«Executioner» for bedbugs means «guillotine»: instructions for use and prices


When bugs suddenly appear in the apartment and all its inhabitants begin to suffer from the bites of these insects, the thought of quickly getting rid of a new source of ills appears.

Fortunately, modern household chemicals offer customers a choice of at least fifty ways to deal with bedbugs. Each of these drugs has its own advantages and disadvantages.

But one of them with a symbolic name. «Executioner» from bedbugs has already proven its effectiveness and has become a fairly popular product in the domestic market for household insecticides.

Means description

The drug went on sale only in 2013. It was created by German manufacturers and previously repeatedly tested in practice in the laboratory.

Special liquid is produced in bottles, and its active ingredient is fenthion. It is a toxic organophosphorus compound belonging to the category of nerve agents. If you think more simply, then fenthion is dangerous for bed bugs and harmless to humans and domestic animals.

When exposed to parasites, it penetrates into their body, blocking nerve impulses, thereby paralyzing all working systems, and within a few minutes the insect dies.

Drug benefits

Among the advantages of a new anti-bedbug tool are the following:

  • Effective impact: most of the pests die;
  • Acts on insects with great speed. After only 6 hours, the number of bedbugs is noticeably reduced;
  • It has low toxicity;
  • The drug is easy to use, it features a convenient dosage;
  • Does not leave marks on clothes and things, and the smell disappears at the first airing, which is very important when processing beds and other upholstered furniture.

Liquid is not sold ready to use. Preparation of the solution — a separate procedure, but it does not cause any difficulties. In order to make the solution of the desired concentration, it is enough to follow the instructions given.

Important! One of the main advantages of the liquid — the absence of insect addiction to it. If some of the specimens survive after the first spraying, then after the second and subsequent sprays their organism will remain sensitive to the drug, therefore, in any case, they will die.


Simultaneously with the aforementioned quality, it should be noted that if you use the anti-bed bug «Executioner» too often, addiction to it in the insect population, although small, can still appear. therefore should not be too much poison. However, this is not required. Efficiency will be noticeable after the first use.

Another disadvantage — the liquid is available in small bottles. One bottle is designed for 5 square meters of surface. Therefore, to process standard apartment in 50 «squares», would need More than 10 tanks. Accordingly, 20-25 tanks will be needed for a standard two-room or three-room apartment.

If we take into account the average price of 70 rubles, you need to have a small cash supply in order to efficiently process the territory. You can buy the liquid in a regular store, and through the Internet.

Instructions for use

To use the solution, you must follow certain safety measures. According to the instructions, «The Executioner» is divorced at the rate of half a liter bottle of water. The tool is a liquid, so the water temperature does not matter. And breeding is best carried out in the sprayer, with which the working area will be processed.

There are special tanks with sprinklers or even with small pumps, produced by the same company. They are distinguished narrow long nosewhich is easy to deliver in hard to reach places: for example, in sofa folds or in openings between pieces of furniture.

But, if saving is a priority, you can purchase a standard spray for flowers.


  1. The apartment should not be anyone except the handler. Pets should be temporarily relocated if they are present in the house.
  2. Put on a face cotton-gauze bandage, or even better — a respirator. Protect hands with rubber gloves;
  3. Close the windows and vents in the treated room: this will increase the effectiveness of the drug;
  4. Prepare the solution according to the instructions attached to the vial;
  5. Carefully handle the room.

Attention! Work start from the far corners of the house. Be sure to process all plinths, surfaces, furniture and the space behind it, in addition, the reverse sides of interior items such as paintings and posters, as well as carpets, first of all, those that adorn the walls.

Furniture is best to move from the usual place and thoroughly sprinkle the floor surface under it. Special attention pay the beds, blankets, cushions, bed linen and mattresses.

If the amount of the agent allows, spray the clothes and the inner surface of each cabinet. On clothes can be located eggs of bedbugs.

If it is not touched, it may well become a source of re-infection. Do not be afraid to spoil things. After processing their «executioner» enough to wash clothes just once. Splashing is also recommended balcony, sockets (of course, you must first turn off the electricity), window sills, as well as air vents.

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When the liquid is sprayed and the working area is completely processed, the apartment is best to leave for at least 6-8 hours. Do not air the rooms: be sure to leave the room closed.

And after the return, on the contrary, arrange a draft in the house and wash the treated clothes. Usually multiple processing of rooms is not required. It is enough to repeat the procedure 5 days after the first one.

«Executioner», despite the recent appearance on the market, has already managed to prove its effectiveness and get a lot of positive customer reviews. It, no doubt, will be appreciated by those who appreciate the effectiveness of such drugs and their safety.

Useful materials

Read other articles about bedbugs:

  • Pay attention to such means of struggle at home as scarers and traps.
  • Find out the main causes of the appearance of bloodsuckers in the apartment, namely the bedding parasites.
  • What do homebugs look like and how to get rid of them using various methods?
  • Learn what they are dangerous to humans? How to recognize their bites, especially in children and how to properly handle damaged areas?
  • To effectively deal with these insects, find out what species exist, how they multiply and feed, where to find their nests and can they live in clothes?
  • Read more about folk remedies, in particular vinegar and temperature effects.
  • Effective preventive measures.
  • Study several review articles about modern means of struggle, in particular with bed bugs. Familiarize yourself with the list of safe products for people and pets, and also learn how to properly prepare the apartment before treatment.
  • If you can not cope with the parasites on their own, we recommend that you contact the professionals. They possess effective destruction technologies and will be able to help you as soon as possible.

In conclusion, we bring to your attention a video with tips on the destruction of bedbugs:

Health & Hygiene


Resources for Environmental Health

Evidence-based cleaning-science research is an essential means of controlling environmental risk factors.

Bacteria Can Linger on Airplane Surfaces for Days

Disease-causing bacteria can linger on surfaces commonly found in airplane cabins for days, even up to a week, according to research presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology.

Allergens in Urban Schools and Homes of Children with Asthma

Schools may be an important site of allergen exposure for children with asthma. This study compared school allergen exposure to home exposure of children with asthma. Correlations between settled dust and airborne allergen levels in classrooms were examined.

Occurrence of Bacteria and Viruses on Elementary Classroom Surfaces and the Potential Role of Classroom Hygiene in the Spread of Infectious Diseases

Improved classroom hygiene may reduce the incidence of infection and thus student absenteeism.

The Importance of Sanitizing Textiles

Dr. Charles P. Gerba, Dr. Benjamin Tanner, and The Healthy Facilities Institute (HFI) comment on this often neglected area of hygiene.

Survival of Influenza Viruses on Environmental Surfaces

To investigate the transmission of influenza viruses via hands and environmental surfaces, the survival of laboratory-grown influenza A and influenza B viruses on various surfaces was studied.

Microbial Contents of Vacuum Cleaner Bag Dust and Emitted Bioaerosols and Their Implications for Human Exposure Indoors

This study aimed to evaluate bioaerosol emission from various vacuum cleaners, and possible health impacts.

Study Discovers Copper Destroys Norovirus

Scientists from the University of Southampton have discovered that copper and copper alloys rapidly destroy highly-infectious norovirus.

ATP as a Marker for Surface Contamination of Biological Origin in Schools and as a Potential Approach to the Measurement of Cleaning Effectiveness

Three commercially available adenosine triphosphate (ATP) test systems were used to collect multiple samples measured in relative light units (RLUs) from 27 elementary schools in the southwestern United States before and after a standardized cleaning protocol.

