentrate of «Carbophos». Store a long time solution is not recommended. It is better to cook it immediately before use, in the garden. If you want the pest of the currant to not escape your fate, you should treat the plants in windless weather. Better in the morning hours, from seven to ten, or in the evening hours — from seventeen to twenty-two.
When working with chemicalsit is necessary to observe security measures. To do this, it is necessary to wear gloves, a special gown, a gauze bandage and glasses. The most convenient tool for chemical treatment of plants is a sprayer. It will allow the solution to be applied to the upper and lower sides of the leaves. This operation will allow you to be sure that the pests of the black currant will no longer visit your garden. But, having finished work with chemical preparations, it is necessary to adhere to the following rules. The clothes in which the treatment was performed should be thoroughly washed, washed and washed with soap and water. The used water and the rest of the solution should not be drained near wells and water bodies. That plants did not visit the pest of currant, their treatment with the use of chemical products should be stopped thirty days before the beginning of fruiting.