Validation and Comparison of Three Adenosine Triphosphate Luminometers for Monitoring Hospital Surface Sanitization: a Rosetta Stone for Adenosine Triphosphate Testing

The goal of this study was to validate and compare 3 commercially available ATP luminometry, swab, rapid-test systems for use in hospital surface sanitization testing. Regulatory agencies may consider this a point-of-care laboratory test.

Nasal Patency and Lavage Biomarkers in Relation to Settled Dust and Cleaning Routines in Schools

This study determined the relations between settled dust and cleaning routines in classrooms on one hand, and nasal symptoms, nasal cavity dimensions, and the concentration of selected biomarkers of inflammation in nasal lavage on the other.

CDC Infection Control Recommendations for SARS and Coronavirus — Also: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, or MERS-CoV

More info on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, or MERS-CoV. CDC issued a supplement that outlines infection control recommendations for prevention of SARS-Coronavirus transmission in healthcare, household, and community settings.

Influence of Biofilms by Chemical Disinfectants and Mechanical Cleaning

Though this piece covers biofilm-removal in medical/dental devices, it highlights an important fact: old-fashioned scrubbing is sometimes the best «intervention» when it comes to biofilm.

Microbiological Methods for Testing Disinfectant Efficiency on Pseudomonas Biofilm

The overall biofilm results showed that of the agents tested, the peroxide-based and chlorine-based disinfectants acted most effectively on cells in biofilms.

ISSA and the Cleaning Industry Research Institute (CIRI) — News About the Clean Standard

The goal of the Clean Standard is to provide schools with a useful tool that will help them objectively measure and monitor the level of cleanliness in their facilities thereby contributing to the quality of the indoor environment for the benefit of students and staff alike.

How To Clean and Disinfect Schools To Help Slow the Spread of Flu

Tips on how to slow the spread of flu specifically through cleaning and disinfecting.

Reduction of Clostridium difficile Environmental Contamination Through Active Intervention to Improve Cleaning Practices

Study suggests «optimal disinfection is achieved by working closely with housekeepers.»

Understanding and Preventing Transmission of Healthcare-Associated Pathogens Due to the Contaminated Hospital Environment

Substantial scientific evidence has accumulated indicating that contamination of environmental surfaces in hospital rooms plays an important role in the transmission of several key healthcare-associated pathogens.

The World We Live in Has Become More Germy, Not Less

Quotable quotes from Dr. Chuck Gerba.

CDC Guidelines for CRE

A common reason given for finding environmental contamination with an MDRO was the lack of adherence to facility procedures for cleaning and disinfection.

Allergens in School Dust

The amount of the major cat (Fel d I) and dog (Can f I) allergens in dust from Swedish schools is high enough to probably cause perennial symptoms in most children with asthma who are sensitized to cat and dog allergens.

Irritants and Allergens at School in Relation to Furnishings and Cleaning

Furnishings and textiles in the classroom act as significant reservoirs of irritants and allergens and have an impact on the indoor air quality at school.

Significance of Fomites in the Spread of Respiratory and Enteric Viral Disease

The goal of this article was to use existing published literature to assess the significance of fomites in the transmission of viral disease by clarifying the role of fomites in the spread of common pathogenic respiratory and enteric viruses.

How Long Do Nosocomial Pathogens Persist on Inanimate Surfaces?

The most common nosocomial pathogens may well survive or persist on surfaces for months and can thereby be a continuous source of transmission if no regular preventive surface disinfection is performed.

The Effect of Terminal Cleaning on Environmental Contamination Rates of Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii

Cleaning significantly decreased environmental contamination of A baumannii; however, persistent contamination represents a significant risk factor for transmission. Further studies on this and more effective cleaning methods are needed.

Mind-Set Matters — Exercise and the Placebo Effect

This study is of interest because it evaluates scientifically how housekeeping’s processes may impact our thinking and health, and vice versa. While it mentions the placebo effect, the effect might just be more complex and real than some suppose. This kind of research should rightly create buzz. Does cleaning provide exercise? Yes. Can this make us healthier? Yes — but the study also shows the importance of a positive attitude. The article makes the statement, «actual behavior did not change» between those who were told the value of exercise versus those who were not, but we submit that behaviors could have been subtlety affected — certainly attitude and behavior are intertwined.

Validation and Comparison of Three Adenosine Triphosphate Luminometers for Monitoring Hospital Surface Sanitization: a Rosetta Stone for Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Testing

The application of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luminometry for monitoring sanitized hospital surfaces is an evolving infection control practice. The goal of this study is to validate and compare 3 commercially available ATP luminometry, swab, rapid-test systems for use in hospital surface sanitization testing. Regulatory agencies may consider this a point-of-care laboratory test; it is therefore imperative that validation criteria are established.

Feasibility of Using Subject-Collected Dust Samples in Epidemiologic and Clinical Studies of Indoor Allergens

Studies of indoor allergen exposures are often limited by the cost and logistics of sending technicians to homes [or businesses] to collect dust. This study evaluated the feasibility of having subjects collect their own dust samples.

Occupational Exposure to Cleaning Agents and Asthma in Women from the EGEA Study

The deleterious role of cleaning products in work-related asthma has been suggested in recent studies. Researchers studied the relationship between asthma and occupational asthmagens, with a particular attention to cleaning agents, separately in men and women.

Daily Disinfection of Isolation Rooms Reduces Contamination of Healthcare Workers’ Hands

Research demonstrates that daily cleaning of high-touch surfaces in isolation rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) significantly reduces the rate of the pathogens on the hands of healthcare personnel.

Update on the Clean Standard: K-12

CIRI and ISSA are pleased to provide the following update on the development of the Clean Standard: K-12, and to inform interested persons of the next steps in this process.

Economic Impact of an Infection Control Education Program in a Specialized Preschool Setting

Objective To assess the economic impact, from a societal perspective, of a multidimensional infection control education program (ICEP) in a preschool for children with Down syndrome.

Failure of Ionized Water Produced by Activeion Ionator to Kill Potential Harmful Bacteria

Ionized water produced by the Activeion Ionator system does not kill tough, aquatic bacteria that may contaminate the system. The use of this system may increase the risk of spreading resistant, potential harmful bacteria to the surfaces and into the air.

Environmental Allergens — Triggers for Pediatric Asthma

Environmental allergens are major triggers for pediatric asthma. While children’s greatest exposure to indoor allergens is in the home, other public places where children spend a large amount of time, such as school and day care centers, may also be sources of significant allergen encounters.

Study Shows TANCS Steam Vapor System Disinfects Through a Variety of Textile Types

A surface disinfecting study conducted by the University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, is noteworthy in that it demonstrated consistent disinfection of surfaces by application of TANCS® steam vapor even when using a variety of different cloth or textile applicators.

UV-visible Marker Confirms Environmental Persistence of Clostridium Difficile Spores in Toilets

UV-visible marker confirms that environmental persistence of Clostridium difficile spores in toilets of patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea is associated with lack of compliance with cleaning protocol.

Perceived Impact of the Medicare Policy to Adjust Payment for Health Care-associated Infections

BackgroundIn 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) ceased additional payment for hospitalizations resulting in complications deemed preventable, including several health care-associated infections.

Bacterial Amplification and In-Place Carpet Drying: Implications for Category 1 Water Intrusion Restoration

Abstract The study described in this article investigated whether in-place carpet drying processes resulted in bacterial amplification following water intrusion from a clean water source (category 1) in a residential indoor environment.

Characterization of Occupational Exposures to Cleaning Products Used for Common Cleaning Tasks — a Pilot Study of Hospital Cleaners

Abstract General Background In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers.

Evaluation of a Low-Cost Electrostatic Dust Fall Collector for Indoor Air Endotoxin Exposure Assessment

Authors Ilka Noss -1*Inge M. Wouters -1

Comparison of Sampling Methods for the Assessment of Indoor Microbial Exposure

Abstract Indoor microbial exposure has been related to allergy and respiratory disorders. However, the lack of standardized sampling methodology is problematic when investigating dose-response relationships between exposure and health effects.

Virus Removal and Transfer on Food Contact Surfaces by Cleaning Cloths

[CIRI Notes: This article advances knowledge about selecting various cloths to clean a variety of surfaces. It also points up that cloths may vary in the amount of virus they are able to hold onto without transferring it back to the next surface cleaned — a continual battle with practical implications.

Daily Vacuuming of Mattresses Significantly Reduces Dust Mite Allergens, Bacterial Endotoxin, and Fungal Beta-glucan

METHODS: Twenty volunteers vacuumed their mattress daily for 8 weeks. Dust samples collected at two weekly intervals were analyzed for house dust mite allergens (Der p 1 and Der f 1) by double monoclonal antibody ELISA and for endotoxin and beta-glucan by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate kinetic assay.

Biofilms: Recent Developments on an Old Battle

Microbial cells are able to adhere to surfaces and through an exo-polymeric matrix they establish microbial communities known as biofilms.

Biofilms on Environmental Surfaces: Evaluation of the Disinfection Efficacy of a Novel Steam Vapor System

Abstract Environmental surfaces in health care settings are often contaminated by microorganisms, and biofilms can develop on the surfaces in these settings.

New Methods to Clean ICU Rooms

Abstract Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) represent the most common adverse event in the intensive care unit (ICU). Their prevalence is high and they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

Reducing Absenteeism From Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Illness in Elementary School Students: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Infection-Control Intervention

CIRI Note: This article shows a good relationship between cleaning high touch surfaces and reduced absenteeism from gastroenterological illness in K-12 students.

Mold Prevention Strategies and Possible Health Effects in the Aftermath of Hurricanes and Major Floods

Extensive water damage after major hurricanes and floods increases the likelihood of mold contamination in buildings. This report provides information on how to limit exposure to mold and how to identify and prevent mold-related health effects.

An Evaluation of Patient Area Cleaning in Three Hospitals Using a Novel Targeting Methodology

CIRI Note: This method, wherein specific surfaces (e.g., touch points) proposed to be cleaned are targeted with invisible fluorescent marks prior to the cleaning crew entering the area, and are then checked after cleaning (for removal) using a black light to determine which spots are missed, seems to be useful.

Effectiveness of UV-C Equipped Vacuum at Reducing Culturable Surface-bound Microorganisms on Carpets.

Carpets are both sinks and sources for exposure to chemicals, allergens, and microbes and consequently influence health, including asthma, allergies, and infectious diseases.

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces

Answering Questions About Health Promoting Schools

Can the concept of Health Promoting Schools help to improve students’ health knowledge and practices to combat the challenge of communicable diseases? Background

Efficacy of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed (SAEO) Water in Killing or Removing E. Coli

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed (SAEO) water in killing or removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on iceberg lettuce and tomatoes by washing and chilling treatment simulating protocols used in food service kitchens.

Vacuuming Source of Indoor Exposure

Abstract Vacuuming can be a source of indoor exposure to biological and nonbiological aerosols, although there are few data that describe the magnitude of emissions from the vacuum cleaner itself.

Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities — Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile is the most frequent etiologic agent for health-care–associated diarrhea. In one hospital, 30% of adults who developed health-care–associated diarrhea were positive for C.difficile.

Effectiveness of a Novel Ozone-based System for the Rapid High-level Disinfection of Health Care Spaces and Surfaces

Vapor-based fumigant systems for disinfection of health care surfaces and spaces is an evolving technology. A new system (AsepticSure) uses an ozone-based process to create a highly reactive oxidative vapor with broad and high-level antimicrobial properties.

The Effect of High-efficiency and Standard Vacuum Cleaners on Mite, Cat and Dog Allergen Levels and Clinical Progress

The major triggers for allergic asthma are exposure to allergens of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and of pets.

Stability and Bactericidal Activity of Chlorine Solutions

Investigation of Antibiotic and Antibacterial Susceptibility and Resistance in Staphylococcus from the Skin of Users and Non-Users of Antibacterial Wash Products in Home Environments

Background Antibacterial wash products have come under scrutiny as potential contributors to the problem of antibiotic resistance. This study investigated the extent of, and relationship between, antibiotic and antibacterial resistance in human skin bacteria isolated from individuals in the home environment, relative to their routine use or non-use of antibacterial hand and bath soaps, and other antibacterial body wash products.

Green Seal Definition of Terms

Environmental Decontamination of a Hospital Isolation Room using High-intensity Narrow-spectrum Light

The performance of a new decontamination technology, referred to as ‘high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental decontamination system’ (HINS-light EDS) was evaluated by a series of three studies carried out in a hospital isolation room used to treat burns patients.

Reduction in the Microbial Load on High-Touch Surfaces in Hospital Rooms by Treatment with a Portable Saturated Steam Vapor Disinfection System

The study was carried out in 8 occupied rooms of a long-term care wing of a hospital. Six surfaces per room were swabbed before and after steam treatment and analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms, methicillin-intermediate and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MISA and MRSA), and Clostridium difficile.Results

Evaluation of a Pulsed-Xenon Ultraviolet Room Disinfection Device for Impact on Hospital Operations and Microbial Reduction

This study evaluated the use of pulsed-xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) room disinfection by sampling frequently touched surfaces in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolation rooms.

Restoration Industry Terminology

Particle Pollution and Your Health

What the Cleaning Industry Can Learn from Cleanrooms

For many years I have been teaching a course on cleanroom design, operations, and maintenance to classes chiefly composed of professionals from the pharmaceutical industry.

Microfiber Compared with Other Commonly Used Cleaning Cloths

The aim of this study was to investigate the decontamination capacity of 4 different types of cleaning cloths (microfiber cleaning cloth, cotton cloth, sponge cloth, and disposable paper towels) commonly used in hospitals in their ability to reduce microbial loads from a surface used dry or wet in new condition.

A Restroom That Cleans Itself

Researchers at the University of New South Wales are developing new coatings they hope will be used for self-cleaning surfaces in hospitals and the home.

Evaluation of ATP Bioluminescence Assays for Potential Use in a Hospital Setting

ATP bioluminescence is being applied in hospitals to measure surface contamination. We compared commercial luminometers for detecting the number of Staphylococcus aureus associated with surfaces.

CDC Provides Guidance for Norovirus Disinfection in Healthcare

Environmental Cleaning Intervention and Risk of Acquiring Multidrug-Resistant Organisms From Prior Room Occupants

Background Admission to intensive care unit rooms previously occupied by carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant enteroccoci (VRE) had been found to confer a 40% increased risk of acquisition, presumably through environmental contamination.

Cleaning and Special Environments

Peer-Reviewed Paper — X-ray Fluorescence for Evaluation of Carpet Cleaning Technology

Published in AATCC Review March/April 2011 —

Estimates of Improved Productivity and Health From Better Indoor Environments

The existing literature contains strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance.

CDC Issues Updated Guidance for Norovirus Disinfection

The use of chemical disinfectants is one of the key approaches to interrupt norovirus spread from contaminated environmental surfaces. Particular attention should be given to the likely areas of greatest environmental contamination such as bathrooms and high-touch surfaces (e.g., door knobs and hand rails).

Detergent Residues on Surfaces — Food for Microbes

As many authors have previously emphasized, cleaning and sanitization (or disinfection) of surfaces are separate processes that need to be carried out in separate steps.

Promises and Pitfalls of Surface Disinfection

Abstract Hard, nonporous environmental surfaces in health care settings are now receiving due recognition for their role in the spread of several types of nosocomial pathogens.

Role of Hospital Surfaces in the Transmission of Emerging Health Care-associated Pathogens: Norovirus, Clostridium Difficile, and Acinetobacter Species

Health care-associated infections (HAI) remain a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Although the main source of nosocomial pathogens is likely the patient’s endogenous flora, an estimated 20% to 40% of HAI have been attributed to cross infection via the hands of health care personnel, who have become contaminated from direct contact with the patient or indirectly by touching contaminated environmental surfaces.

See also:  Sprays from bedbugs: names and methods of application, Competently about health on iLive

CDC Provides Options for Evaluating Environmental Cleaning

In view of the evidence that transmission of many healthcare acquired pathogens (HAPs) is related to contamination of near-patient surfaces and equipment, all hospitals are encouraged to develop programs to optimize the thoroughness of high touch surface cleaning as part of terminal room cleaning at the time of discharge or transfer of patients.

Room Decontamination with UV Radiation

Objective To determine the effectiveness of a UV-C-emitting device to eliminate clinically important nosocomial pathogens in a contaminated hospital room.

Effectiveness of UV-C Equipped Vacuum at Reducing Culturable Surface-Bound Microorganisms on Carpets

Carpets are both sinks and sources for exposure to chemicals, allergens, and microbes and consequently influence health, including asthma, allergies, and infectious diseases.

Fundamental Science Concepts in Effective Cleaning

What is environmental science?Environmental science unites all the sciences that evolved over centuries. Its origins are in natural philosophy or logically and systematically examining the natural and man-made worlds.

A Quantitative Approach to Defining «High-touch» Surfaces in Hospitals

Department of Hospital Epidemiology, UNC Health Care, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514, USA. [email protected]

Effective Cleaning Defined

What is effective cleaning?Effective cleaning removes unwanted matter to the greatest or optimum extent possible. This reduces the likelihood of an adverse effect caused by unwanted matter exposure to man, valuable materials and the natural environment.

Cleaning Creates a Healthy Condition

Cleaning’s primary objective is creating a condition of well-being for individuals. To that end, the process of cleaning lowers adverse exposure levels and risks by removing unwanted substances from the environment.

High Performance Cleaning Promotes Good Hygiene and Health, Part 2

This is the second of a two-part series on the benefits of high performance cleaning.

High Performance Cleaning Promotes Good Hygiene and Health Part 1

Health issues and microbiology-based cleaning concerns are rising. Anthrax, HIV, mold, the West Nile Virus and the more recent Avian or Bird Flu make understanding what we are confronting critical.

Cleaning’s Well-Being and Welfare Benefits

The benefits of cleaning extend beyond our primary concern of human health protection. In the field of environmental management we call these secondary concerns well-being and welfare effects and benefits.

Cleaning and the Environment

In this age of environmental concern individuals are outwardly interested in the healthy state of their surroundings. As populations increase and we become more connected with our environment and each other through global communication, commerce and transportation, that interest also increases.

The Role of Environmental Cleaning in the Control of Hospital-Acquired Infection

Abstract Increasing numbers of hospital-acquired infections have generated much attention over the last decade. The public has linked the so-called ‘superbugs’ with their experience of dirty hospitals but the precise role of environmental cleaning in the control of these organisms remains unknown.

Assessment of Vacuum Cleaners and Vacuum Cleaner Bags Recommended for Allergic Subjects

Studies Show Patient Areas Not Being Cleaned Properly

Abstract Recent studies using direct covert observation or a fluorescent targeting method have consistently confirmed that most near patient surfaces are not being cleaned in accordance with existing hospital policies while other studies have confirmed that patients admitted to rooms previously occupied by patients with hospital pathogens have a substantially greater risk of acquiring the same pathogen than patients not occupying such rooms.

Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance

We examined whether household use of antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products is an emerging risk factor for carriage of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria on hands of household members.

What is Escherichia coli?

Escherichia coli (abbreviated as E. coli) are a large and diverse group of bacteria.

Inactivation of Escherichia coli (O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes on Plastic Kitchen Cutting Boards by Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

Following inoculation, the boards were air-dried under a laminar flow hood for 1 h, immersed in 2 liters of electrolyzed oxidizing water or sterile deionized water at 23 degrees C or 35 degrees C for 10 or 20 min;

Comparison of UV C Light and Chemicals for Disinfection of Surfaces in Hospital Isolation Units

Effects of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity on Coronavirus Survival on Surfaces

Abstract Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH).

The Importance of Correct Sampling and Swabbing in ICM Programs

The swabs used for sampling surfaces for microbial contamination are examples of devices that are simple in design and construction, but are difficult to use without discipline and training.

The Role of Enzymes

H.S.Olsen; P. Falholt. «The Role of Enzymes in Modern Detergency»J. Surf. Det., 1(44), 555-567 (1998)

Improving Cleaning of the Environment Surrounding Patients in 36 Acute Care Hospitals

Comparison of Results of ATP Bioluminescence and Traditional Hygiene Swabbing

Comparison of results of ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing methods for the determination of surface cleanliness at a hospital kitchen.

Identity and Numbers of Bacteria Present on Tabletops and in Dishcloths Used to Wipe Down Tabletops in Public Restaurants and Bars

Abstract Dishcloths used in restaurants and bars (23 restaurant cloths, 14 bar cloths) were collected, and tabletops (10 restaurants) were swabbed, to determine the occurrence of bacteria.

An Evaluation of Hospital Cleaning Regimes and Standards Using ATP Bioluminescence

Bacterial Contamination of Keyboards: Efficacy and Functional Impact of Disinfectants

Application of Electrolyzed Water in the Food Industry

Electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water has been regarded as a new sanitizer in recent years. Production of EO water needs only water and salt (sodium chloride).

40% of Surface Disinfectants Ineffective in Eliminating Viruses That Cause Gastroenteritis

Some 40% of commercial disinfectants used to clean surfaces are believed to be ineffective in eliminating noroviruses, a group of viruses responsible for more than half of all foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks.

Bulk Soap — Health Risk?

«Every time you use soap from an open refillable bulk soap reservoir dispenser, you could be putting hundreds of millions of fecal bacteria on your hands, which is actually more than is in the toilet after you flush it,»

New Approach to Home Hygiene Needed to Control Disease and Reduce Costs, Says Report

Three key measures could help to reduce the burden of infectious disease in a sustainable way according to a Report published by the International Scientific Forum on Home Hygiene (IFH).

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a deadly disease from rodents. Humans can contract the disease when they come into contact with infected rodents or their urine and droppings.

Precautions for Workers in Affected Areas Who are Regularly Exposed to Rodents

Persons who frequently handle or are exposed to rodents (e.g., mammalogists, pest-control workers) in the affected area are probably at higher risk for hantavirus infection than the general public because of their frequency of exposure.

Study: Cleaning Desktops and Other Classroom Surfaces Reduces Absenteeism

Abstract The presence of microorganisms on common classroom contact surfaces (fomites) was determined to identify the areas most likely to become contaminated.

Survival of Acinetobacter baumannii on Dry Surfaces

Abstract Excerpt Acinetobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens reported with increasing frequency in outbreaks of cross-infection during the past 2 decades.

Investigation of Bacterial Pathogens on 70 Frequently Used Environmental Surfaces in a Large Urban U.S. University

After reports of increased severity of bacterial infections from community institutions, a broad spectrum of 70 surfaces was sampled for potential bacterial pathogens in the morning and afternoon of one day per week over three consecutive weeks in a large U.S.

Consumer Exposure to Biocides — Identification of Relevant Sources and Evaluation of Possible Health Effects

MethodsInformation on biocide-containing products was collected by on-site research, by an Internet inquiry as well as research into databases and lists of active substances.

Historic Study — Characterization of a Non-problem Building: Assessment of Cleaning Effectiveness

This study characterized the indoor environment of a multi-floor, multi-use, non-problem, non-complaint building through long term sampling for a variety of substances.

EPA Comments on Copper

When cleaned regularly, [registered] antimicrobial copper alloy surfaces kill greater than 99.9% of (specific) bacteria within two hours, and continue to kill more than 99% of (these) bacteria even after repeated contamination.

Prevalence of Community Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in High School Wrestling Environments

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was predominantly a hospital-acquired organism; recently, however, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has been causing outbreaks in otherwise healthy individuals involved in athletics.

Effects of Physical Interventions on House Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Carpet, Bed, and Upholstery Dust in Low-Income, Urban Homes

Abstract House dust mite allergen exposure is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development, and asthma morbidity; however, practical and effective methods to mitigate these allergens from low-income, urban home environments remain elusive.

Disinfectants May Promote Growth of Superbugs

Using disinfectants could cause bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics as well as the disinfectant itself, according to research published in the January 2010 issue of Microbiology.

Cleaning Sprays May Be an Important Risk Factor for Asthma

Using household cleaning sprays and air fresheners as little as once a week can raise the risk of developing asthma in adults, say researchers in Europe.

Understanding Particle Pollution

Particle pollution (also called particulate matter or PM) is the term for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air.

Micro-Filtration Vacuum Bags May Ease Allergies

A study designed to assess the allergen-containing abilities of vacuum cleaners and vacuum filters conducted by the University of Virginia Asthma and Allergic Diseases Center has shown that sufferers may benefit from using vacuums with multi-layer micro-filtration bags.

Hospital Trial Shows Copper Reduces Contamination

Research conducted at the University of Southampton has paved the way for a hospital trial that has shown that surfaces made with materials that contain copper kill a wide range of potentially harmful microorganisms — significantly reducing the number of these organisms that can come into contact with patients, visitors and staff.

EPA Guidance for Testing and Labeling Claims against Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus (Formerly called Swine Flu )

In response to the emerging threat posed by the spread of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A Virus, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is clarifying testing requirements and providing labeling options for pandemic 2009 H1N1.

Research Brief: Improper Cleaning of Cruise Ships May Breed Norovirus

A recent report published for the Infectious Diseases Society of America claims that norovirus infection outbreaks are a commonplace occurrence in enclosed environments or populations, such as those found on cruise ships.

Research Brief: Improper Use of Disinfectant Wipes May Be Harmful

British researchers claim that improper use of disinfectant wipes in medical and health care facilities may do more harm than good.

Improved Cleaning of Patient Rooms Using a Targeting Method

We developed a new method using an invisible fluorescent marker to target standardized high‐touch surfaces in hospital rooms. Evaluation of 1404 surface objects in 157 rooms in 3 hospitals revealed that 47% of targets had been cleaned.

Improper Use of Disinfectant Wipes Can Spread MRSA

A study by Cardiff University’s Welsh School of Pharmacy looked into the ability of antimicrobial-surface wipes to remove, kill and prevent the spread of such infections as MRSA.

Plan for Social Distancing and Other Controls if H1N1 Severity Increases

If the severity of 2009 H1N1 increases, your employer should be planning to use other control measures to reduce close contact among coworkers and with others in the workplace.

Podcast — How to Use N95 Respirators

N95 respirators are designed to protect you from breathing in very small particles that may contain viruses. These types of respirators fit tightly to the face so that air is inhaled through the filter material.

‘Clever Cleaning’ the Way to Beat Hospital Superbugs

Just one extra cleaner on a hospital ward can save lives and money, according to new research sponsored by UNISON, the UK’s largest public service union.

Cruise Ship Environmental Hygiene and the Risk of Norovirus Infection Outbreaks: An Objective Assessment of 56 Vessels Over 3 Years

Background Norovirus infection outbreaks (NoVOs) occur frequently in closed populations, such as cruise ship passengers. Environmental contamination is believed to play an important role in NoVO propagation.

Answering That Age-old Lament: Where Does All This Dust Come From?

Most indoor household dust that collects on furniture and floors actually comes from outdoors, a new study finds.

You Can’t Trust Your Eyes to Determine «Clean»

What looks clean isn’t necessarily so, according to UK researchers after performing 3,000 tests to determine cleanliness levels in a hospital setting.

Are Microfiber Mops Better Than Cotton String Mops at Removing Germs?

Yes, they are, according to researchers at the University of North Carolina Health Care System and University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC.

Study Says: Improving Our Environment Can Improve Our Behavior

The odor in a room is enough to elicit a stronger impulse towards fairness, researchers from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University have claimed.

Action Steps for Schools to Prevent the Spread of Flu

Extend the time sick students, teachers, or staff stay home for at least 7 days, even if they feel better sooner.

Mobile Phones Contaminated with Nosocomial Pathogens?

BackgroundThe objective of this study was to determine the contamination rate of the healthcare workers’ (HCWs’) mobile phones and hands in operating room and ICU.

Opportunistic Pathogens Enriched in Showerhead Biofilms

Abstract The environments we humans encounter daily are sources of exposure to diverse microbial communities, some of potential concern to human health.

ICAAC: Hospital Surfaces Major Source of C. difficile

Healthcare workers are just as likely to pick up Clostridium difficile spores from bed rails and other surfaces around a hospital room as from touching an infected patient’s skin, researchers found.

School District (K-12) Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

Local educational agencies (LEAs) play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of their district’s staff, students and their families.

Questions & Answers — 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine

Vaccines are the most powerful public health tool for control of influenza, and the U.S. government is working closely with manufacturers to take steps in the process to manufacture a 2009 H1N1 vaccine.

Reduction of Clostridium Difficile and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Contamination of Environmental Surfaces After An Intervention to Improve Cleaning Methods

BackgroundContaminated environmental surfaces may play an important role in transmission of some healthcare-associated pathogens. In this study, we assessed the adequacy of cleaning practices in rooms of patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection and examined whether an intervention would result in improved decontamination of surfaces.

Restroom Cleaning: Using Science in the Fight Against Design Flaws

A basic guiding principle in understanding restroom cleaning is that almost all public restrooms have used designs and been constructed with methods and materials that embody flaws that work against easy removal of microbial contamination.

How to Select and Use a Particle Counter

There are many types of particle counters dependent upon the depth of particle analysis required:

Cleaning to Reduce the Risk of H1N1 Flu Virus — Guidelines for Cleaning, Janitorial and Maintenance Staff

Swine flu is a new variant of the H1N1 strain of influenza type A. It is highly contagious and spreads from person-to-person in several ways: when an ill person sneezes or coughs, infected droplets enter another person through the nose, mouth or eyes;

Ozone and Limonene in Indoor Air: A Source of Submicron Particle Exposure

Little information currently exists regarding the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation in indoor air. Smog chamber studies have demonstrated that high aerosol yields result from the reaction of ozone with terpenes, both of which commonly occur in indoor air.

Dust: A Metric for Use in Residential and Building Exposure Assessment and Source Characterization

In this review, we examine house dust and residential soil and their use for identifying sources and quantifying levels of toxicants for the estimation of exposure.

pH — A Quick Lesson in the Chemistry of Cleaning

The pH scale, numbered from

Why are Bacteria Becoming Resistant to Antibiotics?

Antibiotics kill or inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria. Sometimes one of the bacteria survives because it has the ability to neutralize or evade the effect of the antibiotic; that one bacteria can then multiply and replace all the bacteria that were killed off. Exposure to antibiotics therefore provides selective pressure, which makes the surviving bacteria more likely to be resistant. In addition, bacteria that were at one time susceptible to an antibiotic can acquire resistance through mutation of their genetic material or by acquiring pieces of DNA that code for the resistance properties from other bacteria. The DNA that codes for resistance can be grouped in a single easily transferable package. This means that bacteria can become resistant to many antibiotic agents because of the transfer of one piece of DNA.

Bringing Home Something Other than Homework from School: Microbial Contamination from Highly Touched Objects

Increasing quantitative evidence points to the conclusion that children are more susceptible to infection by microbial pathogens picked up from their environments than older persons exposed to the same pathogens [1].

Why Green Your Cleaning Products?

The following discussion primarily addresses hazards associated with cleaning product ingredients. The actual risks from these chemicals at typical exposure levels are often uncertain, and in many cases are probably low.

What is Green Cleaning?

Green cleaning is a holistic approach to janitorial services that takes into account: (1) the health, safety, and environmental risks of products and processes associated with cleaning;

Design for the Environment (DfE)

EPA allows safer products to carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark allows consumers to quickly identify and choose products that can help protect the environment and are safer for people.

ISSA 2009 Green, Clean and Healthy — Legislative Forum

UV Marker Confirms That Persistence of Clostridium Difficile Spores in Toilets of Patients with C. Difficile-associated Diarrhea is Associated with Lack of Compliance with Cleaning Protocol

BackgroundAn ultraviolet visible marker (UVM) was used to assess the cleaning compliance of housekeeping staff for toilets in a tertiary healthcare setting.

Characterization of Occupational Exposures to Cleaning Products Used for Common Cleaning Tasks — a Pilot Study of Hospital Cleaners

In recent years, cleaning has been identified as an occupational risk because of an increased incidence of reported respiratory effects, such as asthma and asthma-like symptoms among cleaning workers.

Measuring the Effect of Enhanced Cleaning in a UK Hospital: A Prospective Cross-over Study

We introduced an additional cleaner into two matched wards from Monday to Friday, with each ward receiving enhanced cleaning for six months in a cross­over design.

The Science of Dust Buildup

Are You Winning the Battle With Biofilm?

With the advent of modern disinfectants, many of us may feel a false sense of security when using germicides. Why?

UV lamps have been used to inactivate microorganisms for many years. Much of the early work was directed at the control of very infectious microorganisms (particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis), often in medical facilities.

Swine Flu Resources

US Government’s Pandemic Flu Web Site for SchoolsCal/OSHANIHMedlinePlus

Inhalation of VOCs: Primary Concern with Cleaning Products

The cleaning industry continues to make tremendous strides in creating effective cleaning products and processes for a wide variety of applications, while protecting public health and the environment.

Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Biosafety Guidelines for Laboratory Workers

This guidance is for laboratory workers who may be processing or performing diagnostic testing on clinical specimens from patients with suspected swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, or performing viral isolation.

Interim CDC Guidance for Mitigation in Response to Human Infections with Swine Influenza (H1N1) Virus

This document provides interim planning guidance that focuses on several nonpharmaceutical measures that might be useful during this outbreak of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus aimed at reducing disease transmission and associated morbidity and mortality.

N95 Respirators

Surgical masks and surgical N95 respirators are disposable devices that cover the mouth and nose during medical procedures. They help protect the caregiver and patient against microorganisms, body fluids, and small particles in the air.

Swine Flu: Taking Care of a Sick Person in Your Home

Swine flu presents a real and present danger to public health. KaiScience is pleased to provide this information from the CDC.

What is TB?

Why is Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Used to Test Hard Surface Disinfectants? Interestingly, even though Tuberculosis is not transmitted by surfaces, the bacterium that causes it is used as a benchmark for the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants.

Study: Environmental Cleaning Intervention Reduces Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in ICUs

A rigorous environmental cleaning intervention can reduce the transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other multidrug-resistant organisms in hospital intensive care units (ICUs), according to a study released (March 2009) at the annual meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA).

Canada’s Largest Labor Union Takes Science-based Stand on HAIs

«Cleaning, laundry, and other support services are a vital element of infection prevention and control strategies. Pathogens such as C.

Can We ‘Wipe Out’ Hospital MRSA?

Three basic principles is all it could take to reduce the incidence of MRSA in hospitals according to new research by Cardiff University.

See also:  Bedbug Control, Pronto Pest Management

Flies May Spread Drug-Resistant Bacteria

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found evidence that houseflies collected near broiler poultry operations may contribute to the dispersion of drug-resistant bacteria and thus increase the potential for human exposure to drug-resistant bacteria.

Impact of an Infection Control Program in a Specialized Preschool

Background The purpose of this study was to design and implement a comprehensive infection control program and measure its effects on the number and types of infectious illnesses experienced by children attending a specialized preschool program.

Call to Action: Running Out of Options to Fight Super Bugs

People are dying from “super bugs” because our antibiotic arsenal has run dry, leaving the world without sufficient weapons to fight ever-changing bacteria, warn infectious disease researchers at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston.

Microbiological Hazards of Household Toilets: Droplet Production and the Fate of Residual Organisms

Large numbers of bacteria and viruses when seeded into household toilets were shown to remain in the bowl after flushing, and even continual flushing could not remove a persistent fraction.

Mopping Up MRSA

Editorial Note: The following are excerpts from a presentation by Dr. Stephanie Dancer. Why the debate about MRSA and hospital cleaning?

All About Particles

Particles can be produced by many different sources. Inert (nonliving) particles usually arise from the rubbing of one item against another, such as the dust produced when you saw through a piece of wood.

Norovirus Facts

Norovirus (previously called «Norwalk-like viruses»), is an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family. The virus causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world, and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.

Cleaning Activities May Be Harmful to Women with Asthma

Cleaning activities may be associated with increased lower respiratory tract symptoms in women with asthma according to a study published in the January 2009 Annals of Allergy, Asthma &

What is Salmonellosis?

Salmonellosis is an infection with bacteria called Salmonella. Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection.

Comparative Surface-to-Hand and Fingertip-to-Mouth Transfer Efficiency of Gram-Positive Bacteria

Aims To determine the transfer efficiency of micro-organisms from fomites to hands and the subsequent transfer from the fingertip to the lip.

Resistance of Surface-dried Virus to Common Disinfection Procedures

It is believed that surface-dried viruses can remain infectious and may therefore pose a threat to public health. To help address this issue, we studied 0.1 N NaOH and 0.1% hypochlorite for their capacity to inactivate surface-dried lipid-enveloped (LE) [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV)] and non-lipid-enveloped [NLE;


Throughout written history, the most devastating pandemic illnesses (i.e., pneumonic plague, small pox, inhalation anthrax, tuberculosis, influenza and even chicken pox) were largely spread through the airborne route.

A Modified ATP Benchmark for Evaluating the Cleaning of Some Hospital Environmental Surfaces

Hospital cleaning continues to attract patient, media and political attention. In the UK it is still primarily assessed via visual inspection, which can be misleading.

Mopping Up Hospital Infection

Hospital cleaning is a neglected component of infection control. In the UK, financial constraints have forced managers to re-evaluate domestic services and general cleaning has been reduced to the bare minimum.

An Evaluation of Patient Area Cleaning in Three Hospitals Using a Novel Targeting Methodology

One hundred fifty-seven rooms and 1404 targets were evaluated. In the 3 hospitals studied, only 45%, 42%, and 56% of targets were removed by routine terminal cleaning/disinfecting activities.

Running Out of Treatments: The Problem When Superbugs are Resistant to Everything

Doctors are running out of treatments for today’s trauma victims and critically ill patients because of infections due to drug resistant microbes –

Bacterial Slime Helps Cause Serious Disease

Leptospirosis is a serious but neglected emerging disease that infects humans through contaminated water. Research published in the May 2008 issue of the journal Microbiology showed for the first time how bacteria that cause the disease survive in the environment.

Not All Microfiber is Created Equal

Abstract Standards of cleanliness in health care continue to attract attention. Effective cleaning requires the input of energy, and microfiber cloths may help in the physical removal of soil.

How Bleach Kills Bacteria

Developed more than 200 years ago and found in households around the world, chlorine bleach is among the most widely used disinfectants, yet scientists never have understood exactly how the familiar product kills bacteria.

C. difficile Intestinal Infection Afflicts 13 of 1,000 Hospital Patients

The life-threatening bacterium that causes diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions, Clostridium difficile, is sickening many more patients than previously estimated, according to a new study released on November 11, 2008 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC).

MRSA Study Reveals Infection Rates Eight Times Greater Than Previous Estimates

The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) released (June 2007) initial results from a nationwide study of 1,237 U.S.

The Science and Technology of ATP

ATP is the primary energy transfer molecule present in all living biological cells on Earth. ATP cannot be produced or maintained by anything but a living organism, and as such, its measurement is a direct indication of biological activity.

Pros and Cons of ATP vs. Bacterial Counts — The Need for Complementary Measurement Strategies

In healthcare environments, ATP is good in that it’s quick but bad in that it’s not a great indicator of microbial risk (counts both live and dead bacteria, doesn’t differentiate pathogens from non-pathogens).

Disinfectants Can Make Bacteria Resistant To Treatment

Chemicals used in the environment to kill bacteria could be making them stronger, according to a paper published in the October issue of the journal Microbiology.

Infrared or Thermal Imaging Cameras — Finding Moisture Using Infrared Light

Infrared cameras are sometimes called IR or thermal imaging cameras. Prices have dropped considerably in recent months, putting thermal imaging technology within the financial reach of many more cleaning operations.

What is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)?

C. difficile is a spore-forming, gram-positive anaerobic bacillus that produces two exotoxins: toxin A and toxin B. It is a common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD).

Housekeeping Tips from the EPA I-BEAM Program

Sources of dirt and dust can be internal or external. Internal sources include human and animal dander, the breakdown of materials and furnishings, plants, building activities such as cooking and printing, smoking, and cleaning materials such as powders, finishes, and solvents.

Indoor Air Quality — Glossary

The following IAQ glossary is adapted from the EPA’s Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model or I-BEAM. I-BEAM is a tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings.

Restroom Contamination Study

From time to time, we are asked about the real cleanliness of restrooms. Even if they look “clean” are they really clean?

Krilov Study Shows Health and Fiscal Impacts of Cleaning

According to Stephen Ashkin, the Ashkin Group, and the Pennsylvania Green Building Maintenance Manual:

Nosocomial Infection — a Historical Perspective (1998)

In 1976, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations publishedaccreditation standards for infection control, creating the impetus andneed for hospitals to provide administrative and financial support forinfection control programs.

Estimated Impact of Influenza Pandemics

Osler and the Infected Letter

The spread of infectious agents through the mail has concerned public health officials for 5 centuries. The dissemination of anthrax spores in the US mail in 2001 was a recent example. In 1901, two medical journals reported outbreaks of smallpox presumably introduced by letters contaminated with variola viruses.

What is HICPAC?

The Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) is a federal advisory committee made up of 14 external infection control experts who provide advice and guidance to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regarding the practice of health care infection control, strategies for surveillance and prevention and control of health care associated infections in United States health care facilities.

What is Log Reduction?

«Log reduction» is a mathematical term (as is «log increase») used to show the relative number of live microbes eliminated from a surface by disinfecting or cleaning. For example, a «5-log reduction»

ISSA & CIRI Announce Cleaning Standard Partnership Efforts to Focus on the Science of Cleaning and Hygiene in K-12 Schools

ISSA, the worldwide cleaning industry association, and the Cleaning Industry Research Institute (CIRI) announced today that they have agreed to enter a long-term partnership for the cooperative development of science-based cleaning standards that would develop industry data, training, measurement, and certification programs.

Improving Patient Room Cleaning in Two Intensive Care Units Using a New Targeting Methodology

Abstract Background/Objectives Despite isolation precautions and enhanced hand hygiene products, the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens remains a major problem in a range of healthcare settings.

The Flu is a Bummer!

Have you ever wondered why it is that we have such trouble with influenza? Why don’t we just get immunized once, and never need to worry again?

Turning on Cell-Cell Communication Wipes Out Staph Biofilms

University of Iowa researchers have succeeded in wiping out established biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus (staph) by hijacking one of the bacteria’s own regulatory systems.

Study Reveals High Bacteria Levels on Footwear

A study which investigated germs collected on footwear, by Dr. Charles Gerba, microbiologist and professor at the University of Arizona, and The Rockport®

We’re Surrounded! House Dust is a Rich Source of Bacteria

If you’ve always suspected there are unknown things living in the dark and dusty corners of your home and office, we are now one step closer to cataloguing exactly what might be lurking in your indoor environment.

Learning from B.F. Skinner

A Rational Approach to Hard Surface Disinfectants

The process of hard surface disinfecting is an integral component of a comprehensive cleaning protocol. Its use and purpose is twofold: First, to lower the initial bioburden of a contaminated surface and render it “safe”, generally from a public health perspective.

Helping Medical Facilities Detect and Eliminate Harmful Microorganisms

For thousands of years, man has been mystified by fireflies—about 1,900 species of nocturnal, glow-in-the-dark beetles. In fact, these bioluminescent insects have inspired poets and delighted children for centuries.

How to Choose a HEPA Vacuum Cleaner

HEPA means High Efficiency Particle Arrestance. HEPA products remove 99.97% of particles 0.3 microns and greater in size. If you don’t have a good HEPA vacuum, the small, unseen particles are blown back out of the vacuum into the air.

Importance of the environment in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus acquisition: the case for hospital cleaning

Environmental Sampling or Measurement

This text addresses the basic principles and methods of sampling environmental surfaces and other environmental sources for microorganisms.

Principles of Cleaning and Disinfecting Environmental Surfaces

Although microbiologically contaminated surfaces can serve as reservoirs of potential pathogens, these surfaces generally are not directly associated with transmission of infections to either staff or patients.

Carpets Get Cleaner and Healthier — Measuring Carpet Cleaning Effectiveness with XRF

You may or may not have heard of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF): The technology was originally developed by NASA to test for metal impurities that could cause premature or even catastrophic wear of vital space shuttle components, such as those used in the space shuttle Discovery.

What are VISA and VRSA?

VISA and VRSA are specific types of antimicrobial-resistant staph bacteria. While most staph bacteria are susceptible to the antimicrobial agent vancomycin some have developed resistance.

Formula for the Future — The Impact of Science-based Cleaning Standards

Imagine, within 60 seconds, convincing a penny-pinching customer to invest more money in cleaning and, in particular, your services.

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)

The term «sick building syndrome» (SBS) is used to describe situations in which building occupants experience acute health and comfort effects that appear to be linked to time spent in a building, but no specific illness or cause can be identified.

Norovirus Outbreak in an Elementary School — District of Columbia, February 2007

On February 8, 2007, the District of Columbia Department of Health (DCDOH) was notified of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in an elementary school (prekindergarten through sixth grade).

Facts about Fungal Fragments

Editor’s Note: Mold spores are not the only concern, scientists say. Tinier pieces of mold called «fungal fragments» may be deeply inhaled and cause problems.

Enteric Bacterial Contamination of Public Restrooms

Surfaces in high traffic restrooms (airports, bus terminals; educational institutions) were more likely to be contaminated with both coliforms (23.8%) and E.

NIOSH Guidelines for MRSA Cleanup

Cleaning contaminated equipment and surfaces with detergent-based cleaners or Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered disinfectants is effective at removing MRSA from the environment.

Effective Cleaning and Health

(Editor’s Note: This article was written under the auspices of the Cleaning Industry Research Institute — CIRI.) As health issues and microbiology-based concerns related to cleaning emerge, ­

ATP Bioluminescence for Rapid Detection of Microbial Contamination

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the chemical compound in which energy is stored in all living cells. In the ATP-luminometric test the firefly enzyme (luciferase) in the presence of its substrate, luciferin, oxygen and magnesium ions catalyzes conversion of chemical energy of ATP into light through oxidation-reduction reaction.

Summary of the MRSA Problem

Overall, S. aureus is the most common cause of bacterial infections involving the bloodstream, lower respiratory tract, and skin/soft tissue.

How Bacteria’s Communication Affects Their Group Behavior

A team of Princeton scientists has discovered a key mechanism in how bacteria communicate with each other, a pivotal breakthrough that could lead to treatments for cholera and other bacterial diseases.

Disinfectants — Which Germs are We Killing?

A single bacterium can become a million bacteria in just eight hours and — in an era of MRSA and other public health concerns —

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are infections that patients acquire during the course of receiving treatment for other conditions within a healthcare setting. Healthcare-associated infections are one of the top ten leading causes of death in the United States.

Germiest Jobs

The most bacteria per square inch was found on surfaces commonly used by school teachers. This may be due to constant teacher contact with children or children’s interaction with surrounding surfaces. Surfaces regularly used by teachers had ten times more bacteria per square inch when compared to other professions.

JAMA Stresses the Need for Cleaning to Prevent MRSA

The problem of hospital-acquired infections is far larger than previous CDC estimates, according to an article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

Foodborne Illness: What Consumers Need to Know

Foodborne illness often presents itself as flu-like symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or fever, so many people may not recognize the illness is caused by bacteria or other pathogens in food.

Bacteria that Cause Foodborne Illness

Here is a common list of bacteria that cause foodborne illness. Bacteria Type:

Clostridium perfringens — Overview

Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, sporeforming rod (anaerobic means unable to grow in the presence of free oxygen). It is widely distributed in the environment and frequently occurs in the intestines of humans and many domestic and feral animals.

Listeria monocytogenes — Overview

This is a Gram-positive bacterium, motile by means of flagella. Some studies suggest that 1-10% of humans may be intestinal carriers of L.

Escherichia coli — Overview

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illness. Based on a 1999 estimate, 73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths occur in the United States each year.

Salmonella — Overview

Salmonella is a rod-shaped, motile bacterium — nonmotile exceptions S. gallinarum and S. pullorum — nonsporeforming and Gram-negative. There is a widespread occurrence in animals, especially in poultry and swine.

Clostridium botulinum — Overview

Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod that produces a potent neurotoxin. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in foods that are incorrectly or minimally processed.

HACCP Summary

HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards.It embraces seven principles: Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.

Campylobacter jejuni — Overview

Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative slender, curved, and motile rod. It is a microaerophilic organism, which means it has a requirement for reduced levels of oxygen.

SARS — Overview

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness that was recognized as a global threat in March 2003, after first appearing in Southern China in November 2002.What are the symptoms and signs of SARS?

MRSA and the Workplace

Staphylococcus aureus, often referred to simply as «staph,» is a type of bacteria commonly carried on the skin or in the nose of healthy people.

HIV — Overview

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV is different from most other viruses because it attacks the immune system.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) — Overview

Enteroccocci are bacteria that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract and are often found in the environment. These bacteria can sometimes cause infections. Vancomycin is an antibiotic that is often used to treat infections caused by enterococci. In some instances, enterococci have become resistant to this drug and thus are called vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Most VRE infections occur in hospitals.

Flu — Overview

The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death.

Norovirus — Overview

Noroviruses are a group of viruses that cause the “stomach flu,” or gastroenteritis (GAS-tro-en-ter-I-tis), in people. The term norovirus was recently approved as the official name for this group of viruses.

Hepatitis A — Overview

Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. Hepatitis A can affect anyone. In the United States, hepatitis A can occur in situations ranging from isolated cases of disease to widespread epidemics.

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

Avian influenza is an infection caused by avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses. These influenza viruses occur naturally among birds. Wild birds worldwide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in Schools

Questions and Answers about Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Schools

MRSA — Overview

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a type of bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics. These antibiotics include methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin.

Clostridium difficile — Overview

Clostridium difficile [klo-STRID-ee-um dif-uh-SEEL] is a bacterium that causes diarrhea and more serious intestinal conditions such as colitis.

Estimates of Healthcare-Associated Infections

A new report from CDC updates previous estimates of healthcare-associated infections. In American hospitals alone, healthcare-associated infections account for an estimated 1.7 million infections and 99,000 associated deaths each year.

Foodborne Disease

Foodborne disease is caused by consuming contaminated foods or beverages. Many different disease-causing microbes, or pathogens, can contaminate foods, so there are many different foodborne infections.

How Does Food Become Contaminated?

We live in a microbial world, and there are many opportunities for food to become contaminated as it is produced and prepared.

Shigella — Overview

The Shigella germ is actually a family of bacteria that can cause diarrhea in humans. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from person to person.

Varicella (Chickenpox)

Bloodborne Pathogen Standard — OSHA

Bloodborne Pathogens — Overview

OSHA estimates that 5.6 million workers in the health care industry and related occupations are at risk of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and others.

EPA on Disinfectants

Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

Infectious Diseases That May Be Acquired in Healthcare Facilities

The following are infectious diseases that may be transmitted and/or acquired in healthcare settings and therefore are possible Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs).


Acinetobacter (ass in ee toe back ter) is a group of bacteria commonly found in soil and water. It can also be found on the skin of healthy people, especially healthcare personnel.

Burkholderia cepacia

B. cepacia is the name for a group or “complex” of bacteria that can be found in soil and water.

The Quality of Air in Healthcare

Indoor air can become very contaminated, like the murky water in a stagnant pond. Unfortunately, «dirty” indoor air often cannot be visually distinguished from clean air.

Book Reviews

Protecting the Built Environment: Cleaning for Health

The classic reference work that is still helping to transform the commercial cleaning industry.

How Everyday Products Make People Sick

A book that reveals the toxins at home and at the workplace.

The Legal Aspects of Infectious Diseases

This book is a readable guide to the legal implications of infectious diseases.

Indoor Environmental Quality

Indoor Environmental Quality is a resource for individuals entering, or are already in the indoor environment field, whether their interest is research, governmental service, or private consulting.

The Secret Life of Germs

A book that looks into the microscopic world of diseases and how to prevent them.

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